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Radio Networks

Capacity Dimensioning Guideline


June 2010

Rolf Fischer, Hans Jrg Hamers, Christoph Kenkel


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How to read this guideline / content


This guideline covers a wide area of topics, sometimes very different.
To allow an easy read links (
) to the several sections are used.
From the beginning of any section it is easy to step back to this slide.
Also coloured bars at the left are used to support easy orientation.

Introduction / Overview
High Level Dimensioning
2G dimensioning guideline
3G dimensioning guideline
2G/3G Network Utilisation
2G/3G traffic related interworking
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Introduction / Overview

Introduction

During the last years a 2G and a 3G capacity and dimensioning


guideline were developed in close collaboration with the operators.
In order to allow a simple and fast read it was decided to choose Power
Point format. Also 2G and 3G is put together into one guideline.
In any case the main goal of this guideline is to give support to the
operating companies for the task of network dimensioning. It ensures
that same way of planning is used and therefore the basement is build
to deliver any possible benefit. Moreover, when OpCos using same
principles and methods they can learn from each other in sense of best
practise sharing.

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Introduction / Overview
The dimensioning follows a threefold approach with
different level of detail to reach the goal of each step

Introduction

High Level
Dimensioning
To get the quantity
structures for a given
time frame, e.g. 3
years.
To support budget
estimations.
Allows quick what-if
analysis.
Based on simple
tools, e.g. Excel or
Access

Dimensioning based
on counters and
measurements

Dimensioning
with planning tools

To do the daily
dimensioning work.

To support the high


level dimensioning with
more precise figures,
but for shorter time
frame, e.g. 1 year.

To assess when and


which particular station
has to be expanded.

To do detailed network
dimensioning with
geographical
references.

To observe the network


and the traffic evolution
with geographical
references.

Based on complex
tools, e.g. ATOLL

This principle is valid for 2G and 3G as well as for LTE


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High Level Dimensioning

High Level Dimensioning

1. High Level Dimensioning for 2G and 3G radio networks


a. The high level model
b. Alternative methodology 1
c. Alternative methodology 2

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a. High Level Dimensioning, the High Level Model 1/4

High Level Dimensioning

Scope of High Level Dimensioning

Estimation of required Radio equipment based on traffic


figures to support any budgetary calculation
Support future planning, e.g. 3 year plan
To perform what-if-analysis, e.g. what is required when
subscriber do 10 times of data traffic compared to a
reference

The modelling covers normally radio only (carriers, base band


and sites), but also radio access capacity (IuB) and RNC

Input is:
user traffic

absolute (# subscriber, min per sub per month, .)


relative, compared to a reference

network data
number sites, carriers, .
traffic translation parameter. e.g. billable to busy hour
traffic (necessary to update from time to time)
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a. High Level Dimensioning, the High Level Model 2/4


How the model works, overview

High Level Dimensioning

1. Billable traffic is given per service (voice, CS64, R99 packet data, HSDPA and HSUPA)
-> translated into busy hour (BH) traffic, for each service individually -> divided into 16
different classes (per sector)
2. Network is given as totals, inclusive the planning for following years, expressed in
#sites and #carrier (#TRX) -> divided into the same 16 classes
3. The traffic per class is compared with total capacity (in case of 3G sets as outcome
from dynamic system simulations or measurements, in case of 2G a modified ErlangB
table incl. HR, AMR-HR and GPRS)
Current total
network
figures

Input required per OpCo


For each
service

Network; Traffic & Mix

For each
service

Network; Traffic & Mix

BH
Network
Traffic

Marketing
Forecast

Set 1

Capacity
figures,
Erlang B

Result:
Total
Demand

Network; Traffic & Mix

Set 2 16 classes

Parameter with huge


impact on the results

4. The result is the demand in terms of total carriers/TRX, total number node B/BTS,
required base band boards, required IuB capacity, required number RNC. Each result is
also available per class and could be further analysed.
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a. High Level Dimensioning, the High Level Model 3/4

High Level Dimensioning

How the model works, detailed steps


1. Cell Grouping (2G and 3G)
Basic concept is the grouping of cells or better sectors and traffic into 16 classes. This
concept represents the inhomogeneous distribution of traffic in a mobile network. Each class
describes sectors carrying a comparable level of traffic.
An Excel sheet exists which allow the operator the classification: Sector-Classification
Only traffic data needs to be filled in - same unit per service is mandatory - the analysis is
done by the Excel sheet when pushing the calculation buttons.
2. Traffic Calculation (2G and 3G)
Cell traffic per service and busy hour is calculated, expressed in number average and 95%
percentile users per service. Input are the numbers subscribers, monthly usage per service
and several translation factors.
3. Scenario Assignment (3G only)
According to the calculated busy hour traffic figures a scenario is chosen which fits best to
given traffic mix. The decision based on a smooth interpolation. The scenario considers
voice, video telephony, R99 non-real-time and real time services and HSPA.
4. Utilisation calculation (2G and 3G)
Based on a modified Erlang B table and 3G cell capacity settings the utilisation per resource
is calculated for each cell of a class.
5. Expansion calculation (2G and 3G)
According to the utilisation result required expansions are calculated in terms of 2G TRX and
3G carrier. When further TRX or carrier (individual operator setting and license conditions)
could not be installed at the cell capacity nodeB or BTS are calculated.

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a. High Level Dimensioning, the High Level Model 4/4

High Level Dimensioning

How the model works, detailed steps


6. CE calculation
Based on the 95% percentile of active subscribers per service and busy hour the required
base band capacity is calculated and compared with the CE settings per vendor. Based on
this a recommendation is made which cell class needs which board out of a set of standard
configurations.
7. IuB bandwidth calculation
The IuB bandwidth calculation is also possible. Basis is again the 95% percentile of active
transmitting subscriber per cell. Lot of parameters can be set, whereas the reserved
bandwidth for HSDPA traffic is important.
8. RNC calculation
The final step is the requirement of needed RNC. Per vendor standard RNC configurations
can be defined which build the basis for this calculation.
9. Additional statistics
Beside the mentioned results some more statistics are available which allows more analysis
and to check the intermediate calculation steps, for instance the cell traffic per busy hour or
the users per cell and busy hour.

More information about the model can be found in the back up


sharing teamroom <LINK>

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and in the best practise

c. Alternative 1 High Level Model methodology 1/3

High Level Dimensioning

When lot of network measurements on cell level are available an


alternative (to the RDC High Level Model) methodology could be used
for mature networks with slow coverage roll out valid
for strong growing networks at least valid for the old network part
1. The method is to use relative growth figures of marketing forecasts
2. Adapt this growth to the busy traffic measurements of each cell
3. Compare the resulting traffic with capacity tables (3G) or Erlang B
model (2G)
ADVANTAGE
Can be much more accurate, because the network is not classified in
16 classes only, each cell/sector/site could be considered individually
Cell specific restrictions can be considered, e.g. different limitations
in the spectrum (border regions, different interference situations)
Possibility to apply different traffic growth to cell individually when
some history is available

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c. Alternative 1 High Level Model methodology 2/3

High Level Dimensioning

Example

In

u
B
:
t
pu

o
H
sy

f
a
r
t
ur

t
s
a
rec
o
f
fic

relative growth
per service or
technology

Reference Year
Adaptation
of relative
traffic
growth to
each cell

Input: Cell level


traffic measurements
during busy hour

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c. Alternative 1 High Level Model methodology 3/3


Example
High Level Dimensioning

Technology dependent look


up tables

Consideration of
cell individual
properties

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results in terms
of utilisation

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traffic
estimation

April 2010

d. Alternative 2 High Level Model methodology 1/3

Number node B

Total blockings per week

High Level Dimensioning

This alternative is based on real network experience, on network


counter and data ware house analysis

Analysis show that from a volume


of about 25 Gbyte the blockings gets
significant

Data volume per nodeB per week

Cross check: A good site with up to


20 GByte per week shows that a extra
test unit still gets more than 1 Mbps in
average (3,6 max), also during busy
hour!
Total average cell throughput: 2 Mbps

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d. Alternative 2 High Level Model methodology 2/3

High Level Dimensioning

Further analysis of data ware house data (billing system) of the good
site shows:
Number user with more than 1 MByte (per month, looking only at users making
significant traffic) WWW traffic:
in the busy hour (BH):
per day:
per week:
per month:

24
48
87
137

Service/traffic behaviour per user (> 1MByte/month WWW traffic) :


Average volume per user in BH: 12 MB
Average session duration: 45 min
=> Activity per session @ 1 Mbps: ~3.5%
Total duration of those users: 48 hours
typical BH activity: 10%
=> Probability of user being active during busy hour: ~0.6%

=> 2 Mbps / 0.6% ~ 300: 300 of those WWW users can be served in the
area of ONE cell, each of them perceives 1 Mbps throughput during BH

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High Level Dimensioning

d. Alternative 2 High Level Model methodology 3/3


ADVANTAGE
Very simple approach, allowing simple site/node B dimensioning
when number of customer in a service area is available and
predictable, e.g. at home products

DRAWBACK
Final capacity per site/nodeB
- depends on traffic mix (voice and data services)
- depends strongly on how services are used by the customers
- depends strongly on when services are used by the customers
(daily traffic profile)

Difficult to find a representative cell in a network or part of a network

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2G Dimensioning Guideline

2G features included in the High Level Model and also applicable for the
counter based dimensioning

2G Dimensioning Guideline

1. Half Rate
Concept is that a single connection (either FR or HR) occupies one effective
TCH
2 TCH
EffectiveTCH (TCH , HR%)
2 HR%
TCH physical number of traffic channels in a cell
HR% ratio between HR calls to the total calls (HR + FR)
Example: Cell with two trx and fully utilized:
BCCHSDCCH FR HR FR FR FR FR

HR

FR

FR FR

HR HR FR
HR HR

FR FR

number of TCHs = 14
Effective TCHs = 17 (11 FR connections and 6 HR connections)
35,5% half rate ratio

The modified Erlang-B formula is


CarriedTra ffic (GoS , TCH , HR%) ErlangB CarriedTra ffic (GoS , EffectiveTCH )
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2G Dimensioning Guideline

2G features included in the High Level Model and also applicable for the
counter based dimensioning

2G Dimensioning Guideline

2. Queuing 1/2
VF RO developed and extended Erlang B formula where
Offered Traffic = f (GOS, No_Channels, Queue_Length, Mean_Holding_Time)
Queue Length = 0 Extended Erlang B = Erlang B
Queue Length = infinite Extended Erlang B = Erlang C

Extended Erlang B, 2% GoS

Extra capacity
Erlang B, 2% GoS

Capacity increase: +15% compared to Erlang B


HR (traditional or AMR) can still be deployed on top for further efficiencies
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2G Dimensioning Guideline

2G features included in the High Level Model and also applicable for the
counter based dimensioning

2G Dimensioning Guideline

2. Queuing 2/2
The formula for the loss (abandon) probability is:
Pl =
PN

PN
A

* [A N+

N
C

C * E (N , A)
1 (C 1) * E

where
and

C=1+

A(1 e d (N A ) )
NA

E(N,A) = Erlang B blocking probability


A = offered traffic
N = number of channels
d = queue waiting time * service rate; service rate = 1/ mean holding time
e.g. maximum queuing time 7.5 sec
mean holding time 29 sec

VF-Romania and Vodacom South-Africa have already introduce Queuing


into their 2G network. The statements we got are positive concerning
complaints from their customers
network performance counters
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2G Dimensioning Guideline

2G features included in the High Level Model and also applicable for the
counter based dimensioning

2G Dimensioning Guideline

3. Data traffic (GPRS/EDGE) forecast 1/3

Some useful definitions:


PDCH utilisation is the filling factor for the allocated (active) PDCHs
Radio Link Bandwidth is the bandwidth one user would get if he was the only
active user in the cell
End-user throughput is the throughput an end user experiences when using
TCP/IP based applications:

Example:

One TRX cell with combined BCCH/SDCCH


MMS users primarily using 4-slot mobiles
10 kbps average radio-link bit rate per PDCH
MMS of size 30 kByte shall take no longer than 8 seconds
2.2 Erlang traffic in the cell
Average number of PDCHs carrying data 2.4

Workflow:
1. Radio-link bandwidth = 4x10 kbps = 40 kbps
2. Required throughput: 30kByte/8 seconds = 30 kbps

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2G Dimensioning Guideline

2G features included in the High Level Model and also applicable for the
counter based dimensioning

2G Dimensioning Guideline

3. Data traffic (GPRS/EDGE) forecast 2/3

Simulation
results

Workflow (continue):
3. Using simulation results shown in the
graph on the right, follow the curve
corresponding to Radio Link Bandwidth of
40 kbps. Using this curve the requirement
of 30 kbps translates into a PDCH
Utilisation of no more than 0.4 (40%)
4. Thus we get the minimum required
number of PDCHs in the cell = 2.4/0.4
PDCHs = 6 PDCHs (in the present
configuration an average of 4.8 PDCHs
are available)
5. There are three options to get the
required average 6 PDCHs in the cell:

Offload the cell from voice traffic to get 1


Erlang traffic or lower.
Dedicate 6 FPDCHs in the cell (not a realistic
option)
Expand the cell with a second TRX

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2G Dimensioning Guideline

2G Dimensioning Guideline

2G features included in the High Level Model and also applicable for the
counter based dimensioning

3. Data traffic (GPRS/EDGE) forecast 3/3

Workflow (continue):
6. If no action is taken, a median end-user
throughput of 27 kbps can be reached
(download time 8.9 seconds)

Some additional information about data traffic settings

PILTIMER: Common setting is 5 seconds. Lowering the timer increases


resource efficiency. On the other hand, too low PILTIMER increases average
PDP allocation time. The time difference in PDP allocation time on a cell with
expired and non-expired PILTIMER is about 200 ms.

'fixed' vs 'on demand' PDCH: An additional delay of about 200 ms is


experienced during call setup in a cell only deployed with 'on demand' PDCH
compared to a scenario where a cell already has at least 1 PDCH allocated.

2G Network Utilisation

This will be discussed together with the 3G Network Utilisation (please follow
this link:

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2G Dimensioning Guideline

2G features included in the High Level Model and also applicable for the
counter based dimensioning

2G Dimensioning Guideline

Example of GPRS Standard Configuration


GPRS implemented only on BCCH trx;
Dedicated tsl >=2 (2 for cells with lower capacity i.e. 2trx);
Dedicated + Default tsl <=6.
Frame
TRX2

TS

TRX1

BCCH

TS
CCCH

TS
TS

TS
TS

Additional
GPRS
Capacity

TS
TS

TS
TS

Default
GPRS
Capacity

TS
TS

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TS

Dedicated
GPRS
Capacity

Territory border moves


dynamically based on
Circuit Switched traffic load
i.e. voice downgrades data traffic

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Circuit
Switched
Territory
Packet
Switched
Territory

3G Dimensioning Guideline

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Content of the 3G dimensioning guideline

Dimensioning for 3G radio networks


a. Step1: High level dimensioning (see section before

b. Step2: Capacity planning with planning tools


(not practiced within Vodafone -> high level way of proceeding
see next section)
c. Step3: Capacity planning based on counter

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3G Dimensioning Guideline

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Step 2: Capacity planning based on planning tools


Objective
The planning of capacity based on planning tools is the next logical step
after high level dimensioning
This step takes among other things a geographic traffic map into
account and allows therefore a detailed planning which site has to be
expanded or in which area capacity sites needs to be build
Planning tools perform the capacity planning by means of Monte Carlo
simulations
Prerequisites
As geographic traffic maps are used for the capacity planning it is crucial
to use a traffic map with high quality
1.
Based on cell level measurements of 2G networks when 3G
networks are newly introduced or 3G traffic is very low
2.
Based on cell level measurements of 3G networks
3.
A appropriate tool to compile traffic maps based on cell level
measurements is available as a special add on module for ArcGis
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3G Dimensioning Guideline
Step 2: Capacity planning based on planning tools

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Dimensioning steps 1/3


The dimensioning with planning tools is an iterative process, which needs to
be repeated as long as several KPIs are not fulfilled
1. The first step is to do a coverage analysis part 1 (e.g. coverage by
signal-level). For this step the correct definition of sites, transmitters
and cells is required as well as suited geographic elevation and land
use data together with a proper propagation model.
For this step no traffic map is required, the coverage map is based on
pilot reception level only (RSCP).
2. The second step starts the capacity planning by performing a number
of Monte Carlo simulations. Main output is the load of important
resources (DL power consumption, uplink interference level, code tree
utilization)
- Each simulation step contains at least 20 simulations
- The traffic map needs to be scaled correctly for the point in time
the planning is done (normally end of next fiscal year)

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3G Dimensioning Guideline
Step 2: Capacity planning based on planning tools

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Dimensioning steps 2/3


3. The third step is the capacity analysis by analysing the results of the
Monte Carlo simulations.
- The basic result statistics gives an overview on network
performance in terms of users rejected and rejection reasons.
- Average results of important parameters are available for each cell,
indicating problem cells
4. In parallel to the third step the coverage analysis part 2 should be
done. This step takes the load results of step 2 into account. The
analysis should be done for the pilot (Ec/Io) and for the reference
service (effective service area). Any coverage holes under load
conditions can now be detected.
5. If the results of step 3 and 4 doesnt meet the requirements a
(planning) optimisation of the transmitters, cells and antennas should
be done.
After optimisation steps 1 to 4 needs to be repeated (iterative process!)

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3G Dimensioning Guideline
Step 2: Capacity planning based on planning tools

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Dimensioning steps 3/3


6. If optimisation of the given network is not sufficient enough to cope with
the (forecasted) traffic demand, network extensions needs to be
planned
- Introducing of 2nd carrier on highly loaded sites
- Filling coverage holes with new sites
- Introducing capacity sites in order to unload a number of overloaded
sites of a cluster

In general the steps 1 to 6 needs to be repeated several


times until the required targets are meet.

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3G Dimensioning Guideline

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Step 3: Counter based dimensioning


Objective
This step describes the dimensioning of individual sites during the daily
work (mostly performed in regional offices). This is done by observation
of important network counters of individual sites. In contrast to step 2 it is
not based on planning data and model assumptions, it is based on the
network and real life conditions.

Content
1. Expansion triggers
2. Expansion options
3. Examples

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3G Dimensioning Guideline

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Step 3: Expansion triggers and thresholds 1/3

In general a pair of threshold for each important KPI needs to be defined


1.First threshold, indicating that a cell or site switches from low load to a mid
high load situation, so to say from green to yellow status
=> a planning action needs to be triggered, with enough time in
advance before any action can be done and threshold 2 is meet
2.Second threshold, indicating that a cell or site switches from a mid to high
load situation to a overload situation, so to say from yellow to red status
=> a action needs to be taken immediately to solve the overload situation,
a proper planning is pre-condition

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to

3G Dimensioning Guideline

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Step 3: Expansion triggers and thresholds 2/3

T2
T1

time

The lead time t is individual for each KPI to be measured and therefore the setting of T1
and T2. For example the extension of a site with additional base band capacity is much
faster done than the introduction of a fill in capacity site.
Several open points exists:
1.

The system can be further refined, for instance with a hysteresis on the time axis.
This might avoid expansions do to seasonal effects as indicated with the dotted line.

2.

Or depending on a site classification different thresholds T1 and T2 can be applied,


for instance to distinguish basic and premium level coverage areas. Areas with
lower importance may have a more relaxed threshold T1 (or T1 and T2)

As aggregation method for any KPI as busy hour (BH) the MAVG8 method
takes place (8 highest peaks on separate days of a month). This is the same
definition as used for the utilisation reporting.
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3G Dimensioning Guideline
Aligned to the HSDPA guideline following triggers are defined, during the BH,
depending on a general definition of coverage areas, differentiated between
1. triggers based on user perception
The values shows only the trigger
2. triggers based on resource utilisation
from yellow to red status!

The thresholds for green to yellow


still to be defined.

Parameter/Trigger

Basic coverage
(HSPA, up to 14.4 DL peak)

Hot spot coverage


(HSPA+, up to 43.2 DL peak)

GoS (for CS services,


independent from the
blocking reason)

2%

2%

Average user throughput


(HSDPA/HSUPA)

2500 kbps / 1000 kbps

4000 kbps / 2000 kbps

DL power for R99 traffic


(incl. common channels)

67.5% of max PA power

67.5% of max PA power

Code tree utilisation


(incl. R99 and HSDPA)

67.5%

67.5%

UL Load (R99 only)


UL Load (R99 +
HSUPA)

60% (4 dB noise rise)


75% (6 dB noise rise)

60% (4 dB noise rise)


75% (6 dB noise rise)

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User Perception Resource Utilisation

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Step 3: Expansion triggers and thresholds 3/3

3G Dimensioning Guideline

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Step 3: Expansion options


When one of the triggers listed on the page before is exceeded actions has to
take place to solve the overload situation. Following options exists:
1. Optimisation (when not happened so far)

changing the antenna direction (tilt or azimuth)


power settings (e.g. different pilot)
handover settings to all surrounding or specific neighbour cells

=> helps mainly in case of downlink or uplink interference problems


2. Base band expansion
=> only when base band capacity is limited
3. Carrier expansion (when cluster cannot be further optimised)

dividing R99 and HSPA traffic on separate carrier


equal distribution of traffic on both carriers
adding an amplifier with higher power (when not happened so far)

=> suited for interference problems and code tree limitations


4. Cell splitting

Introducing higher order sectorisation


Introducing capacity fill in sites
Customized solutions (indoor, e.g. when lot of traffic comes from a business
customer, or VAP etc.)

=> helps in case of all limitations


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2nd and 3rd Carrier Deployment 1/3


General Requirements

3G Dimensioning Guideline

The 2nd carrier deployment basic rule:

Demand driven carrier upgrade,


2nd carrier in HSPA+ areas as a default

For HSPA 28.8 and 21.6 coverage area: 2 carrier mandatory


For HSPA 3.6, 7.2 and 14.4: demand driven, 1 carrier default
HSUPA 1.4 or 2 does not trigger an 2nd carrier by default,
upgrade threshold driven (see next slides)
Dynamic clustering for 2nd carrier is recommended (no fixed rings, fixed factors, etc.)
Tool based planning with ATOLL in dependence of predicted traffic
Tool based and
counter based
Cluster of only one node B possible if traffic distribution indicates this
Cluster size is demand driven no special requirements to cluster geometry equivalent
The general parameterization of each carrier should be as follows
The traffic should be diverted between the carriers in order to deliver the best performance
for HSDPA users
In case that R99 cannot be carried on the first carrier an overflow onto the second
carrier should be allowed
Before adding another carrier to a cell/sector it has to be ensured that optimization of antennas
and radio resource management parameter is already on best level to maintain as low as possible
interference
33 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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2nd and 3rd Carrier Deployment 2/3


Principal design, which may differ in details depending on vendor releases
It is beneficial to separate as much as possible circuit (R99) and packet (HSPA) switches traffic

3G Dimensioning Guideline

The upgrade is strongly traffic demand driven, i.e. HSPA upgrade on 1st carrier possible*
It is assumed that majority of packed switched traffic is carried with HSPA technology
default:
3G carrier is used for both,
HS and PS traffic.

loaded sites:
1st 3G carrier is mainly used
for R99 traffic
2nd 3G carrier is mainly used
for HS traffic

high loaded sites:


1st 3G carrier is mainly used
for R99 traffic
2nd 3G carrier is used for R99
and HS traffic
3rd 3G carrier is used for HS
traffic

34 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2nd and 3rd Carrier Deployment 3/3


Expansion rules
3G Dimensioning Guideline

Default up to 14.4 Mbps coverage areas is the


1 carrier solution
2nd or 3rd carrier upgrade triggered by
total traffic (sum of R99 and HSDPA)
respectively resource shortage
2nd or 3rd carrier upgrades are considered when
one of following criteria is meet during the
busy hour1:
- 2% of blocking (for CS services) is reached
- DL power utilization is above 67.5% with to
total available amplifier power
- Code tree utilization is above 67.5%
(total codes for R99 and HSDPA)
- user throughput falls below 500 kbps by
means of counter measurements
Once UL counters deliver secure results
- UL2 interference is above 4 dB (~60% load)
for R99 in UL only
- UL2 interference is above 6 dB (~75% load)
when HSUPA is available
1

The busy hour is defined as the average of the 8 busiest hours of a


month. Each individual busy hour is defined by the highest used
resource, which could be UL interference, DL power utilisation or code
tree utilisation.
2 2 The UL counters delivers currently still unsecure results. Therefore it is
possible to exclude UL as expansion trigger
1

35 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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er
rk p o w
o
etw for
n
al ple n
Rexam atio
e tilis
u

Upgrade
threshold

10% Margin to allow


time for evaluation
and planning

Power usage [%]

67,5% 75%

Busy hour measurements:

Resource utilisation is measured as mean value


during the busy hour. It is of course possible that
the peaks within these periods go up to 100%,
which is necessary to reach peaks of 14.4 Mbps

Additional upgrade conditions:

In any case before introducing next carrier it


must be checked that the bottle neck is within the
air interface (exclude base band, IuB and Core)
If it is turned out that only 1 or 2 high power
users are responsible for high resource
utilisation, upgrades shouldnt be done
April 2010

3G Dimensioning Guideline

3G Dimensioning Guideline

Step 3: Example: 2nd Carrier Expansion rule VF-NL


Similar to the HSDPA guideline 3 KPI are observed to detect the need for a second carrier
expansion
1. DL Channelization Codes
2. DL Power
3. Optional: HSDPA throughput 1

Basic rule

A cell should be considered as a candidate for 2 nd carrier expansion when the RAB establishment
failure ratio reaches 2% (for CS services) in the monitoring period
50% of the RAB failures due to lack of DL power
50% of the RAB failures due to lack of DL channelization codes
70% of the RAB failures due to the sum of both reasons above
Average user throughput falls below 700 kbps respectively 1200 kbps for 10% of time 1

Monitoring period

In line with the current busy hour definition a cell should be considered for 2nd carrier expansion
when the conditions of the basic rule applies 8 times per month at different days.

Is the cell finally optimised?

Before adding a 2nd carrier it is mandatory to check that a cell cannot be further optimised
in terms of changing antenna parameter for interference minimisation
in terms of changing admission control parameters (e.g. reducing allowed SF8 RAB)
in terms of changing handover settings and relations ..
1

The HSDPA throughput criterion is optional, because


- it can happen that applications does not require a high throughput
- that somewhere else in the network a bottleneck exists, e.g. access transmission

36 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


Motivation
Why is network utilisation reporting so important?
1. Gives transparency on the capacity pressure on each network

2. Fair comparison with a unique and aligned method

3. Is increasingly requested by higher management level, e.g. for


Investor Relations report

37 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


What does utilisation mean/express

38 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation


What does utilisation mean/express

TRX

3G Resource loading
DL Power
UL Noise
Codes
Channel
Elements

Overall
utilisation = TRX
utilisation

Capacity acc. ErlangB according to


the design target = 100% utilisation

Overall
utilisation = MAX
resource

75% load (design target) = 100% utilisation

4 resources = 4 Dimensions

2G Resource loading
1 resource = 1 Dimension

2G/3G Network Utilisation

Access network utilisation measures the physical resource usage

but in 3G it is not as easy as it is in 2G!


Beside average utilisation a subset of KPIs have been defined to allow
better understanding of situation, e.g.:
Load distribution, resource & traffic are needed & KPIs have been defined
39 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


What does utilisation mean/express
Tech

Resource

Impact to customers during


congestion

Correlation:
Resource load to
traffic

Solution

2G

TRX (transmission
and reception unit)

Increased blocking
Reduced GPRS throughput

Very strong

More TRX

2.000

3G

DL power, UL
Noise, Codes

Lower user throughput, lack of


coverage, increased service
blocking

Weak

Additional Carrier
High power PA

5.000

3G

Base Band Units

Lower user throughput, increased


service blocking

Middle

More base band boards

1.200

By considering the individual impacts of the resources it is possible to perform


an assessment in terms of customer & financial impact
As consequence the base band utilisation is excluded from 3G KPI120 and will be
reported as separate KPI (KPI119) in future
Due to ongoing technical problems with UL measurements and weak correlation
to traffic, UL utilisation is not longer included in the MAX function of KPI120,
but still reported as sub KPI 120d

40 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation


Introduction of Targets
2G/3G Network Utilisation

The average network utilisation does not tell very much about over- or
under-loaded sites, therefore it is better to look at the tail ends
Situation today
Utilisation KPIs are well defined for a certain
period, allowing relative comparison in time
and between networks
Absolute targets/thresholds are defined yet,
but implementation are not fully completed
What should a target fulfil?
Indicate a healthy range of utilisation!
Only few sites are allowed to be in overload
situation where our customer suffer from bad
quality
Only few sites low loaded, telling about
inefficient use of resources
41 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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The focus will be on


the high loaded sites
April 2010

2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


Targets, 2G

Most critical cells are located


in the light-blue area, candidates
for expansion:
high utilisation (>100%)
high HR (>40%)

18%

42 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation


Targets, 3G
2G/3G Network Utilisation

~ 2%

Most critical cells, candidates


for expansion:
high utilisation (>90%)

Main quality
measure in 3G would
be HSDPA user
throughput

43 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


VTN

Targets:

~ 1%

#cells < 5%
#cells < 10%
#cells >= 10%

C2 Vodafone Internal
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April 2010

2G/3G Network Utilisation


3G Radio Network Utilisation, QMIS KPI 120 family
2G/3G Network Utilisation

The KPI family contains of one main KPI and additional supporting KPIs
giving more background information to improve understanding.
3G networks have several resources which needs to be considered:
- Power in the DL available for each cell
- The codes available for each cell
- The UL interference allowed in each cell
- The base band capacity boards to process the calls in each node B
The final result for KPI 120 is the maximum of the utilisation of each
resource. But different resources implies different actions
Capacity assumed is always valid for one common design target per
resource, which is typically 75% of total available resource. This is
necessary to cope with fluctuations in the traffic during busy hour.
Each KPI is calculated as average of 8 busiest hours of a month occurring
at 8 different days. The busy hour is defined cell individually as highest
utilisation of the resources.
A second busy hour definition exists based on traffic (MByte) carried in a
cell. This busy hour is typically different from the busy defined on the
resources.
44 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


3G Radio Network Utilisation, QMIS KPI 120 family
Main KPI 120

Mean 3G Radio Network Utilisation.


Results can be high because the highest value of the 4 considered
resources is reported. To draw conclusions analysis of sub KPIs are
recommended.

PI 120 a

Percentage of the network with a utilization above 90%, indicates


critical cell which needs extension when traffic further increase.

PI 120 b

Percentage of the network with a utilization below 10%, indicates parts


of network with very low traffic, mainly cells intended for coverage only.

PI 120 c

Average DL power utilisation. To resolve this additional carrier


required, but high values are less critical in case that HSDPA traffic is
the driver.
Average UL interference utilisation. Higher values than the design
target decreases the coverage mainly. To resolve additional carrier
required.

PI 120 d

PI 120 e

Average Code Tree utilisation. To resolve this additional carrier


required.

Important: Compared to 2G networks 3G is a new technology. Capacity is soft and the


optimisation of network design and radio resource management can improve utilisation,
this means carrying more traffic with less utilised resources.
45 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


3G Radio Network Utilisation, QMIS KPI 120 family
PI 120 h

Total BH traffic (throughput) per cell during busy hour defined when
radio resource a maximal utilised.

KPI 120 i

As KPI 120, but the utilisation is measured during hours when traffic is
maximal instead when resources are maximal utilised.

PI 120 k

As KPI 120 h, total BH traffic (throughput) per cell, but busy hour is
defined when traffic is maximal.

PI 120 l - p

Busy hour traffic of several services: voice, video telephony, R99 data,
HSDPA and HSUPA data

PI 120 q

Percentage of soft handover traffic, needed to assess KPI 120 l-p


depending of counter capabilities per vendor.

It is important to point out that in contrast to 2G in 3G two different busy hours exists.
Firstly the busy hour of the resources which drives the required network extensions
when no further optimisation is possible, secondly the busy hour of resources, when
most traffic is carried. It is typical that both hours are not the same, because high usage
of HSDPA as more efficient technology reduces utilisation compared to cases when
voice or R99 data are highly used.
Link to the whole document: <LINK>
46 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


3G Radio Network Utilisation, Base Band
Main KPI 119

Mean Base Band Utilisation.


It is the maximum of DL and UL base band utilisation. To draw
conclusions analysis of sub KPIs are recommended.

PI 119 a

Percentage of the network with a utilization above 90%, indicates


critical node B which needs extension when traffic further increase.

PI 119 b

Percentage of the network with a utilization below 10%, indicates parts


of network with very low traffic, mainly node B intended for coverage
only.

Important: There is no further differentiation between UL and DL, because the mapping
is very different from vendor to vendor. Some of them have a common resource for both
directions.
Link to the whole document: <LINK>

47 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


2G Radio Network Utilisation, QMIS KPI 110 family
The KPI family contains of one main KPI and additional supporting KPIs
giving more background information to improve understanding.
2G networks have one resource which needs to be considered:
This is the number of time slots per cell.
Capacity assumed is always calculated for one common design target,
which is 40% usage of half rate and for 2% blocking ratio, independent
from OpCo individual targets. This allow a fair comparison.
Each KPI is calculated as average of 8 busiest hours of a month
occurring at 8 different days. The busy hour is defined cell individually
as highest number of used time slots.

48 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


2G Radio Network Utilisation, QMIS KPI 110 family
Main KPI 110

Mean 2G Radio Network Utilisation.


Values higher than 100% are possible, when
- HR usage during busy hour is much higher than 40%.
- 2% of blocking cannot be maintained during busy hour.

PI 110 a

Percentage of the network with a Utilisation above 90%, indicates


critical cell which needs extension when traffic further increase.

PI 110 b

Percentage of the network with a utilization below 10%, indicates parts


of network with very low traffic, mainly cells intended for coverage only.

PI 110 c

Percentage of GPRS/ EDGE traffic.

PI 110 d

HR ratio design target, helps to justify the main result.

PI 110 e

Blocking design target, helps to justify the main result.

PI 110 f

AMR half rate terminal penetration. Independent if AMR-HR feature is


activated or not. This KPI should show the potential which AMR-HR
could have. Not necessarily to be updated every month.

49 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


2G Radio Network Utilisation, QMIS KPI 110 family
PI 110 g

AMR-HR percentage of total traffic once the feature is introduced. High


values allows good speech quality although HR is used and only half of
capacity per customer is required.

PI 110 h

Total HR (conventional HR + AMR HR) percentage of total traffic (FR +


HR) during busy hour.

PI 110 i

Percentage of cells which fulfil two conditions: Total HR > 40% AND
Utilisation > 100% (combined trigger). Please note the total HR traffic
consists of the sum of AMR HR and conventional HR.

Link to the whole document: <LINK>

50 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation


Challenges
2G
During redefinition in 2007 it was agreed to use constantly 20% of HR for each
OpCo to allow fair benchmarking. But this does not reflect reality, leading to
very high utilisation (>95%) although voice quality is ok.

=>

Redefinition to 40% in 2009 during introduction of targets

3G
UL utilisation (120d) causes many problems due to foreign interference (e.g.
DECT phones) and unreliable measurements

=> introduction of more sophisticated method without success


=> finally excluded from KPI120 to avoid hiding results of more
important
DL or Code utilisation
In many cases base band utilisation has driven final result of KPI120

=> Separated as separate KPI (119) to avoid hiding air interface


utilisation
51 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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2G/3G Traffic related interworking


Introduction

2G/3G Traffic Management

The recommendations regarding traffic management between 2G and 3G


has the central goal to use the overall resources in the most efficient way
from a customer perspective in terms of highest quality of service
from the economical point of view in terms of lowest costs
Traffic management is also driven by the general strategy, for instance
When an operator has the strong interest to get rid of 2G as fast as
possible the interest is to push as much as possible traffic on 3G
=> This may require more investments in 3G needs to be done earlier
Is the strategy to use both radio networks in parallel with less than
possible radio equipment the strategy can be, to push voice onto 2G and
to push packet data services onto 3G
=> Probably higher OPEX costs due to longer time for running 2
networks in parallel
Calculations by means of high level calculations for traffic
management is one piece of a puzzle for delivering input for strategic
decisions, but not the main driver. Therefore a strategy per OpCo is
seen as predetermined.
52 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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2G/3G Traffic related interworking

2G/3G Traffic Management

IRAT Parameterisation Motivation and Basic Idea

Goal:

keep as much traffic as possible in 3G and avoid non-necessary


2G capacity investments

Relax voice IRAT thresholds to delay 3G to 2G HO and keep 3G voice traffic in 3G


networks
To switch cell change order off for packet
Have a very relaxed PS IRAT threshold (alternative: switch triggers off)
Expectation: HS to R99 transition due to coverage reason is avoided / minimised

Remark:
2G/3G handover is still problematic for some vendors
=> Focus to 3G/2G handover trigger in this guidelines

53 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Traffic related interworking

IRAT Parameterisation Goals and Recommendations

Goal: Efficient traffic handling in 2G/3G networks

2G/3G Traffic Management

Maximization of 3G Voice-Usage to avoid unnecessary 2G investment


Minimization of compressed mode activity
Minimization number of 3G -> 2G HO

Conditions:
3G network has
sufficient capacity
(utilisation is not
close to limits)

Securing Voice quality and stability

Current status of 2G/3G HO procedures


Both direction (3G 2G) operates properly in NSN and Huawei
3G/2G HO reliable for all vendors

Vodafone recommendations for efficient 3G -> 2G IRAT handover:


Relax voice IRAT thresholds to delay 3G to 2G HO and keep 3G voice traffic in 3G networks
Exact values for trigger thresholds are vendor specific and depends on the site density of each operator

To switch cell change order (CCO) off for packet or set an extreme relaxed packet IRAT
threshold
Exact values for trigger thresholds are vendor specific and depends on the site density of each operator

Option to increase pilot power. This could be at least a temporarily solution for further delay of
3G to 2G HO. (Trails have shown significant impact to 3G/2G traffic handling, e.g. VF Spain
+15% and VF Germany +6% in 3G)
54 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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2G/3G Traffic related interworking

2G/3G Traffic Management

IRAT Parameterisation Recommended Thresholds


CS Ec:
CS Ec/Io:

- 103 dBm
- 14 dB

PS Ec:
PS Ec/Io:

- 110 dBm
- 14 dB

Minimum requirements for not


highly utilized 3G networks
(OpCo should adapt values to
their local situation, e.g. vendors,)

Alternative: switch triggers for PS off

Typical Observation:

55 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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Back Up

56 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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High Level Dimensioning, the High Level Model


Note: The model is currently available only as MS-Access 2003 version!

Screenshots of the model

High Level Dimensioning

The actual version of the model can be downloaded from the best practice sharing
teamroom: RDC High Level Model, a detailed description here description
In the Network base most
important input data are defined
The definition.
.

of the network

the monthly traffic


per subscriber

the billable to busy


hour traffic translation

the subscriber figures

some important
settings, e.g. max.
allowed HR

the mapping to the


cell classification

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High Level Dimensioning

High Level Dimensioning, the High Level Model


Screenshots of the model

Screenshots of the model

The Fact base contains more


parameter settings, more seldom
changed, e.g. operator individual 16
classes definition

The Statistics contains more results for further


analysis. For instance the reasons for high
loaded cells could be found here

58 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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High Level Dimensioning, the High Level Model

High Level Dimensioning

Screenshots of the model


The Results contains the main
output of the calculation
It is a .
.

summary containing
absolute figures in terms
of carrier/TRX and sites
as well as yearly figures

details, results per class

summary about the access


and transmission network
regarding a reference
network concept

the utilisation of each


radio resource

59 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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High Level Dimensioning, the High Level Model


Screenshots of the model

The Preferences contains general


parameter settings, mainly related
to access and transmission

The Help contains background information,


model and input data history

High Level Dimensioning

Screenshots of the model

60 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


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2G/3G Network Utilisation

2G/3G Network Utilisation

What does utilisation mean/express


Access network utilisation measures the physical resource usage
Key elements in the radio network driving
dimensioning and congestion
Processing
capacity in the
Base Station
(CEs/Codes)

Downlink power and


uplink noise

Utilisation KPIs describe resource usage


reaching 100% when load exceeds 75%

Resource loading
DL Power
UL Noise

Antennas

Access
Transmission
link bandwidth

Channel
Elements
Access
Transmission

Base
Station
Access Transmission:
Congestion in this link (connection the base station back to the RNC
and core network) Leads to reduced throughput for PS services and
eventually blocking for CS services
Processing Capacity:
Within the base station there are physical limits on channel
processing capacity and also on Codes which are used to assign
3G Radio Bearers
Power/Noise:
Many elements formulate the overall power or link budget that the
radio network is planned too (not least the site density). Every
call/data session uses some of this power budget, excessive load will
cause congestion, degradation of customer performance and
reduces coverage
61 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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Codes

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Overall utilisation
= MAX resource

75% load (design target) = 100% utilisation


100% utilisation does not automatically imply
capacity spend. Full investigation is needed
first
April 2010

2G/3G Traffic related interworking

2G/3G Traffic Management

IRAT Parameterisation IRAT Settings Status Mid 2008

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2G/3G Traffic related interworking

IRAT Parameterisation Results from trial in Berlin/Germany (1/4)

old compressed
mode threshold

new
compressed
mode + IRAT
HO threshold

Traffic development 3G
Bearerusage_Cv [Erlang]; KW33
Bearerusage_Cv [Erlang]; KW32
Cv12_duration in 3G per RAB [sec] ; KW33
Cv12_duration in 3G per RAB [sec] ; KW32

250

-102

400
150

300

100
200

50

(93 -> 115 sec)

0
48

63 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


VTN

3G Voice traffic +23%


GSM Voice traffic -3.4%

in 3G +24%

24

> Goal 1 fulfilled:


Maximization of 3G VoiceUsage

Verweildauer in 3G:
exposure
106
-> 129 sec, time
+ 22%

Signal level
RSCP/ [dBm]

200

Voicetraffic
+23%

Verweildauer
Exposure
time in 3G [sec]

500

100

-105

-98

600

Usage/[Erlang]

2G/3G Traffic Management

old IRAT HO
threshold

72

96

120

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weekly performance
Wochenverlauf
(Std) [h]

April 2010

2G/3G Traffic related interworking

IRAT Parameterisation Results from trial in Berlin/Germany (2/4)


Compressed mode activity
1,5
Cmactatt
Isys
CM activation
160.000

CM_pro_IRAT_att
CM per IRAT/ Avg.
HOASS

1,45

1,4

Compressed
Mode -45%

120.000

1,35

1,3
100.000
1,25
80.000
1,2
60.000
1,15
40.000

1,1

20.000

1,05

> Goal 2 fulfilled : Minimization of compressed mode activity


Compressed mode activation -45%
64 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G
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Verhltnis
CM
/ IRAT
HO
Ratio CM
/ IRAT
HO

140.000

Anzahl
Aktivierungen
No CMCM
activations

2G/3G Traffic Management

180.000

2G/3G Traffic related interworking

Minimization number of 3G -> 2G HO


80.000

0,4

> Goal 3 fulfilled :


Minimization number
of 3G -> 2G HO

Hhoalloutatt4
IRAT HO Cs Cb
IRAT-HO
IRAT
HO attper
/ CvRAB
12-RAB

70.000

IRAT-HO
-31%

60.000

0,3
50.000

40.000

0,25

30.000
0,2
20.000
0,15
10.000

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Verhltnis
IRAT-HO
/ Voice-RABs
Ratio IRAT
HO / Voice
RABs

0,35

No
of IRAT
HO
Anzahl
IRAT
HO

2G/3G Traffic Management

IRAT Parameterisation Results from trial in Berlin/Germany (3/4)

No IRAT HO -31%

2G/3G Traffic related interworking

Securing Voice quality and stability


1,00%

0,25
P507_Cv12
RAB loss ratio_Cv12

0,90%

Drop_Cv12/Erlang
Avg. Drop_Cv12/Erlang

0,80%

Avg. P507_Cv12

0,2

0,15

0,50%

0,1

RAB loss ratio_CS +4%

0,30%

0,20%

0,05

0,10%

0,00%

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Drop pro Erlang

0,60%

0,40%

> Goal 4 fairly fulfilled:


Securing Voice
quality and stability

Drop/Erlang
-17%

0,70%
P507 / %
RAB loss ratio_CS [%]

2G/3G Traffic Management

IRAT Parameterisation Results from trial in Berlin/Germany (4/4)

RAB loss ratio


increase by +4%
Drop/Erlang -17%
laboratory study
shows voice
quality good until
RSCP ~ -112 dBm

2G/3G Traffic related interworking

2G/3G Traffic Management

IRAT Parameterisation CS VF-Spain

% Call End in 2G decreases 6%

IRAT HO attempts decreases 18%

67 Radio Dimensioning Guideline, 2G, 3G


VTN

C2 Vodafone Internal
Version 1.0

CS 3G traffic increases 10%

CS Call drops not impacted


April 2010