Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

CHAPTER

7
Mechanical Properties
Of
Metals - II
7-1

Recovery and Recrystallization

Cold worked metals


become brittle.
Reheating, which
increases ductility results
in recovery,
recrystallization and
grain growth.
This is called annealing
and changes material
properties.

7-2

(Adapted from Z.D. Jastrzebski, The Nature and Properties of Engineering Materials, 2d ed., Wiley, 1976,

Structure of Cold Worked Metals

Strain energy of cold


work is stored as
dislocations.
Heating to recovery
temperature relieves
internal stresses
(Recovery stage).
Polygonization
(formation of sub-grain
structure) takes place.
Dislocations are moved
into lower energy
configuration.

Structure of 85%
Cold worked metal

Polyganization Figure 6.4


Dislocations
Grain Boundaries
Slip bands

Structure of stress
relieved metal
Figure 6.2 and 6.3
7-3

TEM of 85%
Cold worked metal

(After Metals Handbook, vol 7, 8th ed., American Society of Metals, 1972, p.243)

TEM of stress
relived metal

Recrystallization

If metal is held at recrystallization temperature long


enough, cold worked structure is completely replaced
with recrystallized grain structure.
Two mechanisms of recrystallization
Expansion of nucleus
Migration of grains.

More deformed
region

Structure and TEM of


Recrystallized metal

Migration

Expansion

Figure 6.5
7-4

Nucleus of
recrystallized grain

(After Metals Handbook, vol 7, 8th ed., American Society of Metals, 1972, p.243)

Figure 6.2 and 6.3

Effects on Mechanical Properties

Annealing decreases tensile strength, increases


ductility.
Example:
85% Cu &
15% Zn

Annealed 1 h
4000C

50% cold
rolled

Tensile strength
75 KSI
Ductility 3%

Tensile strength
45 KSI
Ductility 38 %

Factors affecting recrystalization:


Amount of prior deformation

Temperature and time


Initial grain size
Composition of metal
7-5

Figure 6.6

(After Metals Handbook, vol 2, 9 th ed., American Society of Metals, 1979, p.320)

Facts About Recrystallization

7-6

A minimum amount of deformation is needed.


The smaller the deformation, the higher the recrystallization
temperature.
The Higher the temperature, the less time required.
The greater the degree of deformation, the smaller the
recrystallized grains.
The Larger the original grain
size, the greater the amount of
deformation that is required
to produce equivalent
temperature.
Figure 6.7b
Recrystallization temperature
Continuous annealing
increases with purity of metals.

Fracture of Metals Ductile Fracture

7-7

Fracture results in separation of stressed solid into two


or more parts.
Ductile fracture : High plastic deformation & slow
crack propagation.
Three steps :
Specimen forms neck and
cavities within neck.
Cavities form crack and
crack propagates towards
surface, perpendicular to stress.
Direction of crack changes to
450 resulting in cup-cone
fracture.

Brittle Fracture

No significant plastic deformation before fracture.


Common at high strain rates and low temperature.
Three stages:

Plastic deformation concentrates


dislocation along slip planes.
Microcracks nucleate due to shear
stress where dislocations are blocked.
Crack propagates to fracture.

Example: HCP Zinc ingle crystal


under high stress along {0001}
plane undergoes brittle fracture.
Figure 6.11 & 6.13

7-8

SEM of ductile fracture

SEM of brittle fracture

Ductile and Brittle Fractures

Ductile fracture

Brittle Fracture

Brittle Fractures (cont..)


Brittle fractures are due to defects like
Folds
Undesirable grain flow
Porosity
Tears and Cracks
Corrosion damage
Embrittlement due to atomic hydrogen

At low operating temperature, ductile to brittle


transition takes place

Toughness and Impact Testing

Toughness is a measure of energy absorbed before


failure.
Impact test measures the
ability of metal to absorb
impact.
Toughness is measured
using impact testing
machine

Figure 6.14
7-9

Impact testing (Cont)

Also used to find the temperature range for ductile to


brittle transition.

Figure 6.15

7-10

Figure 6.16

Fracture Toughness
Cracks and flaws cause stress concentration.

K 1 Y a
K1 = Stress intensity factor.

= Applied stress.
a = edge crack length
Y = geometric constant.
Figure 6.17

KIc = critical value of


stress intensity
factor.(Fracture toughness)

Y f a

7-11

Example:
Al 2024 T851
26.2MPam1/2
4340 alloy steel 60.4MPam1/2

Measuring Fracture Toughness


A notch is machined in a specimen of sufficient
thickness B.
B>>a
plain strain condition.
B = 2.5(KIc/Yield strength)2
Specimen is tensile tested.
Higher the KIc value, more

ductile the metal is.


Used in design to find
allowable flaw size.

Figure 6.18
7-12

Fatigue of Metals

Metals often fail at much lower stress at cyclic loading


compared to static loading.
Crack nucleates at region of stress concentration and
propagates due to cyclic loading.
Failure occurs when
cross sectional area
of the metal too small
to withstand applied
Fracture started here
load.
Figure 6.19

Fatigue fractured
surface of keyed
shaft
7-13

th

Final rupture

Fatigues Testing

Alternating compression and tension load is applied on


metal piece tapered towards center.

Figure 6.21
Figure 6.20

Stress to cause failure S


and number of cycles
required N are plotted
to form SN curve.

Figure 6.23

7-14

Cyclic Stresses

Different types of stress cycles are possible (axial,


torsional and flexural).

Figure 6.24

Mean stress = m

max min
2

Stress range = r max min


7-15

max min
Stress amplitude = a
2

min
Stress range = R
max

Structural Changes in Fatigue Process

Crack initiation first occurs.


Reversed directions of crack initiation caused surface
ridges and groves called slipband extrusion and
intrusion.
This is stage I and is very slow (10-10 m/cycle).
Crack growth changes
direction to be perpendicular to maximum tensile
stress (rate microns/sec).
Persistent slip bands
Sample ruptures by ductile
In copper crystal
failure when remaining
cross-sectional area is small to withstand the stress.
Figure 6.26
7-16

Factors Affecting Fatigue Strength

Stress concentration: Fatigue strength is


reduced by stress concentration.
Surface roughness: Smoother surface
increases the fatigue strength.
Surface condition: Surface treatments like
carburizing and nitriding increases fatigue
life.
Environment: Chemically reactive
environment, which might result in
corrosion, decreases fatigue life.

7-17

Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate

Notched specimen used.


Cyclic fatigue action is generated.
Crack length is measured by change in potential
produced by crack opening.

Figure 6.27
7-18

th

Stress & Crack Length

Fatigue Crack Propagation.


When a is small, da/dN
is also small.
da/dN increases with increasing crack length.
Increase in increases
crack growth rate.

1
a

da
Figure 6.28

dN

N da

da

dN

f(,a)

AK

dN

da

= fatigue crack growth


rate.
dN
K = Kmax-Kmin = stress
intensity factor range.

A,m = Constants depending on material, environment, frequency


temperature and stress ratio.
7-19

Fatigue Crack Growth rate Versus K


da
Log ( AK m )
Log
dN
m.Log ( K ) Log ( A)

Straight line with slope m


Limiting value of K below
Which there is no measurable
Crack growth is called stress
intensity factor range
threshold Kth

Figure 6.29
7-20

Fatigue Life Calculation


da

A K m

dN
K Y a

But

m
m m
Therefore K y 2 a 2
m m
da
Therefore
A( y m m 2 a 2 )
dN
Integrating from initial crack size a0 to final crack size af
at number of fatigue cycles Nf

af

m Nf

m m 2
2
da

A
y

a0

dN
0

Integrating and solving for Nf


(Assuming Y is independent of crack length)
7-21

Nf

af

m
2

) 1

a0
m

Ay (
m

) 1

1)

Creep in Metals

7-22

Creep is progressive deformation under constant


stress.
Important in high temperature applications.
Primary creep: creep rate
decreases with time due
to strain hardening.
Secondary creep: Creep
rate is constant due to
simultaneous strain hardening and recovery process.
Tertiary creep: Creep rate
increases with time leading
to necking and fracture.
Figure 6.30

Creep Test

Creep test determines the effect of temperature and


stress on creep rate.
Metals are tested at constant stress at different
temperature & constant temperature with different
stress.
High temperature
or stress

Medium temperature
Figure 6.33
or stress
Creep strength: Stress to produce
Low temperature
Minimum creep rate of 10-5%/h
or stress
Figure 6.32
7-23

At a given temperature.

Creep Test (Cont..)

Creep rupture test is same as creep test but aimed at


failing the specimen.
Plotted as log stress
versus log rupture time.
Time for stress rupture
decreases with increased
stress and temperature.
Figure 6.35

Figure 6.34
7-24

th

Larsen Miller Parameter

Larsen Miller parameter is used to represent creepstress rupture data.


P(Larsen-Miller) = T[log tr + C]
T = temperature(K), tr = stress-rupture time h
C = Constant (order of 20)
Also,
or

7-25

P(Larsen-Miller) = [T(0C) + 273(20+log tr)


P(Larsen-Miller) = [T(0F) + 460(20+log tr)

At a given stress level, the log time to stress rupture


plus constant multiplied by temperature remains
constant for a given material.

Larsen Miller Parameter


If two variables of time to
rupture, temperature and
stress are known, 3rd parameter
that fits L.M. parameter can be
determined.
Example:
For alloy CM, at 207 MPa,
LM parameter is 27.8 x 103 K
Then if temperature is known,
time to rupture can be found.

Figure 6.36

7-26

th

L.M. Diagram of several alloys

Figure 6.37

Example: Calculate time to cause 0.2% creep strain in gamma


Titanium aluminide at 40 KSI and 12000F
From fig, p = 38000
38000 = (1200 + 460) (log t0.2% + 20)
7-27

t=776 h

Case Study Analysis of Failed Fan Shaft


Requirements

Function Fan drive support


Material 1045 cold drawn steel
Yield strength 586 Mpa
Expected life 6440 km (failed at 3600 km)

Visual examination (avoid additional damage)


Failure initiated at two points near fillet
Characteristic of reverse bending fracture

Failed Shaft Further Analysis


Tensile test proved yield strength to be 369
MPa (lower than specified 586 MPa).
Metallographic examination revealed grain
structure to be equiaxed ( cold drawn metal has
elongated grains).
Conclusion: Material is not cold drawn it is
hot rolled !.
Lower fatigue strength and stress raiser
caused the failure of the shaft.

Recent Advances: Strength + Ductility

Coarse grained low strength, high ductility


Nanocrystalline High strength, low ductility (because
of failure due to shear bands).
Ductile nanocrystalline copper : Can be produced by
Cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature

Additional cooling after each pass


Controlled annealing

Cold rolling creates dislocations


and cooling stops recovery
25 % microcrystalline grains
in a matrix of nanograins.

Fatigue Behavior of Nanomaterials


Nanomaterials and Ultrafine Ni are found
to have higher endurance limit than
microcrystalline Ni.
Fatigue crack growth is increased in the
intermediate regime with decreasing grain
size.
Lower fatigue crack growth threshold Kth
observed for nanocrystalline metal.