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CCAS 3381

AUTOMOTIVE SKILL I

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OBJECTIVES
To

understand the operational


principles and basic mechanisms
of transmission system

Lecture 1 hour
Workshop 1 hour

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (1)

Manual transmission system

Manual
gear box

Manual
gear knob

Manual
gear box

5-speed manual gearbox

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (2)


Green shaft (input shaft) & gear turn at
the same rpm as the engine
Red shaft (layshaft) & gears are directly
connected to the input so it spins when
input shaft spins
Yellow shaft (output shaft) is splined
shaft connected directly to drive shaft
through differential to drive wheels (If
wheels are spinning output shaft spins)
If engine is off with car coasting output
shaft turns inside blue gears (blue gears
& layshaft are motionless)
Collar connects one of two blue gears to
output shaft via dog teeth

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (3)


Moving

knob forward & backward


moves collar to engage the gears
Reverse gear is handled by a small
idler gear (purple)
Importance of transmission:
Engine redline (max. rpm above
which engine explodes)
Engines have narrow rpm ranges
(horsepower & torque are at their
maximum)
Synchronizers allow collar & gear to
make frictional contact before dog
teeth make contact (collar & gear
synchronize their speeds before teeth
need to engage

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (4)


A

g
n
i
r
Sp

Pressure plate
Sp
rin
g

Clutch plate

car engine spins all


the time & car wheels
don't (to stop without
killing the engine
wheels, engine needs
to be disconnected
from the engine)
Flywheel connected to
engine
Clutch plate connected
to the transmission

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (5)


Springs

force on pressure plate


Clutch plate springs - isolate
transmission from shock of clutch
engaging
Friction material on the clutch disc wears
out (similar to the friction material on the
pads of a disc brake pads/shoes of a
drum brake; clutch slips & lost of power)
Driver who slips the clutch a lot will wear
out clutch a lot faster
Worn throw-out bearing (rumbling noise
whenever the clutch engages)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (6)


Other

clutches:
Automatic transmission with several
clutches used to engage and disengage
various sets of planetary gears
Car air conditioning compressor with
magnetic clutch
Engine-driven cooling fan with
thermostatically controlled viscous clutch

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (7)


Ideally,

transmission should be
flexible in its ratios that engine runs
at its single, best rpm value
(continuously variable transmission CVT) Honda City

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (8)


Manual

transmission checklist:
Check for oil leaks (RM5000 new Kancil
gearbox)
Manual transmission test drive
With transmission lever in neutral,
parking brake applied & engine idling,
listen to any loud noises when clutch
pedal pressed or released
Try to drive the car at all speeds one by
one - every speed should shift smooth &
easily without any noises or jerks

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (9)


Manual

transmission test drive


While driving at 2nd or 3rd gear, try to
press down sharply on the
accelerator pedal for an instance
(clutch should not slip, any slipping
i.e., engine rpm increases but speed
remains the same clutch most likely
has to be replaced)
Try to drive with acceleration &
deceleration (there should be no
whining or humming noise under any
condition with all gears should shift
easily & noiselessly)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (10)


Automatic

transmissions:
no clutch pedal
no gear shift
Automatic transmission (gearbox plus
torque converter) like manual gearbox &
its clutch

Torque
converter

Auto
gearbox

Auto transmission system

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (11)


In

automatic transmission, same set of gears


produces all of the different gear ratios (planetary
gearset)
Planetary gearset
A set of bands to lock parts of gearset
Three wet-plate clutches to lock other parts of gearset
Hydraulic system controlling clutches & bands
Large gear pump to move transmission fluid around

Planetary

gearset has 3 main parts:

Sun gear
Planet gears & planet gears' carrier
Ring gear

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (12)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (13)


Each

of these 3 parts can be input, output


or stationary (determines gear ratio)
First Gear - 2.4:1
Second Gear - 0.67:1
3rd gear - 1:1 ratio in 3rd gear
Overdrive has a faster output speed than
input speed (output of engine goes
straight to transmission)
Ratio = 1 / (1 + S/R) = 1 / ( 1 + 36/72) =
0.67:1 (an engine turning at 2000 rev/min
output speed is 3000 RPM allowing cars to
drive at freeway speed while the engine
speed stays nice and slow

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (14)


Differentials

(where engine power, in most cars,


makes its last stop before spinning the wheels)
Aim engine power at the wheels
Act as final gear reduction in the car (reduce
rotational speed of transmission one final time
before it hits the wheels)
Transmit power to the wheels while allowing them
to rotate at different speeds during turning
Device that splits engine torque two ways, allowing
each output to spin at a different speed
Differential is found on all modern cars & trucks,
and also in many all-wheel-drive (full-time 4WD
vehicles)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (15)

Differential

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (16)


Final

drive ratio (gear ratio in the


differential)
Open differential always applies the
same amount of torque to each wheel
Two factors determining how much
torque can be applied to the wheels:
equipment
traction
Dry conditions torque applied to
wheels limited by
engine & gearing

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (17)


In

low traction - amount of torque limited to greatest


amount that will not cause a wheel to slip under those
conditions (if you give the car more gas after the
wheels start to slip, the wheels will just spin faster
problem with open differentials
Limited slip differential (LSD) positraction - allows
more torque to be transferred to the non-slipping wheel

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (18)


Automatic

transmission checklist
Place your car at a level surface, start
engine, set transmission lever to "P &
let engine idle
Pull transmission dipstick
Wipe it off with a lint free clean
rag/tissue
Insert it back carefully all the way
down into its place
Pull again & check fluid level

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (19)


Automatic

transmission

checklist
Pull again & check fluid level
Engine

cold fluid within


"COLD" marks
Engine hot fluid level at
upper end of "HOT" mark (top
it up if it is lower)
Check fluid condition also:
too black & a burnt smell
-transmission may not last

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (20)


Automatic

transmission

checklist
Pull again & check fluid
level
There

should not be any


metal filings or black flakes

Topping

up transmission fluid
Use only specified
transmission fluid (check
your manual)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (21)


Topping

up transmission

fluid
Add a small amount of
fluid through dipstick
pipe as shown in the
image & do not overfill it
Wait for a few minutes to
let fluid to flow down
Start engine & check level
again

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (22)


Transmission

maintenance
Most of transmission troubles start after
overheating
Under

heavy load
Continuous stop & go traffic in hot weather
Racing
Accelerating too hard to free the car
At higher temperatures transmission fluid
burns loosing its lubricating qualities &
becomes oxidized leaving deposits all over
inside
Exposed to heat rubber seals & gaskets inside
transmission become hardened causing leaks

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (23)


Transmission

maintenance
Most of transmission troubles start
after overheating
Metal

parts warp & loose their strength

Poor design
After being rebuilt by inexperienced
technician
Harsh driving
Too low or too high transmission
fluid level
Wrong transmission fluid type

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (24)


How

to prevent the transmission from


damage
Always check your parking space for
leaks (get it fixed before it caused
something serious)
Once in a while check transmission
fluid level & condition
Use only same type of the
transmission fluid as specified in
owner's manual
Never shift to R or P until car
comes to a complete stop

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (24)


How

to prevent the transmission from


damage
Never shift from P mode when
engine rpm is higher than normal idle
Always hold a brake down when
shifting from P
Do not tow with drive wheels on the
road
Go to transmission shop when you
experience any problems with your
transmission such as leaks, noises,
problems with shifting, etc.

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (25)


ATF

(owners manual)
Fluid change (40,000 km or so)
Good conditions clean & odorless
Transmission

screen/filter

THE END
IQ + EQ + SQ = TQ*