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Experimentation

Data Analysis and Graphs

EXPERIMENTATION
KEY ELEMENTS

Description and size of all experimental


and control groups, as applicable.

A step-by-step list of everything you must


do to perform your experiment. Think about all
the steps that you need to go through to
complete your experiment and record exactly
what will need to be done in each step.

EXPERIMENTATION
KEY ELEMENTS

The experimental procedure must tell how


you will change your independent
variable and how you will measure that
change.

The experimental procedure must explain


how you will measure the resulting
change in the dependent variable or
variables.

EXPERIMENTATION
KEY ELEMENTS
If applicable, the
experimental procedure
should explain how the
controlled variables will be
maintained at a constant
value.
The experimental procedure
should specify how many
times you intend to repeat
your experiment, so that
you can verify that your
results are reproducible.

good experimental
procedure enables
someone else to
duplicate your
experiment exactly
(easy to follow).

CHECKLIST

MATERIALS LIST

PREPARATIONS (EXPERIMENTATION)
Know

what to do
Get a laboratory
notebook
Be prepared
Think ahead about
safety

TYPES OF DATA
Data are information collected in an experiment
QUANTITATIVE

Collected using a standard measuring


instrument.

Scientist use the Metric System, so


quantitative data have units attached to
them.

It may also be collected by counting.

QUALITATIVE

simple observations or evaluations


are made (colors in leaves; greenhealthy, brown dead or dying)

Do this...

Enumerate Qualitative and Quantitative on


the following
QUANTITATIVE

QUALITATIVE

DATA ANALYSIS AND GRAPHS

Review your data. Try


to look at the results
of the experiment
with a critical eye.
Take some time to
carefully review all of
the data you have
collected from your
experiment.
Use charts and
graphs to help you
analyze the data and
patterns.

DATA ANALYSIS AND GRAPHS

Make sure to clearly label all tables and


graphs

Make sure to include the units of


measurement (volts, inches, grams etc.)

Place your independent variable on the


x-axis of your graph and the dependent
variable on the Y-axis.

GRAPHS
Bar Graph

Might be appropriate for comparing


different trials or different
experimental groups. It also maybe a
good choice if the independent variable is
not numerical.

Might be the proper graph if you are


trying to show how two variables
may be related to one another.

Bar Graph

GRAPHS
Time-series plot

It can be used if the dependent


variable is numerical and your
independent variable is time.

XY-line graph shows the


relationship between the DV and
IV when both are numerical and the DV
is a function of the IV.

XY-line graph

STATISTICS IN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH


Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Refers to the methods of data collection,

organization, classification, summarization, and


presentation.

Refers to the process of


arriving at a conclusion
It includes the procedures for constructing
about a population based
graphs, tables, and charts.
on the information obtained
It also refers to the calculation of statistical
from a sample
descriptions such as the measures of central
tendency and the measures of variability
Parameter: number that
describes a characteristic of
a population
Statistic: number that
describes a characteristic of
a sample.
STATISTICS deals with experimental designs and
procedures which include data collection,
classification, organization and interpretation, and
decision making regarding the data.

DRAWING A CONCLUSION
It

is a statement
where we present the
solution to the
proposed problem
based on the findings of
the investigation.
It summarizes how the
results support or
contradict the original
hypothesis

Remember: recommendations are based


on conclusion; and conclusions are based
on findings.

DRAWING A CONCLUSION
SOME QUESTIONS/GUIDELINES
IN MAKING CONCLUSION

Identify purpose of the research

Know the findings of the investigation

Determine if the hypothesis is supported or not


by the data

Give the importance of the experimental


results

Give some recommendations for further study


and for improving the experiment can be made