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EDUP3013

Philosophy &
Education in
Malaysia
Curriculum in Education

Concept of Curriculum

A program which contains


learning activities which had
been arranged by the teacher
to help students achieve T&L
objectives.

HIRST (1975)

Formal & informal content &


process by which learners gain
knowledge & understanding,
develop skills & alter attitudes,
appreciations & values under
the auspices of that school.

DOLL, R. (1996)

Concepts
The planned & guided learning experiences &
intended learning outcomes, formulated through the
systematic reconstruction of experiences, under the
auspices of the school, for the learners continuous
& willful growth in personal & social competence.

The curriculum can be conceived as a


series of planned events (process) that
are intended to have educational
consequences for one or more students.
Dillard & Laidig (1998) - Curriculum must
have pre-selected goals (outcome) to be
achieved; selected content; process &
experiences to facilitate learning; the
extent of responsibility assumed by the
teacher & learner for learning; how &

Cabinet Committee Report, 1979 - All


educational plans run by schools or
educational institutions are aimed at
achieving educational goals. The plan
consists of two aspects: (a) Core of the
curriculum -syllabus & subject matter
content with activities of learning &
teaching, (b) co-curriculum - such as
sports, clubs & uniform units.

9 Guiding Curriculum
Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What should be taught?


To whom should it be taught?
Why should it be taught?
How should it be taught?
When (for how long & in what order)
should it be taught?

6. How

shall we know that learning took


place?
7. What resources will be used (textbooks,
videos, etc)?
8. Under what conditions will the
curriculum be enacted? What groupings
(cooperative, homogenous, individual)
will be used?
9. What aspects of the classroom

Curriculum Goals

Types of Curriculum

Official
Also known as standard curriculum.
Basic guidelines for textbooks writing,
lesson plans preparation, teaching &
learning activities as well as guidelines for
every level of national schooling.

Formal
Formulated based on the objectives of
national education.
Consists of the teaching & learning
content, classroom assessment and the
co-curriculum activities (clubs,
associations, uniformed bodies and all
other outside classroom activities).

Included academic curriculum which is


implemented via teaching curriculum &
operation curriculum.
Usually constructed by highly educated
professionals chaired by the Curriculum
Development Centre in the MOE.
A learning activity plan to achieve the
objectives or purposes of education and
school.

Informal / Hidden /
Latent
The socializing element in education.
Incorporates all non-formal
experiences e.g. inculcating of good
values, adhering to school
regulations.
The elements are latent because they are
not planned. The learning happens

The learner learns about socialising in


groups formulating of behaviour,
attitude, discipline etc.
Lies outside the official organization
context of teaching & learn implicitly.
Consists of the unwritten rules,
conventions, folkways & values of the
culture known as school, such as
politeness, cleanliness & trustworthy.
Shaped by factors like socio-economic

Relationship between
Curriculum & Education
The curriculum encompasses all knowledge
and skills, values and norms, cultural
elements and beliefs that are considered
relevant to the Malaysian society.
The function of the curriculum is to realise the
potentials of the learner (intellectual, physical,
spiritual and social) & towards unity in the

Tutorial 9
Distinguish the 3 types of
curriculum and their
relationship with Malaysian
education respectively.

Factors Influencing
Curriculum Change

Technologic
al
Developmen
t

Culture

Factor
s

Government
Policies

Current
Needs /
Security

Technological
Development
Leverage ICT to scale up quality learning
across Malaysia.
Provide internet access & virtual learning
environment via 1BestariNet for all 10,000
schools.

Augment online best practices


content starting with a video library of
best teachers delivering lessons in
critical subjects.
Maximise use of ICT for distance and
self paced learning to expand
capacity and allow for more
customised learning.

Current Needs / Security


The socialising element in education.
Incorporates all non-formal experiences
e.g. inculcating of good values, adhering
to school regulations.
The elements are latent because they are
not planned. The learning happens
unintentionally through group activities.

Individual needs
- Based on interest & basic skills (3R).
- To enable students to acquire social
skills.
- Able to understand oneself.
- Develop interest & potentials.
- Character development.

Universal needs
- To disseminate knowledge &
training to the
students in
inculcating universal
understanding & cooperation.
- Improve the way of life of the
population.
- Emphasizes on values, sentiment,
knowledge & skills to ensure

Government Policies
1. Preindependence

Ethnocentric.
Individual school system.

2. Post
independence

National integration.
Standardised curriculum (KBSR & KBSM).

3. Current
education

Access, quality, equity, unity & efficiency.


International standard curriculum (KSSR &
KSSM - HOTS).

Government adopts policy to


implement a curriculum.
Goals & priorities of programmes Aims, goals & objectives values hold
for an educational programme.
Content of curriculum - Selection of
content.

Culture
Nation & societal needs.
Acquire basic skills, concepts & techniques
in life from the political, social &
economical point of view.
To fulfill the aspiration of society, ambition
& ideology of the nation.

Roles of Teacher in the


Curriculum
Implementation

Planner
r
e
t
In

r
e
t
e
r
p

Im

pl
em
r en

te

Interpreter
Appreciate and understand FPK and the
aims and objectives of education.
Interpret the syllabus (study the syllabus,
guidelines by CCD/PPK and make the
necessary changes and modifications.
Transfer information, objectives and
domain into t&l.

Planner
Plan all t&l activities based on syllabus.
Preparation of suitable activities taking into account
the learner developmental stage.
Lesson planning:
- annually (syllabus, objectives & titles)
- semester-based (topics, skills, values & strategies
on t&l)
- weekly (forms/standards, topics, skills, values)

Implementer
Selection of suitable strategies, content and
learning experiences.
Taking into account the needs of the learner,
the environment & available resources.
Modify the instructional strategies &
techniques.
Evaluate the t&l process (accuracy, efficiency
& usefulness of ideas, methods, materials &

Tutorial 10
Discuss the teachers roles in
implementing curriculum
successfully.