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THE STRUCTURE OF

PASSIVE VOICE
Active:
S+V+O
Passive: S + Be + PP(V3ed) + by +
O
(tense)
EX:
My father plants palm trees every
summer.

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
VOICE

The Simple Present Tense


Active: S + V(s/es) + O

Passive: S + am/is/are + PP +
by + O
EX: Tom reads books every day.
Books are read by Tom every day.

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
VOICE Tense
The Present Continuous
Active: S + am/is/are + V-ing + O
Passive: S + am/is/are + being +PP + by +
O

EX: He is writing a novel at the


moment.
A novel is being written (by him) at the
moment.

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
VOICE
The Present Perfect Tense
Active: S + Has/Have + V3ed + O
Passive: S + has/have + been +PP +
by + O

EX: Jane has just finished a novel.


A novel has just been finished
by Jane.

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
The SimpleVOICE
Past Tense
Active: S + V2ed + O
Passive: S + was/were + PP + by + O

EX: Ann gave Tom a book.


A book was given to Tom by Ann.
Tom was given a book by Ann.

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
The Past Continuous Tense
VOICE
Active: S + was/were + V-ing + O

Passive: S + was/were + being + PP + by +


O

EX: He was writing a letter at 8.00


yesterday.
A letter was being written (by him) at 8.00
yesterday.

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
The Past Perfect Tense
VOICE
3
Active: S + had + V

ed

+O

Passive: S + had + been + PP + by + O


EX:
He had finished his homework before 8.00
yesterday.
His homework had been finished (by
him) before 8.00 yesterday.

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
The Simple Future Tense
VOICE
Active: S + will/shall + V + O

Passive: S + will/shall + be + PP + by + O

EX: We will finish the homework.


The homework will be finished.

To be going to

She is going to finish the homework.


The homework is going to be finished
(by her).

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
The FutureVOICE
Continuous Tense

Active: S + will/shall + be + V-ing + O


Passive: S + will/shall + be + being + PP +
by + O

EX: Tom will be cooking lunch at


10.00 tomorrow.
Lunch will be being cooked by
Tom at 10.00 tomorrow.

TABLE OF ENGLISH
TENSES IN PASSIVE
The FutureVOICE
Perfect Tense
Active: S + will/shall + have + V3ed + O
Passive: S + will/shall + have + been + PP
+ by + O

EX: By the end of next week, he will

have written 10 letters to her.


By the end of next week, 10 letters
will have been written to her.

MODAL VERBS (MV) IN


PASSIVE VOICE

Modal Verbs can be used in either the


present or past forms.
Active: S + MV (not) + V + O
Passive: S + MV (not) + Be + PP + by
+O
EX: We cant solve this problem.

This problem cant be solved.

More modals
The pills must be taken three
times a day.
The letter has to be sent today.
The working paper had better be
returned right away.

Past modals

She should have called the police.


The police should have been called (by
her).
Andy might have locked the office.
The office might have been locked by
Andy.

PASSIVE QUESTIONS

What is Rita doing now?


What is being done by Rita now?
Where do they buy the coffee?
Where is the coffee bought?
Did Andy pick up Joe last night?
Was Joe picked up by Andy last
night?
Have you turned off the AC?
Has the AC been turned off?

Passive questions

What did Jimmy eat for breakfast?

What was eaten by Jimmy for breakfast?

Where did the students take the year-end


photos?
Why does Lorry reject the offer?
How could the thief break the back door?
Does Andy create a new plan?
Did all the runners finish the marathon?
Have the staffs finished the preparation?
Can she cancel the tickets?

PASSIVE VOICE WITH


CAUSATIVE
Active: S + Has/Have + O1 + V (BI)+ O2
S + Get + O1 + V (to-infinitive) + O2
Passive: S + Has/Have/Get + O 2 + PP
EX: My father had Tom wash his car.
My father had his car washed by Tom

OTHER INFINITIVE
COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE
VOICE
Verbs of liking/loving/wanting/wishing +
Object + infinitive form their passive with
the passive infinitive.
Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2
Passive: S + V + O + To Be + PP
EX: He wants someone to take
photographs.
He wants photographs to be taken.

Such verbs as
have/let/make/hear/see/watch/feel/
observe are used in the following passive
structure:

Active: S + V + O + V (BI)
Passive: S + To Be + PP + to-Infinitive
EX:
The gravity makes things drop down.
Things are made to drop down by the
gravity.
Note: The verb following let does not bear
to in the passive sentence.

OTHER INFINITIVE
COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE
VOICE
With advise/beg/order/recommend/urge +
Indirect Object + Infinitive + Object, we
have two ways of making the passive voice.
<1>Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2
Passive: S + To Be + PP + to-infinitive +

O2
EX: He urged the Council to reduce the tax.
The Council was urged to reduce the tax.

OTHER INFINITIVE
COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE
VOICE
With advise/beg/order/recommend/urge +
Indirect Object + infinitive + Object, we have
two ways of making the passive voice.
<2>Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2
Passive: S1 + V + that + S2 + should be +

PP
EX: He urged the Council to reduce the tax.
He urged that the tax should be reduced.

OTHER INFINITIVE
COMBINATIONS AFTER THE
PASSIVE VERB
After acknowledge/assume/believe/claim/
consider /estimate/feel/find/know/report/
say/think /understand , we use the
infinitive construction.
Simple Infinitive: if the time in the
infinitive passive is the same as that of the
main active verb.

<1>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 +
V2 + (O)
Passive: It + To Be + PP + that +
S2 + V2 + (O)
EX: People said that he was
jealous of her.
It was said that he was jealous
of her.

<2>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 +
V2 + (O)
Passive: S+ To Be + PP + to + V+
(O)
EX: People said that he was
jealous of her.
He was said to be jealous of
her.

Perfect Infinitive: if the time in the

infinitive passive is earlier than that of


the main active verb.
<1>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 +
(O)

Passive: It + To Be + PP + that + S2 +
V2 + (O)
EX: People say that he was jealous of her.
It is said that he was jealous of her.

<2>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2
+ (O)
Passive: S+ To Be + PP + to have +
PP + (O)
EX: People say that he was jealous of
her.
He is said to have been jealous
of her.

OTHER GERUND
COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE
VOICE
With advise/insist/propose/recommend
/suggest + Gerund + Object
Active: S + V + V-ing + O
Passive: S + V + that + S + should be + PP
EX: He recommended using bullet-proof
glass.
He recommended that bullet-proof glass
should be used.

OTHER GERUND
COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE
VOICE
Active: S + V + O + V-ing
Passive: S + V + Being + PP + by +
O
EX: I remembered my father taking
me to the zoo.
I remember being taken to the
zoo by my father.

Active: S + V + To-inf + O
Passive: S + V + To Be + PP + by + O
EX: She started to learn English 5 years ago.
English started to be learnt 5 years ago.
Active: S + V + V-ing + O
Passive: S + V + Being + PP + by + O
EX: She started learning English 5 years ago.
English started being learnt 5 years ago.