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HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER

PLANT

INTRODUCTION
The cheapest source which is to

generating power is water.


Hydro-electric power plant main
aim was to generate power in
flowing water.
The energy which is from hydel
plant is utilized to drive turbine.
In India during 1987, the first
hydro-electric power station was
started near Darjeeling.

LAYOUT

COMPONENTS
Water reservoir.
Dam.
Penstock.
Fore bay.
Surge
Water

tank.
turbine..

WATER RESERVOIR
In hydel electric power plant,

there must be continuous


supply of water.
Water reservoirs main functions
are to store a net amount of
water in it during rainy season
and supply it throughout the
year.

DAM

The dam is used in hydro power

plants to increase the capacity of


reservoir.
It also helps to increase the
working head of the power plant.

PENSTOCK
A pipeline fixed between the

surge tank and prime mover is


known as penstock.
It is commonly made of
reinforced concrete or steel.

FOREBAY
The main function is to regulating the

reservoir.
In the plant when the load is decreased
initially then water provided for
increasing load.

SURGE TANK
Surge tank is introduced in between the

power house and dam to avoid sudden


rise in the penstock.
As the load is reduced then there will be
a backflow of water inside the penstock.
The back flow of water is known as
water hammer.

WATER TURBINE
Water turbine converts kinetic

energy into mechanical energy to


produce electrical energy.
Pelton turbine, Francis and Kaplan
turbine are the prime mover.
The energy in the turbine shaft is
mechanical energy and this is used
to run electric generator.

WORKING PRINCIPLE
There is supply of energy cycle

in hydroelectric power plant.


The mechanical energy
converted into kinetic energy.

In other words, at first the

potential energy is derived from


water it is converted into kinetic
energy to derive the turbine in
which the electric generated
coupled from the turbine shaft,
the mechanical energy is derived.
The mechanical energy is
converted into electrical energy
and used to run electric generated
and thus the mutual energy
transformation is performed.

ADVANTAGES
Water is cheapest source of energy. The fuels

needed for the thermal, diesel and nuclear


plants are exhaustive and expansive.

Water is renewable source of energy.


The fuel cost is totally absent.
There is no problem of handling the fuel ash and

fuel.

The installation of hydel power

plant is easy.

Maintenance cost is low.

DISADVANTAGE
Hydel power projects are capital

intensive with a low rate of return.

Initial cost of the plant is high.


Power generation is dependent on the

quantity of water available, which may


vary from season-to-season and year-toyear.

QUESTIONS

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