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Chapters 10, 11

Rotation and angular momentum

Rotation of a rigid body


We consider rotational motion of a rigid body about
a fixed axis
Rigid body rotates with all its parts locked together
and without any change in its shape
Fixed axis: it does not move during the rotation
This axis is called axis of rotation
Reference line is introduced

Angular position
Reference line is fixed in the body, is perpendicular
to the rotation axis, intersects the rotation axis, and
rotates with the body
Angular position the angle (in radians or degrees)
of the reference line relative to a fixed direction (zero
angular position)

Angular displacement
Angular displacement the change in angular
position.
Angular displacement is considered positive in the
CCW direction and holds for the rigid body as a
whole and every part within that body

f i

Angular velocity
Average angular velocity

avg

f i

t f ti
t

Instantaneous angular velocity the rate of change


in angular position

d
lim

t 0 t
dt

Angular acceleration
Average angular acceleration

avg

f i

t f ti
t

Instantaneous angular acceleration the rate of


change in angular velocity

d
lim

t 0 t
dt

Rotation with constant angular


acceleration
Similarly to the case of 1D motion with a constant
acceleration we can derive a set of formulas:

Chapter 10
Problem 6
A rotating wheel requires 3.00 s to rotate through 37.0 revolutions. Its angular
speed at the end of the 3.00-s interval is 98.0 rad/s. What is the constant
angular acceleration of the wheel?

Relating the linear and angular


variables: position
For a point on a reference line at a distance
the rotation axis:

s r
is measured in radians

r from

Relating the linear and angular


variables: speed

ds d (r )
d
s r v
r

r
dt
dt
dt
is measured in rad/s
Period (recall Ch. 4)

2r 2
T

Relating the linear and angular


variables: acceleration

dv d (r )
d
r
at

r
dt
dt
dt
is measured in rad/s2
Centripetal acceleration (Ch. 4)

v
(r )
2
r
ac

r
r
2

Rotational kinetic energy


We consider a system of particles participating in
rotational motion
Kinetic energy of this system is
2
i i

mv
K
2
i

Then

mv
mi (i ri )
K

2
2
i
i
2
i i

m (r )
i

Moment of inertia
From the previous slide

K
2

m (r )
i

Defining moment of inertia (rotational inertia) as

I mi (ri )

We obtain for rotational kinetic energy

I
K
2

Moment of inertia: rigid body


For a rigid body with volume V and density (V)
we generalize the definition of a rotational inertia:

dV

r
dm

volume

This integral can be calculated for different shapes


and density distributions
For a constant density and the rotation axis going
through the center of mass the rotational inertia for 9
common body shapes is given in Table 10-2 (next
slide)

Moment of inertia: rigid body

Moment of inertia: rigid body


The rotational inertia of a rigid body depends on the
position and orientation of the axis of rotation relative
to the body

Parallel-axis theorem
Rotational inertia of a rigid body
with the rotation axis, which is
perpendicular to the xy plane and
going through point P:

dV

volume

r
dm

volume

Let us choose a reference


frame, in which the center of
mass coincides with the origin

Parallel-axis theorem

I r dm [( x a ) ( y b) ]dm
2

( x y )dm (a b )dm
2

2a xdm 2b ydm

rcom

r dm / M

i xdm j ydm / M 0

Parallel-axis theorem

I r dm [( x a ) ( y b) ]dm
2

( x y )dm (a b )dm
2

( R )dm
2

(h )dm

I CM Mh 2
I I CM Mh 2

Parallel-axis theorem

I I CM Mh 2

Chapter 10
Problem 22
Rigid rods of negligible mass lying along the y axis connect three particles.
The system rotates about the x axis with an angular speed of 2.00 rad/s. Find
(a) the moment of inertia about the x axis and the total rotational kinetic energy
and (b) the tangential speed of each particle and the total kinetic energy. (c)
Compare the answers for kinetic energy in parts (a) and (b).

Torque
We apply a force at point P to a rigid body that is
free to rotate about an axis passing through O
Only the tangential component Ft = F sin of the
force will be able to cause rotation

Torque
The ability to rotate will also depend on how far
from the rotation axis the force is applied
Torque (turning action of a force):

( Ft )(r ) ( F sin )(r )


SI unit: N*m (dont confuse with J)

Torque
Torque:

( Ft )(r ) ( F sin )(r ) ( F )(r sin )


Moment arm: r=

r sin

Torque can be redefined as:


force times moment arm

= F r

Newtons Second Law for rotation


Consider a particle rotating under the influence of a
force
For tangential components

Ft r mat r m(r )r (mr 2 ) I


I
Similar derivation for rigid body

Newtons Second Law for rotation

I
i
i

Chapter 10
Problem 39
An electric motor turns a flywheel through a drive belt that joins a pulley on the
motor and a pulley that is rigidly attached to the flywheel. The flywheel is a
solid disk with a mass of 80.0 kg and a diameter of 1.25 m. It turns on a
frictionless axle. Its pulley has much smaller mass and a radius of 0.230 m. The
tension in the upper (taut) segment of the belt is 135 N, and the flywheel has a
clockwise angular acceleration of 1.67 rad/s2. Find the tension in the lower
(slack) segment of the belt.

Rotational work
Work

dW Ft ds Ft rd d

W d
i

Power

dW d

P

dt
dt

Work kinetic energy theorem

2
f

I
K

W
2
2
2
i

Corresponding relations for


translational and rotational motion

Smooth rolling
Smooth rolling object is rolling without slipping or
bouncing on the surface
Center of mass is moving at speed

vCM

Point P (point of momentary contact between two


surfaces) is moving at speed vCM

s = R
ds/dt = d(R)/dt = R d/dt
vCM = ds/dt = R

Rolling: translation and rotation


combined
Rotation all points on the wheel move with the
same angular speed
Translation all point on the wheel move with the
same linear speed vCM

Rolling: translation and rotation


combined

I CM
Mv
K

2
2
2

2
CM

Chapter 10
Problem 53
A cylinder of mass 10.0 kg rolls without slipping on a horizontal surface. At a
certain instant its center of mass has a speed of 10.0 m/s. Determine (a) the
translational kinetic energy of its center of mass, (b) the rotational kinetic
energy about its center of mass, and (c) its total energy.

Rolling: pure rotation


Rolling can be viewed as a pure rotation around the
axis P moving with the linear speed

vcom

The speed of the top of the rolling wheel will be

vtop = ()(2R)
= 2(R) = 2vCM

Friction and rolling


Smooth rolling is an idealized mathematical
description of a complicated process
In a uniform smooth rolling, P is at rest, so theres
no tendency to slide and hence no friction force
In case of an accelerated smooth rolling

aCM = R
fs opposes tendency to slide

Rolling down a ramp


Fnet,x = M aCM,x
fs M g sin = M aCM,x
R fs = ICM
= aCM,x / R
fs = ICM aCM,x / R2

aCM,x

g sin

2
1 I CM / MR

Rolling down a ramp

aCM,x

g sin

2
1 I CM / MR

Vector product of two vectors


The result of the vector (cross) multiplication of two
vectors is a vector


a b c

The magnitude of this vector is

c ab sin

Angle is the smaller of the two angles between b

and a

Vector product of two vectors

c is perpendicular
Vector
to the plane that contains

vectors a and b and its direction is determined by


the right-hand rule

Because of the right-hand rule, the order of


multiplication is important (commutative law does not
apply)



b a ( a b )

For unit vectors

i i 0 j j k k
i j k j k i k i j

Vector product in unit vector notation


a b (a x i a y j a z k) (bx i by j bz k)
a x i bx i a x bx (i i) 0
a x i by j a x by (i j ) a x by k

a b (a y bz by a z )i
(a z bx bz a x ) j (a x by bx a y )k

Torque revisited
Using vector product, we can redefine torque
(vector) as:


r F r F r F
rF sin r sin F

Angular momentum
Angular momentum of a particle of mass m and

velocity v with respect to the origin O is defined as



L r p m( r v )
SI unit: kg*m2/s

Chapter 11
Problem 15
A particle of mass m moves in a circle of radius R at a constant speed. The
motion begins at point Q at time t = 0. Determine the angular momentum of the
particle about point P as a function of time.

Newtons Second Law in angular form



L r p m( r v )


dL
dv dr
m r v m r a v v
dt
dt dt


m r a r ma r Fnet r Fi
i

i net

dL
net
dt

Angular momentum of a system of


particles

L Ln
n

dLn
dL
net ,n net

dt
dt
n
n

dL
net
dt

Angular momentum of a rigid body


A rigid body (a collection of elementary masses

mi) rotates about a fixed axis with constant angular


speed
mi is described by

mi

ri

pi

Angular momentum of a rigid body

Liz (ri )(mi vi )


Lz Liz (ri )(mi vi )
i

ri mi (ri )
i

mi (ri ) I z
i

Lz I z

Conservation of angular momentum


From the Newtons Second Law

dL
net
dt

If the net torque acting on a system is zero, then

dL
0
dt

L const

If no net external torque acts on a system of


particles, the total angular momentum of the system
is conserved (constant)
This rule applies independently to all components

net , x 0 Lx const

Conservation of angular momentum

L I const

I ii I f f

Conservation of angular momentum

L const

More corresponding relations for


translational and rotational motion

Chapter 11
Problem 50
A projectile of mass m moves to the right with a speed v. The projectile strikes
and sticks to the end of a stationary rod of mass M, length d, pivoted about a
frictionless axle through its center. (a) Find the angular speed of the system
right after the collision. (b) Determine the fractional loss in mechanical energy
due to the collision.

Answers to the even-numbered problems


Chapter 10
Problem 4
226 rad/s2

Answers to the even-numbered problems


Chapter 10
Problem 16
(a) 54.3 rev;
(b) 12.1 rev/s

Answers to the even-numbered problems


Chapter 10
Problem 26
11mL2/12

Answers to the even-numbered problems


Chapter 10
Problem 32
168 Nm clockwise

Answers to the even-numbered problems


Chapter 10
Problem 34
(a) 1.03 s;
(b) 10.3 rev

Answers to the even-numbered problems


Chapter 10
Problem 48
276 J

Answers to the even-numbered problems


Chapter 11
Problem 4
(a) 168;
(b) 11.9 principal value;
(c) Only the first is unambiguous.

Answers to the even-numbered problems


Chapter 11
Problem 12
( 22.0 kgm2/s)k