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PRINCIPLES OF

MANAGEMENT
Any plan to be successful
knowledge of management is more
important

What is management?
Management is as old as man himself.

Definition
Management is the process of designing and
maintaining an environment in which individual,
working together in groups, accomplish their aims
effectively and efficiently.
Management is the attainment of organized
goals in an effective and efficient manner through
planning, organizing, leading and controlling
organizational resources.

Functions of management
Planning
The management function concerned with
defining goals for future organizational
performance and deciding on the tasks and
resources use needed to attain them.
Management functions that involves the
process of defining goals, establishing strategies
for achieving those goals, and developing plans
to integrate and co-ordinate activities.

Organizing
The management function concerned
with assigning tasks, grouping tasks into
departments and allocating resources to
department.
Management function that involves the
process of determining what tasks are to
be done, who is to do them, how the tasks
are to be grouped, who reports to whom
and where decisions are to be made.

Leading
The management function that involves
the use of influence to motivate employees
to believe the organizational goals.
Management function that involves
motivating sub ordinates, influencing
individuals or teams as they work.
Selecting the most effective
communication channels or dealing in any
way with employee behavior issues.

Controlling
The management function concerned with
monitoring employees activities, keeping
the organization on truck toward its goals
and making corrections as needed.
Management function that involves
monitoring actual performance, comparing
actual to standard and taking action, if
necessary.

Management Skills
A managers job is complex and
multidimensional and requires a range of
skills.
Conceptual skills
Human skills
Technical skills.

Conceptual skills
The cognitive ability to see the
organization as a whole and the
relationship among its parts.
The ability to think and to conceptualize
about abstract and complex situations.

Human Skills
The ability to work with and through other
people and to work effectively as a group
member.
The ability to work well with other people
individuals and in a group.

Technical Skills
The understanding of and proficiency in
the performance of specific tasks.
Knowledge of and proficiency in a
specialized field .

Management types
Vertical Differences
Top Managers.
Middle Managers.
First-line Managers.
Horizontal Differences
Functional Managers.
General Manager.

Vertical Differences
Top managers
A manager who is at the top of the
organizational hierarchy and is
responsible for the entire organization.

Middle Managers
A Manager who works at the middle
levels of the organization and is
responsible for major departments.

Project Mangers
A Manager is responsible for a
temporary work project that involves the
participation of other people at a similar
level in the organization.

First-line Managers
A Manager who is at the first or second
management level and its directly
responsible for the production of goods
and services.

Horizontal Differences
Functional Manager
A Manager who is responsible for a
department that performs a single
functional task and has employees with
similar training and skills.

General Manager
A Manager who is responsible for
several departments that perform different
functions.

Managers role
Category

Role

Informational

Monitor
Disseminator
Spokesperson
Figurehead
Leader
Liaison

Interpersonal

continued.

Decisional

Entrepreneur
Disturbance
Resource
Allocator
Negotiator

Relationship of Conceptual, Human and


Technical Skills to Management Level

Management Level
Top Managers

Middle Managers
First-Line Managers

Non managers

Conceptual Skills
Human Skills
Technical Skills

Management Level in the Organizational Hierarchy


CEO

Top Managers
People at
these levels
may also
have
horizontal
project
manager
responsibility

Business Unit Head

Middle Managers

Department Manager
Functional Head

Nonmanagerial Employees

First-Line
Managers

Management Level in the Organizational Hierarchy