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Ethical Climate, Job Satisfaction and Employees

Organizational Commitment in Hospitality Industry

Statement of the Problem

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.) How may the Socio Demographic


Profile of the manager/supervisor be
described
in
terms
of:
Age

Gender
Civil Status
Educational Attainment
Position/Designation
Number of years in the company
Monthly Income

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

2.)

How may the Socio Demographic


Profile of the rank and file employees
be described in terms of:

Age
Gender
Civil Status
Educational Attainment
Position/Designation
Number of years in the company
Monthly Income

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

3.)

How may the establishments


ethical climate be described in terms of:

Personal morality;
Social responsibility;
rules and standard operating
procedures; and
laws and professional codes?

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

4.) How may the employees job

satisfaction be described in
terms of:
Business philosophy and
objectives;
work aspect;
salary;
promotion and advancement;
supervision and management;
and
co-workers?

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

5.) How may the employees


organizational commitment be
described in terms of:

Affective Commitment;
Continuance
Commitment; and
Normative
Commitment?

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

6.) Is there a significant relationship


between: Socio demographic profile,
ethical climate, job
satisfaction and
organizational
commitment
Ethical Climate, job
satisfaction and
organizational
commitment;
Job satisfaction and
organizational
commitment;

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

7.) Is there a significant

difference
between the
assessment of the respondents
on ethical, job satisfaction and
organizational commitment

Scope and Delimitation

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

The study focused on full service


hotel and restaurant in Nueva Ecija.
Respondents were composed of
manager/supervisor and rank and
file employees

Conceptual Framework

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

Research Methodology

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

Descriptive correlational method

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Locale
This study were conducted in selected towns in
the province of Nueva Ecija:
Cabanatuan
San Jose City
Gapan City

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The Respondents

Regular Employees of Hotel and


Restaurant (at least 6 months
tenure)
Manager/Supervisor
Rank and File employee

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Sampling Procedure
The researcher used purposive sampling for
hotel and restaurants establishment:
-

at least five (5) years in operation


have at least five (5) minimum regular
employees.

For hotel and restaurants employees:


-

At least (6) months in the establishment

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Instrument
Item checklist questionnaire (Likert)
Socio Demographic profile of the
respondents
Ethical Climate Scale
Job Satisfaction scale
Organizational commitment

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Statistical Treatment of Data

a. Frequency Distribution
- This was used to enlist observation
of the variables in a systematic way
of using categories information.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Statistical Treatment of Data

b. Percentage
- This was used to get the proposition
of the whole.
Percentage (%) =

Frequency
No. of Population

100

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Statistical Treatment of Data

c. Weighted Mean
- It is derived from dividing the total
weighted score by the total frequency.
WM =

TWF
N

(WM weighted mean); (TWF total products of weight and


their respective frequencies); (N number of population)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Statistical
Treatment
of Data
n
= number
of pairs of score
xy = sum of the products of paired scores
xd. Pearson
= sum of (x)Product
scores Moment Correlation
y - = or
sum
of (y) scorescoefficient for short is a
correlation
x2 = measure
sum of squared
(x) degree
scores of linear
of the
y 2 = sum of squared (y) scores
relationship between two variables.
r=

n (xy) (x) (y)


[nx2 (x) 2] [y2 (y)
2
]

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Statistical Treatment of Data

e. T-Test
- a statistical examination of two
population means.

t=

x1 x2

s12
n1

s22
n2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Statistical Treatment of Data

f. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)


- is a statistical method used to test
differences between two or more means.

F=

MST
MSE

(F = ANOVA Coefficient); (MST = mean sum of squares due


to treatment); (MSE = mean sum of squares due to error)

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND


INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Findings

Socio-Demographic Profile of the


Manager/Supervisor
Respondents
Age

19 - 26
27 - 34
35 - 42
43 - 50
Total
Gender
Male
Female
Total
Civil Status
Single
Married
Total
Highest Educational
Attainment

9
16
25
14
11
25
13
6
6
25

%
52.00
24.00
24.00
100.00
%

Hotel
Restaurant

10
15

40.00
60.00

Total

25

100.00

Bachelor's degree
Associate degree
High School Graduate
Total
Type of Establishment

11
7
3
4
25

%
44.00
28.00
12.00
16.00
100.00
%
36.00
64.00
100.00
%
56.00
44.00
100.00

Present Position in the


Organization
Manager/Supervisor:
Branch Supervisor
Supervisor
Manager

Restaurant Coordinator

Purchaser
Auditor
Chief Cook

Head, Food and Beverages

Not Indicated
Total
Monthly Salary
3000 - 5500
5501 - 8000

8001 - 10500
10501 - 13000
13001 - 15000
No data given
Total
Number of Years in the
Company

less than 1 year


1 - 5 years
6 - 11 years
12 - 17 years
18 - 23 years
Total

3
4
4
3
2
2
2
2
3
25
1
5

12.00
16.00
16.00
12.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
12.00
100.00
%
4.00
20.00

6
4
2
7
25

24.00
16.00
8.00
28.00
100.00

1
20
2
1
1
25

%
4.00
80.00
8.00
4.00
4.00
100.00

Findings

Socio-demographic Profile of the


Rank and File respondents

Findings

Ethical Climate as Assessed by


both Sets of Respondents
Manager
/
Supervis
or
(N = 25)
WM
2.85
3.37
3.42
3.16
3.20

ETHICAL CLIMATE

Personal Morality
Social Responsibility
Rules And Standard Operating Procedures
Laws, Professional Codes
OWM

Legend:

3.25
2.50
1.75
1.00

4.00
3.24
2.49
1.74

VI
A
SA
SA
A
A

Rank
and
File
(N =
77)
WM
2.88
3.36
3.41
3.21
3.23

VI
A
SA
SA
A
A

Strongly Agree (SA)


Agree (A)
Disagree (D)
Strongly Disagree (SD)

Findings

Employees Job Satisfaction as


Assessed by both Sets of
Respondents
J OB SATISFACTION

Manager/
Supervisor
(N = 25)
WM

3.16
3.25
3.11
3.08
3.11
2.83
3.09

Philosophy And Objectives


Work Aspect
Salary
Promotion And Advancement
Supervision And Management
Co-Workers
OWM

Legend:

3.25
2.50
1.75
1.00

4.00
3.24
2.49
1.74

VI

Rank
and File
(N = 77)
WM

VI

A
SA
A
A
A
A
A

3.26
3.35
3.04
3.08
3.06
3.03
3.14

SA
SA
A
A
A
A
A

Strongly Agree (SA)


Agree (A)
Disagree (D)
Strongly Disagree (SD)

Findings

Employees Organizational
Commitment as Assessed by
both Sets of Respondents
Manager/
Supervisor
(N = 25)
WM

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

Affective Commitment
Continuance Commitment
Normative Commitment
OWM

Legend:

2.96
2.49
3.01
2.85

3.25
2.50
1.75
1.00

4.00
3.24
2.49
1.74

VI

Rank
and File
(N =77)
WM

VI

A
A
A
A

2.87
2.46
3.05
2.83

A
A
A
A

Strongly Agree (SA)


Agree (A)
Disagree (D)
Strongly Disagree (SD)

Findings

Relationship between Socio


Demographic Profile, Ethical Climate,
Job Satisfaction and Organization
Commitment
Ethical
Climate
Variables

Job
Satisfaction

Organizational
Commitment

(r value)

VI

(r value)

VI

0.021

NS

0.131

NS

0.213*

-0.145

NS

-0.020

NS

-0.067

NS

0.077

NS

0.212*

0.170

NS

-0.066

NS

0.100

NS

0.086

NS

Type of Establishment
Present Position in the
Organization

0.125

NS

0.327**

0.125

NS

0.038

NS

0.057

NS

-0.024

NS

Monthly Salary
Number of Years in the
Organization

-0.022

NS

0.153

NS

0.226*

0.118

NS

0.229*

0.211*

Age
Gender
Civil Status
Highest Educational Attainment

(r value)

VI

*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)


** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2tailed)

Findings
Relationship
between Ethical
Climate, Job Satisfaction and
Organizational commitment as
Perceived by Both Sets Respondents
Variable

Ethical Climate

Job Satisfaction

Organizational
Climate

(r value)

(r value)

0.569**

VI
S

0.421**

VI
S

*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)


** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-taile

Findings

Significant relationship between Job


Satisfaction and Organizational
Commitment
Variable
Job Satisfaction

Organizational Climate
(r value)

VI

0.506**

*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)


** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-taile

Findings
Difference between the assessment on Ethical Climate, Job
Satisfaction and Organization Commitment as perceived by
both sets of respondents.

Summary, Conclusions and


Recommendations

Conclusions
1. Majority of the manager/supervisor-respondents belonged to early
adulthood, dominated by female, single, degree holder with
monthly basic salary range of 10,501-13000 and working in the
company for 1-5 years.
2. Majority of the rank and file employees also belonged to early
adulthood dominated by female, single, degree holder with monthly
basic salary range of 10,501-13000 and working in the company for 1-5
years
3. Both set of respondents positively perceived their establishment
as ethical. This only implies that hospitality organizations in Nueva
Ecija create organizational principles or standards to ensure all
employees in the business act according to predetermined standards.
4. Both set of respondents exhibit satisfaction on their jobs. The result
implies that both set of respondents were happy, contented and fulfilling
their desires and needs at work. Predominantly, both set of respondents
were highly satisfied on the work aspect and the business philosophy.

Conclusions
5. Both the set of respondents exhibits commitment toward their respective organization.
Normative commitment got the highest average weighted mean from both managers and
rank and file employees. This means that both set of respondents commit to and remain
with an organization because of the feeling or sense of obligation.
.

6. Results reveal that there were no significant correlations between the sociodemographic profile of the respondents and the ethical climate of the organization. Civil
status, type of establishment and the number of years in the organization is significantly
related to job satisfaction. Further, age, monthly salary and number of years in the
organization is significantly related organizational commitment.

7. Results reveal that ethical climate is significantly related to job satisfaction


and organizational commitment. The data showed that the more hotel
employees perceived their organizations climate as ethical, the higher their
job satisfaction was, and so the higher their organizational commitment was.

8. Results reveal that job satisfaction is significantly related to


organizational commitment. The correlation coefficients for these
variables were significant. Result has revealed that job satisfaction
tend to influence organizational commitment. What this finding
suggests is that people who are relatively satisfied with their jobs will
be somewhat more committed to the organization.

Conclusions

10. The result implies that there was no significant


difference between the assessment of both set of
respondents on ethical climate. Correspondingly, as to job
satisfaction, there was also no significant difference on the
assessment of both set of respondents except on the items
philosophy and objectives, work aspect and co-workers.
Furthermore, the result also reveals that there was no
significant difference between the assessment of both sets
of respondents and organizational commitment except on
the item affective commitment or the emotional
attachment to the organization.

Recommendations
1. Hospitality employers must take an effort to maintain
responsible management that realizes the importance of
keeping hotel employees satisfied and committed to
organization.
2. Hospitality employers must be encouraged to attend as well
as provide employees a business-related seminars and
classes covering the topics of ethics to be more open and
understanding about business ethics in their working
environment
3. Hospitality employers should provide fair salary, rewards,
incentives and benefits to the employees.
4. Employers and Managers should realize that research studies
like this are intended to assist hotels in order to solve
managerial problems and provide effective solutions so they
can become more respected and profitable organizations.
5. Further studies should be conducted to determine and
explain why there is so much reluctance on behalf of hotel
managers and employees to deal with the issue of business