Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

ATTACHED GROWTH

PROCESS

suspended growth vs. fixed film biological


treatment

Suspended growth:

Biomass well-mixed, in
suspension
Diverse microbiology
High energy aeration
systems
Process control follows
from modeling
Shocked more easily
Biomass recycled
High solids production,
easy to settle
High efficiency
DO 2 to 3 mg/L
Reliable N & P removal

Fixed film:

Biomass layered, attached


Frequently relies on draft for
aeration
Process control is empirically
based on organic and hydraulic
loading
Resilient to shock loads
Biomass not typically recycled
Low solids production, hard to
settle (low floc formers)
Lower efficiency
Higher DO required
unreliable N & P removal

Zona
ANAEROBIK

Zona
Aerobik

BIOFILM AIR LIMBAH


SOLUBLE ORGANIC
DAN O2

CO2, AMMONIA,
H2S, CH4 dll

Still more RBCs

Full Size U.S. Filter/Envirex RBC

Mechanical Drive U.S. Filter/Envirex RBC

input
efluen

stage1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Sn
1

k
S0
1

Q/ A

sludge

Jenis Jenis Media :

Batu Kali
Keramik
Plastik
Kayu

Ukuran :
Diameter rata rata :
2 10 cm

ww

BIOFILTER
DO

ww
Sed 2

SLUDGE

[BOD]
mg/l
EFLUEN

PERUBAHAN
[BOD]

Asumsi asumsi dalam proses Modeling :

Aliran dalam Bio filter analog dengan aliran dalam Plug


Flow Reactor.
Proses biodegradasi mengikuti reaksi Orde Satu.

Rumus rumus :
1.

Eckenfelder :

St
kXtd
e
So

Dimana : St = BOD effluen


So= BOD Influen
k = Konstanta laju biodegradasi
X = Konsentrasi biomassa
td = Waktu Kontak

K T K 20 *1,035

T 20

2.Jika media dari batukali, maka rumus Eckenfelder


berubah menjadi :

St

So

1
0 , 67
H
1 5,358
0,5
Ql

3. Metoda Empiris NRC :

Es

100
Yo
1 0,4432
V .F

ES = % efisiensi filter
Yo = beban organik, kg/hr
V = volume media, m3
F = faktor resirkulasi

1 R
F
2
1 0,1R
Qr
R
Qo

Jika filter disusun secara seri :

Influe
TF1
n

Es1

100
Yo
1 0,4432
V .F

Efluen
TF2

Es 2

PII

100
0,4432 1 Es1 Yo
1
1 Es1
V .F

Parameter penting dalam perencanaan :


Beban volumetrik :

Lv
Beban Organik

OSL

Hl
Beban Hidrolik

QxSo
Vmed ia

kgBOD
m 3 .hari

QxS o
V
1000x
Asp ec

Qo
A filter

grBOD
m 2 .hari

2
m .hari
3

Langkah langkah perhitungan :


1.
Rumus Eckenfelder :

Hitung % efisiensi yang direncanakan


Tetapkan kedaman media yang dikehendaki
Hitung beban hidrolik dari rumus eckenfelder
Hitung luas permukaan trickling filter : As= Qo/Ql
Hitung diamete trickling filter As = 3,14 [D 2/4]

2. Rumus NRC :

Hitung % efisiensi yang dikehendaki.


Tetapkan kedalaman media filter
Hitung beban organik OL = Qo x [BOD]
Hitung beban hidrolik Ql
Hitung luas permukaan trickling filter : As= Qo/Ql
Hitung diamete trickling filter As = 3,14 [D 2/4]

Design criteria of RBC

The percent submergence


25-40%,

The tip velocity


20 m/min,

Trade of O2-transfer rate <>


energy

The surface loading


The hydraulic

S.L.= 3-15 kg-solubleBOD5/1000m2-d


S.L.< 45 kg-total BOD5/1000m2-d in 1st stage
Excessive growth, oxygen depletion, odors,
loading detachment, high SS in effluent

H.L.= Q/A = 0.04-0.16 m/d

Rumus Umum :

Sn
1


k
So
1

Q / A

n = Jumlah Stage
k = Konstanta biodegradasi
Q = debit
A = Total Luas permukaan media
S = Konsentrasi BOD

Оценить