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Framed buildings are building

structures formed by the framed
elements usually in the form of
columns and beams, as well as
further strengthened as necessary
by the introduction of rigid floor
membranes and external walls.

Framing, in construction known aslight

frame construction,
A building technique based around structural
members, usually called studs.
Studs which provide a stable frame to which
interior and exterior wall coverings are
attached, covered by a roof comprising
horizontal ceiling joists and sloping rafters
Studs also manufactured pre-fabricated roof
trussesall of which are covered by various
sheathing materials to give weather resistance.
The main components of framing are column
and beam.


Slab span
secondary beam

Primary Beam


Function of


a) Reinforced Concrete

Advantages of Reinforced
Concrete Frame
Reinforced Value in Building
Energy Savings
Fire Resistance
Durability, Strength, Low
Aesthetic Value

Disadvantages of
Reinforced Concrete
Buildings cannot resist the

temperature and moisture effect due

to the small thickness of walls.
It is much affected by earthquake
Very heaving
Can become a time consuming
process when there is an error on
pouring concrete frames.

b.) Timber Frame

Advantages of Timber
Timber is cheaper and less prone to world
fluctuations in prices.
No interruptions to the flow of trades work.
No safety needs over and above normal
carpentry needs.
Timber is lighter and involves simpler
handling procedures.
Conducive to infilling
Esthetical appeal
Ease of construction

Disadvantages of Timber
The possibility of infestation by insects
Various types ofrot includingdry rot.
Otherfungithat are non-destructive to the wood, but
are harmful to humans such asblack mold. These fungi
may also thrive on many "modern" building materials.
Woodburnsmore readily than some other materials,
making timber-frame buildings somewhat more
susceptible to fire damage
Many older timber-frame buildings, especially those
built before the 1950s, are more vulnerable to damage
during anearthquake. Many design improvements
were made in the latter half of the 20th century that
improves the earthquake resistance of this type of

c.) Steel Frame

Advantages of Steel
They are usually constructed much faster than
They are lighter weight therefore they are
easier to maintain.
Unlike lumber, light steel components are
always straight, this allows for a flat wall every
They carry a reduced risk of fire.
Steel structures can withstand unfavorable
weather conditions such as hurricanes, high
winds, heavy snow and even earthquakes.
They are also resistant to termites, creeping,
cracks, splitting and rotting, thus increasing

Advantages of Steel
They are more energy-efficient and reduced
maintenance make them an attractive alternative.
Besides, they can be given a conventional look
by covering them with traditional building materials
like bricks, siding or stucco.
There are various benefits such as lower
insurance costs , lower assembly and labor costs,
and decreased material costs due to prefabricated
Steel building products, including steel frames,
are made of recycled steel. No less than 28% of
steel frames are recycled steel, which can then be
recycled in turn.

Disadvantages of Steel
Many areas it is difficult to find framing crews
that are trained in light steel construction.
Probably the biggest disadvantage of steel is its
thermo conductivity.
In addition to cost problems, there is a lack of
infrastructure to support the construction of a
steel-framed home.
Even though steel components will not burn
they will actually fail (collapse) before a wood
component in a house fire.
Steel components can rust if left exposed in
marine climates.

d.) Precast Concrete


Advantages of Precast
Concrete Frame

Frames are produced under factory

controlled conditions resulting in a

uniform product of both quality and
Repetitive casting lowers the cost of
individual members.
Off site production releases site space
for other activities.
Frames can be assembled in cold
weather and generally by semi-skilled

Disadvantages of Precast
Concrete Frame
Although a wide choice of frames is

available from various manufacturers

these systems lack the design flexibility
of cast-in-situ purpose made frames.
Site planning can be limited by
manufacturers delivery and unloading
programs and requirements.
Lifting plant of a type and size not
normally required by traditional
construction methods may be needed.

e.) Cast-In-Situ Concrete


Advantages of Cast-InSitu
The members
of aFrame
reinforced concrete
frame can be mould to any required
The members do not need to be
uniform section along their length or
For economy in section as a structural
material or for reason of appearance,
and when it is cast-in-situ it will act
monolithically as a rigid structure.
Reduced project time and improved

Disadvantages of Cast-InSitu Frame

Economically in the complication
of formwork and false work
necessary to form irregular shapes.
Frames are no produced under
factory so cannot controlled
conditions resulting in a different
product of both quality and accuracy.
Need a lot of labor in the site.

f.) Rigid Structure


Fix-ended Structure

Pin-ended Structure

g.) Braced Structure


Swan Bell Tower