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# Prof. T.G.

Sitharam

## The following terms are used in dynamic analysis of

machine foundations
1) Vibration( Oscillation) :
It is the time dependent, repeated motion of
translation or rotational type.
2) Periodic motion:
It is the motion which repeats itself periodically in
equal time intervals.

## CE-202N FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

3)Period (T)
The time period in which the motion repeats itself
is called period of motion.
4)Cycle:
The motion completed in the period is called the
cycle of motion.
5) Frequency (f) :
The number of cycles of motion in a unit of time
is known as the frequency of vibration. It is usually
expressed in hertz (i.e cycles per second). The
period (T) and the frequency are inter-related as
T= 1/f

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6) Free vibration:

## Free vibrations occurs under the influence of forces inherent

in the system itself, without any external force. However, to
start free vibration, some external force or natural disturbance
is required. Once started , the vibrations continue without an
external force

7) Forced Vibration:

external force.

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8)Natural frequency :
The system under free vibrations vibrates at the
frequency known as natural frequency . The
natural frequency is the characteristic of the
system. A system may have more than one
natural frequency.
9)Resonance :
When the frequency of the exciting force is equal
to one of the natural frequencies of the system,
the amplitude of motion become excessively

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10) Damping :
The resistance to motion which develops due to friction and
other causes is known as Damping.
Viscous damping is a type of damping in which the damping
force is proportional to the velocity.
It is expressed as
F=cdz/dt
C= damping coefficient dz/dt=velocity

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11)Degree of freedom:

## The minimum number of independent coordinates required to describe the motion of

the system is called Degree of Freedom.

## Fig. a shows the system with

one degree of freedom
Fig. b shows the system with
two degree of freedom

## 12. Principal Modes of Vibrations

A system with more than one degree of freedom
vibrates in complex modes.
However, If each point in the system follows a
definite pattern of common natural frequency, the
mode is systematic and orderly and known as the
principal mode of vibration.
A system with n-degree of freedom has n-principal
modes and n-natural frequencies.

## The vibration of a block can be reduced to six modes:

(i) Translation along X-axis (lateral)
(ii) Translation along Y-axis (longitudinal)
(iii) Translation along Z-axis (vertical)
(vi) Rotation about Z-axis (yawing or torsional)

## Translation and rotation along z-axes can occur

independently of any other motion. Translation and
rotation about X and Y-axis are coupled, as these can not
occur independent of one another.
X- , Y- and Z-axes are called pitching , rocking , yawing
axes respectively .

## The free vibrations may be damped or undamped :

a) Undamped Vibrations: Fig. a) show a rigid mass m
resting on a spring of stiffness k. the system has one
degree of freedom. Let us assume that the system has
been set in motion and vibrates in vertical direction.
Fig . B) shows the response curve of the system.

2
d z
m 2 kz
dt
or
2
d z
m 2 kz 0
dt

## The solution of the equation can be given as :

z A sin( n t )
(1)
where, A and are constant
Alternatively,
z A cos( n t )
From eq.1
dz
Awn cos(nt )
dt
d 2z
2

A
w
sin(n t )
2
n
dt

## substituting these values in eq.

- mAn2 sin(nt ) kA sin(nt ) 0
or
mn2 k
k
n
m

## if f n is the natural frequency in cycles per second,

n
fn
2
If T is the time period ,
T

1
2

fn
k m

## Fig. a) show a rigid mass m resting on a spring of

stiffness k and connected to a viscous damper
with a damping coefficient c. In this case there
is an additional force due to damping.
Fig . b) shows the response curve of the system.

## the equation of motion can be written as

d 2z
dz
m 2 c kz 0
dt
dt
The general solution of the above equation is
z C1e S1t C2 e S2t
where s1 n (-D D 2 1)
s1 n (-D D 2 1)
n natural frequency
D damping factor c cc
cc critical damping ( 2 mk)

If D > 1
periodic

## If D=1 System is critically damped , and motion is

periodic
If D<1 System is underdamped and the response is
periodic (shown in fig.b)
Only Underdamped systems are of practical
importance in the design of machine foundations

## rewritting the equation of s1 and s2

s1 n (-D i 1 - D 2 )
s2 n (-D - i 1 - D 2 )
where i - 1
Hence, general solution will be :
z e

- D n t

C e
1

i (1- D 2 )1 / 2 wn t

C2 e

i (1 D 2 )1/2 n t

substituting nd n 1 - D 2
Therefore ,
or
or

## z e - Dnt (C1 C2 ) cos nd t i (C1 C2 ) sin nd t

z e - Dnt A1 cos nd t A2 sin nd t

## The term nd is known as damped natural frequency.

z e - Dnt Acos( nd t - )
The term e - Dnt gives the aperiodic exponential response; where
as the term Acos( nd t - )indicates a periodic sinusoidal response.
The net result is periodic but gradually decreasing motion.(fig.b)
For Undamped systems, D 0
z Acos( n t - )

## Fig. shows a rigid mass with a single degree of

freedom. The system is damped and subjected to
an exciting force F(t)

## The equation of motion

d 2z
dz
m 2 c
kz F (t )
dt
dt
Assuming the exiciting force of form
F(t) F0 sin t
where, F0 magnitude of the exciting force
w circular frequency of the exciting force
thus,
d 2z
dz
m 2 c
kz F0 sin t
dt
dt
the solution of above equation is
F0 sin(t )
- D n t Acos( nd t - )
z e

( k m 2 ) 2 c 2 2

the first part of the solution is transient and dies out after some time.
the second part is the steady - state response.
thus,
F0 sin(t )
z
(k m 2 ) 2 c 2 2
substituting

n k / m

c
D
2 km

and

F0 sin(t )
z
k 2 (1 r 2 ) 2 4 D 2 r 2 k 2

where,
r frequency ratio n

therefore ,
F0 sin(t )
z
k (1 r 2 )

c 0 and D 0,

## When r= 1.0 i.e = n , the response is

infinite . The
condition is known
as resonance
As an ideal undamped system is nonexistent, damping always exists and the
response is finite.
However, when operating frequency
close to the natural frequency n .

is

## The magnitude of the displacement is given by

Fo
Fo
z

2
k(1 - r ) m( n2 - 2 )
In a general case,
Fo
z
(1 - r 2 ) 2 4 D 2 r 2
The static displacement under a force F0
F0
z st
k

## The ratio of magnitude of the steady - state displacement of

a forced system to the static displacement is known as
magnification factor
Fo / k
z
M

z st Fo / k (1 - r 2 ) 2 4 D 2 r 2
or
1
M
(1 - r 2 ) 2 4 D 2 r 2
thus
z M z st
Fig. on next slide shows the variation of Magnification factor
with r for different values of D.

## A damped , forced vibratory system derives it support

from the foundation. The force transmitted can be
expressed as

dz
FT c kz
..........(a)
dt
Considering
Fo / k sin(t )
z
as Bsin t -
2 2
2 2
(1 - r ) 4 D r
where,
Fo / k
B
2 2
2 2
(1 - r ) 4 D r

## rewritting eq. (a)

FT cB cos( t ) kB sin(t )
FT B k 2 c 2 2 cos(t )
where,
tan 1 (k / c ).
The magnitude of FT is given by
FT B k 2 c 2 2

or

(F0 / k ) k 2 c 2 2
FT
(1 r 2 ) 2 4 D 2 r 2
FT F0 M 1 ( 2 Dr ) 2

## Force transmissibility (T) is defined as the ratio of the

force transmitted to the applied force.
Thus,
FT
T
F0
T M 1 (2Dr)2
The transmissibility is also a function of r and D .

## Although the machine foundation has six-degree

freedom, it is assumed to have single degree of
freedom for convenience.
Fig. on next slide shows a machine foundation
supported on a soil mass.
In fig. mf is the lumped mass of the machine and
of the foundation, acting at the centre of gravity of
the system.
Also a certain mass, ms, of soil beneath the
foundation will participate in the vibration. The
combined mass M (the sum of mf and ms) is
Prof. T.G. Sitharam

## The elastic action can be lumped together into a

single elastic spring with stiffness k.
All the resistance to motion is lumped into the
damping coefficient c.

## Thus the machine foundation reduce into single

mass with one degree of freedom and the analysis
can be done as Damped forced vibration case
discussed in earlier slides.

## CE-202N FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Determination of parameters
For

1.

vibrates, some

## portion of the supporting soil mss also vibrates. The

vibrating soil is known as the participating mass or
in-phase soil mass.
Hence the Total mass of the system is equal to the
mass of the foundation block and the machine (mf)
and the mass (ms).

## 2). Spring Constant (k)

The spring stiffness depends upon the type of
soil, embedment of the foundation block, the
contact

area

and

the

contact

pressure

distribution.
The following methods are commonly used:
a) Laboratory test
c) Barkans method
d) Resonant method

## a) Laboratory test: A triaxial test with

vertical
vibrations in conducted to determine youngs
modulus E. Alternatively, the modulus of Rigidity
(G) is determined by conducting the test under
torsional vibration, and E is obtained indirectly
from the relation E=2G(1+), where is
Poissons ratio.
The stiffness (k) is determined as
k=AE/L
Where A= cross-sectional area of the specimen, L=
length of the specimen

## CE-202N FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

A repeated plate load test is conducted and the
stiffness of the soil in the test (kp) is found as the
slope of the load-deformation curve. The spring
constant k of the foundation is determined as under:
i) for cohesive soil
k=kp(B/Bp)
ii) for cohesionless soil

B 0.3
k kp
B p 0.3

## Where B is the width of foundation and Bp is the

diameter of plate. The spring constant can be
obtained from the subgrade modulus(ks )as
k=ksA

## c) Barkans method: The stiffness can also be

obtained from the value of E using the
following relation given by Barkan.
k

1.13E
1 2

## CE-202N FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

d) Resonance test
The resonance frequency (fn) is obtained using a
vibrator of mass m set up on a steel plate supported
on the ground. The spring stiffness is obtained from
the relation

n
fn
2
1
fn
k m
2
k 4 2 f n m

## 3) Damping constant (c ):Damping is due to dissipation

of vibration energy, which occurs mainly because of the
following reasons.
i) Internal friction loss due to hysteresis and viscous
effect
ii) Radiational loss due to propagation of waves
through soil.
The damping factor D for an underdamped system can
be determined in the laboratory. Vibration response is
plotted and the logarithmic decrement is found from the
plot as

## The damping factor D and the logarithmic are related as

or

2D
1 D2

W
W
the damping factor D may also be obtained from the
area of the hysterisis loop of the load displacement curve
as,
W
D
W
where W total work done, W work lost in hystersis.
D

## he natural frequency of the foundation-soil system can be

etermined using the theory of vibrations . The equation of
motion neglecting damping, is
2

d z
m 2 kz F0 sin t
dt
where m mass of machine and participating soil
k equivalent spring constant of the soil
The naturak frequency of the system is given by
n k/m

## CE-202N FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

1
k /m
2
where, f n is in cycles per second,
1
k
Thus
fn
2 m f ms
where m f mass of machine and foundation
ms mass of the participating soil mass
Barken(1962) gave the following relation for the natural frequency
Cu A
n
m
where,
Cu coefficient of elastic uniform compressio n
A contact area of foundation with soil
k Cu A
The maximum amplitude is given by
F0
z max
mn2 (1 r 2 )
where F0 exciting force
fn

## The coefficient of elastic uniform compression (Cu)

depends upon the type of soil . It can be obtained
from following relation:

E
1
Cu 1.13
.
2
(1 )
A
As it is evident, the coefficient varies inversely
proportional to the square root of the base area of the
foundation. Thus,
(Cu ) 2 A1

(Cu )1 A2

1/ 2

## Table shows the recommend value of Cu for a=10

cm2 for different soil.

## Design criteria for foundations of reciprocating machines

The machine foundation should be isolated at all levels from
the natural frequency of the foundation-soil systems should
be higher than the highest disturbing frequency and the
frequency ratio should be less than 0.4.
The amplitude of vibration should be within the permissible
limits.
Concrete block foundations should be used. However, when
the soil is not suitable to support block foundation , cellular
foundation may be used.
The size of the block in plan should be larger than the bed
plate of the machine. There should be a minimum all-round
clearance of 15mm.
The eccentricity of the foundation system along X-X and Y-Y
axis should not exceed 5 %of the length
of the
corresponding side of the contact area.

## The combined centre of gravity of machine and foundation

should be as much below the top foundation as possible. In
no case, it should be above the top of foundation.
The depth of foundation should be sufficient to provide the
required bearing capacity and to ensure stability against
rotation in the vertical plane.
The stresses in the soil below the foundation should not
exceed 80% of the allowable stresses under static loads. The
base pressure is limited to half the normal allowable pressure
(qna) in extreme cases.
Where it is not practicable to design a foundation to give
satisfactory dynamic response; the transmitted vibrations
may be reduced by providing anti-vibration mountings either
between the machine and the foundation or between the
foundation and the supporting system.
The machine should be anchored to the foundation block
using a base plate and bolts. Bolt hole should be backfilled
with concrete with concrete and the space below the plate
should be filled with 1:2 cement mortar.

## 1. The reinforcement in the concrete block should

not be less than 25kg/m3
2. The steel reinforcement around all pits and
openings shall be at least equal to 0.5 to 0.75%
of the cross-sectional area of the pit or opening.
3. The reinforcement shall run in all the three
directions.
4. If the height of the foundation block exceeds
one metre, shrinkage reinforcement shall be
placed at suitable spacing in all the three
directions.
5. The cover should be a minimum of 75 mm at
bottom.
6. The concrete shall be at least M-15 with a
characteristic strength of 15 N/mm2.

Heavy

foundations

eliminates

excessive

machines

sometimes

vibration.

Manufacturer

of

the machines.
However,
generally

the

mass

empirical

and

recommended
based

largely

are
on

experience .

## Vibration Isolation and control

Vibration may cause harmful effects on the
However, if the frequency ratio is kept outside
the critical range 0.4 and 1.50, and the amplitude
is within the permissible limits, the harmful effects
are considerably reduced, especially if the system
is damped.
Transmission of vibrations can be controlled and
the detrimental effects considerably reduced

by

## The following measures are generally adopted .

1. The machine foundation should be located away from
the adjoining structures. This is known as geometric
isolation
The amplitude of surface waves(R-waves) reduces with
an increase in distance. A considerably reduction in the
amplitude is achieved by locating the foundation at a
great depth, as the R-waves also reduce considerably
with an increase in depth.
2. Additional masses known as dampers are attached to
the foundation of high frequency machines to make it
a multiple degree freedom systems and to change the
natural frequency.
3. Vibrations are considerably reduced by placing
absorbers, such as rubber mountings, felts and corks

## If an auxiliary mass with a spring is attached to

the machine foundation, the system becomes a
two-degree freedom system. The method is
especially effective when the system is in
resonance.
5. If the strength of the soil is increased by
chemical or cement stabilization, it increases
the natural frequency of the system.
6. The natural frequency of the system is modified
by making structural changes in foundation,
such as connecting the adjoining foundations,
changing the base area or mass of foundation or
use of attached slabs.
7. The propagation of waves can be reduced by
providing sheet piles, screens or trenches.
4.

Thank
you