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Paulina Solano

1.Gastrulation is a morphogenetic process that results in the formation of the
embryonic germ layers. Here we detail the major cell movements that occur
during zebrafish gastrulation: epiboly, internalization, and convergent
extension. Although gastrulation is known to be regulated by signaling
pathways such as the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway, many questions
remain about the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. Key factors
that may play a role in gastrulation cell movements are cell adhesion and
cytoskeletal rearrangement. In addition, some of the driving force for
gastrulation may derive from tissue interactions such as those described
between the enveloping layer and the yolk syncytial layer. Future exploration
of gastrulation mechanisms relies on the development of sensitive and
quantitative techniques to characterize embryonic germ-layer properties



Epiboly has been most extensively studied inzebrafishas
their development allows for an easy visualization of the
Shortly after MBT
Active expansion -> margin moves down progressively to
cover the yolk cells
* Percentage epiboly how much of the yolk cell has been
driven by the Yolk syncytial layer
Persists even if yolk is ablated
Depends on the activity of the microtubule within the YSL

The blastoderm at 30% completion of epiboly

(about 4.7 hours)

Formation of the hypoblast, either by

involution of cells at the margin of the
epibolizing blastoderm or by delamination of
cells from the epiblast (6 hours).

At 90% epiboly (9 hours), mesoderm can be

seen surrounding the yolk, between the
endoderm and ectoderm.

Completion of gastrulation (10.3 hours).

Occurs at 50 % epiboly
Forms a layer called HYPOBLAST or MESENDODERM
Movement of mesoderm cells
Takes place all around the blastoderm margin
thicker around the margin- GERM RING
Carried out only by deep cells ( outer enveloping
layer does not participate)
Dorsal region thickens-> form EMBRYONIC SHIELD
(comparable to dorsal lip in xenopus)

Dorsal line elongates -> become the
midline of the anteroposterior body axis
Lateral tissue converge to the midline
but elongates less
Midventral does not participate in
dorsal convergence but moves to the
vegetal pole and later forms the tail bud.

Wnt-PCP pathway involvement
Process is inhibited by loss of function of
wnt11 ( silberblick)
Formation of KUPFFERS Vesicle involved
in the generation of the left and right
assymetry in the heart and digestive tract