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UNIT-I

VEHICLE STRUCTURE
ANDENGINES

TYPESOFAUTOMOBILES

Withrespecttopurpose
Withrespecttofuelused
Withrespecttocapacity
Withrespecttonoofwheels
Withrespecttotothedriveofthevehicle

VEHICLECONSTRUCTION

CHASSIS
A vehicle without body is called Chassis. The
components of the vehicle like Power plant,
Transmission System, Axles, Wheels and Tyres,
Suspension, Controlling Systems like Braking,
Steering etc., and also electrical system parts are
mountedontheChassisframe.
It is the main mounting for all the components
includingthebody.SoitisalsocalledasCarrying
Unit.
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LAYOUT OF CHASSIS

MAIN COMPONENTS OF
THE CHASSIS:

Frame: it is made up of long two members called side


members riveted together with the help of number of
crossmembers.
EngineorPowerplant:Itprovidesthesourceofpower
Clutch: It connects and disconnects the power from the
engineflywheeltothetransmissionsystem.
GearBox
UniversalJoint
PropellerShaft
Differential
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FUNCTIONS OF THE
CHASSIS FRAME
Tocarryloadofthepassengersorgoodscarriedinthe
body.
Tosupporttheloadofthebody,engine,gearboxetc.,
Towithstandtheforcescausedduetothesudden
brakingoracceleration
Towithstandthestressescausedduetothebadroad
condition.
Towithstandcentrifugalforcewhilecornering

FRAME
Types of chassis frames:
Therearethreetypesofframes
(a)Conventionalframe
(b)Integralframe
(c)Semi-integralframe

(a)Conventional frame:
It has two long side members and 5 to 6 cross
membersjoinedtogetherwiththehelpofrivets
and bolts. The frame sections are used
generally.
ChannelSection-Goodresistancetobending
TabularSection-GoodresistancetoTorsion
BoxSection-Goodresistancetobothbending
andTorsion
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(b)Integral Frame:
This frame is used now a days in most of
the cars. There is no frame and all the
assemblyunitsareattachedtothebody.All
the functions of the frame carried out by
thebodyitself.Duetoeliminationoflong
frame it is cheaper and due to less weight
most economical also. Only disadvantage
isrepairingisdifficult.
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(c)Semi - Integral Frame:


Insomevehicleshalfframeisfixedinthe
front end on which engine gear box and
front suspension is mounted. It has the
advantage when the vehicle is met with
accident the front frame can be taken
easily to replace the damaged chassis
frame.
ThistypeofframeisusedinFIATcarsand
someoftheEuropeanandAmericancars.
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VARIOUS LOADS ACTING


ON THE FRAME
ShortdurationLoad-Whilecrossingabroken
patch.
Momentary duration Load - While taking a
curve.
Impact Loads - Due to the collision of the
vehicle.
InertiaLoad-Whileapplyingbrakes.
StaticLoads-Loadsduetochassisparts.
OverLoads-BeyondDesigncapacity
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BODY

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Classifications Of Bodies Used


In Automobiles
According to Chassis design the body can
divided into
ConventionalType
IntegralType
Semi-IntegralType
According to other usage:
LightvehicleBodies-cars,jeeps
HeavyvehicleBodies-Busses,Lorries
MediumvehicleBodies-Vans,Metadoors

Requirements of bodies for


various types of vehicles
Thebodyshouldbelight.
Itshouldhaveminimumnumberofcomponents.
Itshouldprovidesufficientspaceforpassengersand
luggage.
Itshouldwithstandvibrationswhileinmotion.
Itshouldofferminimumresistancetoair.
Itshouldbecheapandeasyinmanufacturing.
Itshouldbeattractiveinshapeandcolour.
Itshouldhaveuniformlydistributedload.
Itshouldhavelongfatiguelife.
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Itshouldprovidegoodvisionandventilation

Introduction to Internal Combustion


Engines

Introduction
=

Heat engine : It can be defined as any engine


thatconvertsthermalenergytomechanicalwork
output. Examples of heat engines include: steam
engine, diesel engine, and gasoline (petrol)
engine.
On the basis of how thermal energy is being
deliveredtoworkingfluidoftheheatengine,heat
enginecanbeclassifiedasaninternalcombustion
engineandexternalcombustionengine.

In an Internal combustion engine, combustion


takes place within working fluid of the engine,
thus fluid gets contaminated with combustion
products.
Petrol engine is an example of internal
combustion engine, where the working
fluidisamixtureofairandfuel.
Inan External combustion engine,workingfluid
getsenergyusingboilersbyburningfossilfuelsor
any other fuel, thus the working fluid does not
comeincontactwithcombustionproducts.
Steam engine is an example of external
combustion engine, where the working

Internalcombustionenginesmaybeclassifiedas:
SparkIgnitionengines.
CompressionIgnitionengines.
Spark ignition engine (SI engine): Anengineinwhich
thecombustionprocessineachcycleisstartedbyuseof
anexternalspark.
Compression ignition engine (CI engine):Anenginein
which the combustion process starts when the air-fuel
mixture self ignites due to high temperature in the
combustionchambercausedbyhighcompression.
Spark ignition and Compression Ignition engine
operate on either a four stroke cycle or a two
strokecycle.

Fourstrokecycle:Ithasfourpistonstrokes
overtworevolutionsforeachcycle.
Twostrokecycle:Ithastwopistonstrokes
overonerevolutionforeachcycle.
WewillbedealingwithSparkIgnitionengine
andCompressionIgnitionengineoperatingon
afourstrokecycle.

Enginecomponents

Enginecomponents

Internal combustion Engine


Components:
I.C.Enginecomponentsshowninfigurearedefinedas

follows:
Block :Bodyoftheenginecontainingcylinders,madeof
castironoraluminium.
Cylinder : Thecircularcylindersintheengineblockin
whichthepistonsreciprocatebackandforth.
Head :Thepiecewhichclosestheendofthecylinders,
usuallycontainingpartoftheclearancevolumeofthe
combustionchamber.
Combustion chamber: Theendofthecylinderbetween
theheadandthepistonfacewherecombustionoccurs.
Thesizeofcombustionchambercontinuouslychanges
fromminimumvolumewhenthepistonisatTDCtoa
maximumvolumewhenthepistonatBDC.

Crankshaft : Rotating shaft through which engine work


outputissuppliedtoexternalsystems.
The crankshaft is connected to the engine block
withthemainbearings.
It is rotated by the reciprocating pistons through
the connecting rods connected to the crankshaft,
offset from the axis of rotation. This offset is
sometimescalledcrankthroworcrankradius.
Connecting rod : Rod connecting the piston with the
rotatingcrankshaft,usuallymadeofsteeloralloyforging
in most engines but may be aluminum in some small
engines.
Piston rings: Metal rings that fit into circumferential
grooves around the piston and form a sliding surface
againstthecylinderwalls.

Camshaft :Rotatingshaftusedtopushopenvalvesat
the proper time in the engine cycle, either directly or
through mechanical or hydraulic linkage (push rods,
rockerarms,tappets).
Push rods : The mechanical linkage between the
camshaftandvalvesonoverheadvalveengineswiththe
camshaftinthecrankcase.
Crankcase : Part of the engine block surrounding the
crankshaft.
Inmanyenginestheoilpanmakesuppartofthe
crankcasehousing.
Exhaust manifold : Piping system which carries
exhaust gases away from the engine cylinders, usually
madeofcastiron.

Intake manifold :Piping system which delivers


incomingairtothecylinders,usuallymadeofcastmetal,
plastic,orcompositematerial.
In most SI engines, fuel is added to the air in the
intakemanifoldsystemeitherbyfuelinjectorsorwith
acarburetor.
The individual pipe to a single cylinder is called
runner.

Carburetor :Adevice which meters the proper amount


offuelintotheairflowbymeansofpressuredifferential.
For many decades it was the basic fuel metering
systemonallautomobile(andother)engines.

Spark plug :
Electrical device used to initiate
combustion in an SI engine by creating high voltage
dischargeacrossanelectrodegap.

I.C. Engine components apart from


components

Exhaust System: Flowsystemforremovingexhaustgases


from the cylinders, treating them, and exhausting them to
thesurroundings.
It consists of an exhaust manifold which carries the
exhaust gases away from the engine, a thermal or
catalytic converter to reduce emissions, a muffler to
reduce engine noise, and a tailpipe to carry the exhaust
gasesawayfromthepassengercompartment.
Flywheel : Rotating mass with a large moment of inertia
connectedtothecrankshaftoftheengine.
The purpose of the flywheel is to store energy and
furnish large angular momentum that keeps the engine
rotating between power strokes and smooth out engine
operation.

Fuel injector : Apressurizednozzlethatspraysfuelinto


the incoming air (SI engines )or into the cylinder (CI
engines).
Fuel pump : Electrically or mechanically driven pump
to supply fuel from the fuel tank (reservoir) to the
engine.
Glow plug : Small electrical resistanceheater mounted
inside the combustion chamber of many CI engines,
usedtopreheatthechamberenoughsothatcombustion
willoccurwhenfirststartingacoldengine.
Theglowplugisturnoffaftertheengineisstarted.
Starter : Several methods are used to start IC engines.
Most are started by use of an electric motor (starter)
geared to the engine flywheel. Energy is supplied from
anelectricbattery.

COOLING SYSTEM
AirCoolingsystem
Watercoolingsystem
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

ThermoSiphonSystem
PumpCirculationSystem
Opencoolingsystem
Naturalcirculation(Thermo-system)
Forcedcirculationsystem
Evaporationcoolingsystem
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LUBRICATION SYSTEM
LiquidLubricantsorWetsumplubrication
system.
(a) Splash system
(b) Semi-pressure system
(c) Full pressure system

SolidLubricantsorDrysumplubrication
system.
Semi-solidLubricantsorMistlubrication
system
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