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WEEK 6-7

LEARNING OUTCOMES (CO2-PO4)


Able to prepare taking of sheet & quantities
for civil work of earthwork/road

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Introduction of earthwork
Quantity surveying for civil engineering work
usually also called as infrastructure work or
external work.
The external work consists of earthwork,
roadwork, drainage work, sewerage, water
supply, retaining wall, bridges etc.
Usually put the quantity in provisional sumSubjected to remesurement

Earthwork
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What is earthwork?
Excavation in rock as well in the loose material
of the earth.
Scope of work of earthwork:
Site clearance, cutting, excavation, filling and
compaction and turfing is part of earthwork.

Earthwork
@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

a) Site clearance
On completion, leave every part of the works in
good working order and clean and tidy
condition to the satisfaction of the
Superintending Officer (S.O).
Ensure that the existing roadside drains
bonding the side are clear of any building
debris, earth etc at all times.
Remove and clear away from site all
temporary building, temporary works and
temporary installation upon completion or as
directed by the S.O
Gather up and clear away all rubbish as it
accumulated during the progress of the
works and leave the site clean and tidy upon
completion.
Measured by area in m/acre/hectare
Site clearance works includes clearing,
demolition, cleaning and making good on
completion.
Site clearance

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Item Description

Unit

Quantity

Cut, fell and remove in bulk all tress


m2
Irrespective of diameter and height
Including grubbing out stumps, roots
etc including clearing and removing
existing debris, fence, scrapped
materials, abandoned huts, structure
and vehicles (if any) and the like from
site to contractors own dump and fell
remove in bulk all scrubs etc and grub
all stumps, roots and strip off top soil
Example
of Bill same
of Quantities
of Site
Clearance work
and removed
off site as
directed
by the S.O and as to the requirement
of the Department of Environment
(DOE).

Example of Bill of Quantities for site clearance work

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

b) Excavation
Measured by volume in m
Measured the net size of the excavated void
with no allowance for working space.
Excavation item do not include filling and
compaction.
excavation item is one item and filling and
compaction is one item in the B.Q
Excavated material can be stated in two, for
reuse or disposal (disposal off site or disposal
on site).
Location of the disposal must be stated.

Excavation
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b) Excavation
Excavated material can be divided into two,
suitable material and unsuitable material.
Usually top soil, suitable material, unsuitable
material, hard material and rock material
excavation is under different item because the
rate of each item is different.
The excavation start at the Original Ground
Level (OGL) and finish at the Finish Level (FL)

Excavation
@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

OGL
150 mm

Top soil
Suitable material
Unsuitable material
Hard material

Rock
FL
Soil strata description for excavation

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Item Description

Unit

Excavate top soil to a depth 150 mm and


dispose off to a designated area

m2

Excavation of unsuitable material and


dispose off to the contractors own
designated area

Excavate of suitable material and reuse


for filling area

Excavate of hard material and dispose off


to the
designated dump site

Excavate of rock and dispose off to the


designated area

Quantity

Example of Bill of Quantities for excavation

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

c) Filling and compaction


Measured by volume in m (if thickness is not
specify)
Measured by area in m (if thickness is specify)
Suitable material is used for filling
Filling is carry out layer by layer not more than
250mm thickness
Each layer must be compacted by vibrator
compactor to achieve more than 90%
compaction.
Filling and compaction is specify in one item in
B.Q.

Filling and compaction


@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Item Description

Unit

Quantity

Approved imported earth fill obtained from


m2
the contractors own source, transport,
deposit, spread, leveled, compacted and
well consolidated in layers not exceeding
250 mm thick including forming and grading
sides of slopes and embankment as
directed by the S.O

Example of Bill of Quantities for filling and compaction

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Example

Original ground level (OGL)


Finish level (FL)
cut
cut

Swamp area

Longitudinal section of road

Swamp flood
with water

OGL

Cut area
Slope

Slope
FL

Cross section of road

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

d) Roadwork
Road consists of sub base, sub grade, crusher
run and premix.
Measured by m if the thickness is specify.
Measured by m3 if the thickness is not specify.
Filling, spreading, leveling and compacting is
part of roadwork.

Typical cross section of road


@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Typical Cross Section of Road

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Item Description

Unit

50mm thick sand (sub grade ) spread,


leveled
and compacted with 8 ton roller

m2

200mm thick crusher run spread,


level and
compacted

m2

Provide and lay 37.5mm thick premix, m2


spread,
Example of Bill of Quantities for Roadwork
Level, well rolled and compacted.

Quantity

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Earthwork: Formulae
Method

Formulae

a)Cross-section
Method

a) Common formulae
Volume = Area of midsection X Length
= (A1+A2)/2 X ht
b) Simpsons Rule
Volume = 1/3(total length) x (total weighted area)
For even cross section (2,4,6, etc. multiplied by 4)
For odd cross section (3,5,7,etc multiplied by 2)
For end cross section (taken once only)
c) Prismoidal formula
Volume = 1/6 (total length) x ( area of 1st section + 4( area of middle
section + area of last section)

b)Contour method

V1= (A1 + A2)/2 X ( difference of two height)


V2=(A1 +A2)/2 X (difference of two height)
Total volume = V1 + V2

c)Grid Method

a)Volume =cross section area multiply by the average of mean height


b) Modification factor = cross section area multiplied total weighted factor

d) Counting Lorries

Volume or size of lorry

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Road and canals: formulae


sd

sd

Fill
Surface area

s:1

embankment
= bd + 2(1/2 sdd)
= bd + sd2

Volume

= average area x distance


= bd average + sd average

Side slope

= (s2d2+ d2)
= d (s2+ 1)1/2

Area to be turfed

= average side slope x distance


= d average (s2+ 1) x 2L

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Example of earthwork and road


Method to be used to determine volume of excavation for cut and fill in
earthwork/road are as follows:
a.Grid method (see Example 2.1 and 2.2 )
b.Cross section method (see Example 2.3 ,2.4 and 2.5)
c. Simpsons Rule method (see Example 2.6)

@nurkamaliahmustaffa2013

Tutorial:
see Exercise 2.1 and 2.2

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