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# The Mole

## Section 11.1 Measuring Matter

Section 11.2 Mass and the Mole
Section 11.3 Moles of Compounds
Section 11.4 Empirical and
Molecular Formulas
Section 11.5 Formulas of Hydrates

## Section 11.1 Measuring Matter

Counting Particles
Chemists need a convenient method for
accurately counting the number of atoms,
molecules, or formula units of a substance.
The mole is the SI base unit used to measure
the amount of a substance.
1 mole is the amount of atoms in 12 g of pure
carbon-12, or 6.02 1023 atoms.
The number is called Avogadros number.

## Converting Between Moles and Particles

Conversion factors must be used.
Moles to particles

## Converting Between Moles and Particles

(cont.)

Particles to moles
Use the inverse of Avogadros number as the
conversion factor.

## Section 11.2 Mass and the Mole

The Mass of a Mole
1 mol of copper and 1 mol of carbon have
different masses.
One copper atom has a different mass than 1
carbon atom.

## The Mass of a Mole (cont.)

Molar mass is the mass in grams of one
mole of any pure substance.
The molar mass of any element is
numerically equivalent to its atomic mass and
has the units g/mol.

## - The atomic mass of iron is 55.845 amu.

- The mass of 1 mol of iron is 55.845 g.
- The mass of 6.02 E23 atoms of iron is 55.845 g.

Moles to mass

## Using Molar Mass (cont.)

This figure shows the steps to complete
conversions between mass and atoms.

## Section 11.3 Moles of Compounds

Chemical Formulas and the Mole
Chemical formulas indicate the numbers and types of
atoms contained in one unit of the compound.
How many moles of each element are present in 1 mole
of freon (CCl2F2)?

C atom,

Cl atoms and

F atoms.

C atoms,

24

Cl atoms and

24

F atoms.

1 mol C atoms,

12 mol C atoms,

2 mol F atoms.

## The Molar Mass of Compounds

The molar mass of a compound equals the
molar mass of each element, multiplied by
the moles of that element in the chemical
The molar mass of a compound
demonstrates the law of conservation of
mass.
(a compound really is the sum of its parts when it comes to mass)
Molar mass of H2O = mass H + mass H + mass O
= 1.01 g + 1.01 g + 16.00 g
= 18.02 g

## The procedure for compounds is the same as

for elements, except that you must first
calculate the molar mass of the compound.
The conversion factor equates the molar
mass of a compound to the mass of that
compound.
Example:
9755 g H2O X

1 mol H2O
18.02 g H2O

## This figure summarizes the conversions

between mass, moles, and particles:

## Section 11.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Percent Composition
The percent by mass of any element in a
compound can be found by dividing the
mass of the element by the mass of the
compound and multiplying by 100.

## Percent Composition (cont.)

The percent by mass of each element in a
compound is the percent composition of
a compound.
Percent composition of a compound can also
be determined from its chemical formula.

percent by mass
oxygen in CO2

## 2 mol oxygen in CO2

molar mass CO2

32.00 g oxygen
44.01 g CO2

0.727 x 100

72.7%

Empirical Formula
The empirical formula for a compound is
the smallest whole-number mole ratio of
the elements.
You can calculate the empirical formula from
percent by mass by assuming you have
100.00 g of the compound. Then, convert the
mass of each element to moles.
The empirical formula may or may not be the
same as the molecular formula.
Molecular formula of hydrogen peroxide = H2O2
Empirical formula of hydrogen peroxide = HO

## Example problem 11-11, pg. 332:

calculating the empirical formula from percent composition
What is the empirical formula for methyl acetate, which has the following
chemical analysis:
48.64 % carbon

8.16 % hydrogen

43.20 % oxygen

## Grams of each in a 100 g sample of the compound:

48.64 g carbon

8.16 g hydrogen

43.20 g oxygen

Convert each to moles with the appropriate conversion factor and calculate
the simplest whole number ratio:
Divide by
multiply to get all
smallest amount: to whole numbers:
1 mol C
48.64 g C =
= 4.05 mol C 2.700 = 1.5 mol C x 2 = 3 mol C
12.01 g C
8.16 g H

43.20 g O =

1 mol H
1.008 g H
1 mol O
16.00 g O

x2=

6 mol H

x2=

2 mol O

## The mole ratio suggests the empirical formula is: C3H6O2

Molecular Formula
The molecular formula specifies the actual
number of atoms of each element in one
molecule or formula unit of the substance.
Molecular formula is always a whole-number
multiple of the empirical formula.
The empirical formula for hydrogen peroxide is HO, which has a molar
mass of 17.007 g/mol.
The known molar mass for hydrogen peroxide is 34.014 g/mol.
Calculate n to determine the whole number to multiply the empirical formula
by to get the molecular formula.

n =

## molecular molar mass

empirical molar mass

34.014
17.007

## Multiply the empirical formula coefficients by n to get the

molecular formula:
HO x 2 = H2O2

## Section 11.5 Formulas of Hydrates

Naming Hydrates
A hydrate is a compound that has a
specific number of water molecules bound
to its atoms.
The number of water molecules associated
with each formula unit of the compound is
written following a dot.
Sodium carbonate decahydrate =
Na2CO3 10H2O

## Naming Hydrates (cont.)

Analyzing a Hydrate
When heated, water molecules are
released from a hydrate leaving an
anhydrous compound.
To determine the formula of a hydrate, find
the number of moles of water associated with
1 mole of hydrate.

## Analyzing a Hydrate (cont.)

Weigh hydrate.
Heat to drive off the water.
Weigh the anhydrous compound.
Subtract and convert the difference to moles.
The ratio of moles of water to moles of
anhydrous compound is the coefficient for
water in the hydrate.

Example problem 11-14, pg. 340: Determining the Formula for a Hydrate
A mass of 2.5 g of hydrated copper (II) sulfate is heated. After heating, the
mass is 1.59 g. What is the formula and name for the hydrate?
2.5 g = compound plus water
1.59 g = compound after water evaporation
2.5 1.59 = 0.91 g = mass of water that was released
Determine how many moles of compound and
water were in the sample:

1.59 g CuSO4
0.91 g H2O

x
x

1 mol CuSO4
159.6 g CuSO4
1 mol H2O
18.02 g H2O

=
=

0.050 mol H2O

The name is:

Divide by amount
of compound:

0.00996 =

CuSO45H2O

## copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate

5 mol H2O

Use of Hydrates
Anhydrous forms of hydrates are often
used to absorb water, particularly during
shipment of electronic and optical
equipment.
In biology and chemistry labs, anhydrous
forms of hydrates are used to remove
moisture from the air and keep other
substances dry.

## Section 11.1 Measuring Matter

Key Concepts
The mole is a unit used to count particles of matter
indirectly. One mole of a pure substance contains
Avogadros number of particles.
Representative particles include atoms, ions,
molecules, formula units, electrons, and other similar
particles.
One mole of carbon-12 atoms has a mass of exactly
12 g.
Conversion factors written from Avogadros relationship
can be used to convert between moles and number of
representative particles.

## Section 11.2 Mass and the Mole

Key Concepts
The mass in grams of 1 mol of any pure substance is
called its molar mass.
The molar mass of an element is numerically equal to
its atomic mass.
The molar mass of any substance is the mass in grams
of Avogadros number of representative particles of the
substance.
Molar mass is used to convert from moles to mass. The
inverse of molar mass is used to convert from mass to
moles.

## Section 11.3 Moles of Compounds

Key Concepts
Subscripts in a chemical formula indicate how many
moles of each element are present in 1 mol of the
compound.
The molar mass of a compound is calculated from the
molar masses of all of the elements in the compound.
Conversion factors based on a compounds molar
mass are used to convert between moles and mass of
a compound.

## Section 11.4 Empirical and

Molecular Formulas
Key Concepts
The percent by mass of an element in a compound
gives the percentage of the compounds total mass
due to that element.
The subscripts in an empirical formula give the smallest
whole-number ratio of moles of elements in the
compound.
The molecular formula gives the actual number of
atoms of each element in a molecule or formula unit of
a substance.
The molecular formula is a whole-number
multiple of the empirical formula.

## Section 11.5 Formulas of Hydrates

Key Concepts
The formula of a hydrate consists of the formula of
the ionic compound and the number of water
molecules associated with one formula unit.
The name of a hydrate consists of the compound name
and the word hydrate with a prefix indicating the
number of water molecules in 1 mol of the compound.
Anhydrous compounds are formed when hydrates are
heated.

## What does Avogadros number represent?

A. the number of atoms in 1 mol of
an element
B. the number of molecules in 1 mol of
a compound
C. the number of Na+ ions in 1 mol of
NaCl (aq)
D. all of the above

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

## The molar mass of an element is

numerically equivalent to what?
A. 1 amu
B. 1 mole
C. its atomic mass
D. its atomic number

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

## How many moles of hydrogen atoms are

in one mole of H2O2?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 0.5

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

A. AlBr
B. AlBr3
C. Al2Br
D. Al2Br3

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

## What is an ionic solid with trapped water

molecules called?
A. aqueous solution
B. anhydrous compound
C. hydrate
D. solute

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

## Two substances have the same percent by

mass composition, but very different
properties. They must have the same ____.
A. density
B. empirical formula
C. molecular formula
D. molar mass

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

Al2Br3?
A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 1

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

## How many water molecules are

associated with 3.0 mol of CoCl2 6H2O?
A. 18
B. 1.1 1025
C. 3.6 1024
D. 1.8 1024

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

3.5 mol of H2S?
A. 7.0 1023
B. 2.1 1023
C. 6.0 1023
D. 4.2 1024

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

ionic compound?
A. CO2
B. NaCl
C. Na2SO4
D. LiBr2

A.
B.
C.
D.

A
B
C
D

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