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CYCLONE DESIGN for Biomass

Gasification

Function of Cyclone
Gas-solid separator employing centrifugal force
Utilize centripetal acceleration to reduce the long times
otherwise required for small particles to settle by gravity
Suitable for separating particle about above 5m or 10m
cyclones are typically the first clean up device applied to
a gas stream

Type of Cyclone Design


1. Reverse flow cyclone / single cyclone design
gas stream enters a double
vortex that first forces
particulate outward and
downward in an outer vortex.
This outer swirling motion
separates particulate matter
from the vapors by inertial
forces.
The gas stream is then
redirected into an inner and

2. Multicyclone / parallel design


The efficiency of acyclone separatoris highly depends
on the amount of centrifugal forces created and longer
residence time to allow more dusts to settle down.
centrifugal force can be increased by reducing the
cyclone diameter
residence time can be increased by increasing the cone
height

To match with airflow


requirements and optimal
pressure drop cyclone
arranged in parallel and
combining all inlet into one
inlet and combining all outlet
in one common outlet
Multicyclone have higher
pressure drop compare to
single cyclone
higher pressure drop yields
higher efficiency

3. Cyclone in Series
Connecting cyclone in series
increase recovery, usually primary
cyclone would be of medium or low
efficiency design.
secondary and subsequent
cyclones of progressively more
efficient design or smaller diameter.

Cyclone Stairmand Design for reverse flow cyclone


High efficiency cyclone

High throughput cyclone

high recoveries

lower total efficiencies

small inlet and gas outlet orifices


(high flow resistance)

large inlets and gas outlets (low


flow resistance)

Lower gas capacity but higher


removal of solid

much higher gas capacity

High Efficiency Cyclone

High throughput cyclone

Cyclone Advantages
Simple design and lack of moving parts in cyclones
enable high temperature operation that is typically
limited only by mechanical strength of the construction
materials.
They are often operated hot to prevent condensation of
water, tar, and other contaminants that might otherwise
foul or corrode the cyclone

Gas cleaning equipment the


principal types used in process
industries

General Design Procedure


1. Select HE or HT design depending on performance required
2. Obtain an estimate of particle size distribution of solid in the
stream to be treated
3. Estimated number of cyclone need in parallel
4. Calculate cyclone diameter for an inlet velocity of 15m/s. scale
other cyclone dimension
5. Calculate scale-up factor for the transportation
6. Calculate cyclone performance and overall efficiency
7. Calculate cyclone pressure drop
8. Cost of the system and optimize

Reference
Rhodes, M. (2008). Introduction to particle technology.
Chichester, England: Wiley.
Towler, G. and Sinnott, R. (2008). Chemical engineering
design. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.