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Lecture 1 Power Quality

INTRODUCTION TO POWER QUALITY Power Quality phenomenon-Terms and


definitions-Various Power events in power quality - causes for reduction in power
quality.
VOLTAGE SAGS
Sources of sags - Magnitude & duration of sag-effect of sag on computer and
consumer Electronics- Monitoring and mitigation of voltage sag.
INTERRUPTIONS
Origin of Long & Short interruption -influence on various equipments-Basic
reliability indices related interruption monitoring and mitigation of interruption .
HARMONICS
Harmonic distortion: Voltage and current distortion- harmonic indices- harmonic
sources from commercial and industrial loads- Effects of harmonics on various
equipments- harmonic distortion evaluation- Devices for controlling harmonic
distortion.
POWER QUALITY MONITORING
Monitoring considerations: Power line disturbance analyzer, power quality
measurement equipment, harmonic / spectrum analyzer, flicker meters,
disturbance analyzer.

Indian Power Sector


Overview
A Prelude to course on
Power quality

Power : The Building Block of


Economy
Electricity- the most imp.
Infrastructural input in the dev. &
growth of economy.
Consumption of electricity- imp. Index
of advancement of the country &
standard of living.
Economic growth rate of 8-9% on a
sustained basis is necessary for us to
catch up with the rest of the world.

POWER SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Generation
Dhuvaran

Primary Transmission(132/220/400/765KV)
Karamsad
CB

Power Plant

Xmer
CB
Sending end (11/220kV)
SS
Commercial/
Industrial
Customer

Bus-bar

220 kV

Steel Tower

Primary Grid
(220/66 kV)

Bus-bar

66 kV
Transmission

GCET

Secondary Transmission(66/132KV)

Distribution Transformer
Primary
(11/0.415 kV)

Urban
Customers

Distribution

V V Nagar

Secondary Grid

Secondary Distribution

(66/11 kV)

Distribution
Pole

Underground Cable

To Other
Residential
Customer

Residential
Customer

66Kv

Substations

An Analogy Power System vs Human


Body

RLDC::Brain

Generation ::
Heart
USER

Sub-Transmission :: Sub-Arteries

Distribution ::
Capillaries

Transmission :: Main Arteries

The Generation
Human Body
Blood Pressure
Heart Beat
The Pulse 72 Beats/Minutes
Cause
Stress/Anxiety
Risk
Heart Beat Deviation

Power System
Voltage
Frequency
50 Cycles/Seconds
Load-Gen.-Mismatch
Frequency Deviation

GENERATION
Thermal Power
Plant
Hydro Power Plant
Nuclear Power
Plant
Diesel Power Plant
Gas Power Plant
Combine Cycle
plant

Solar
Tidal
Wind
Geothermal
Bio-mass
Fuel cells

Energy Resource Map Of India


Hydro

Hydro potential in North


east and upper part of
Northern Region
Coal reserves
Eastern Region

Coal

mainly

in

Distribution of energy
resources and consumption
centres are extremely
unbalanced
Necessitate power transfer
over long distances

Development of the Electricity


Industry in the last 50 yrs.
The industry has mainly developed through
State controlled instruments.
Until
1975

dev.
mainly
through
SEBs/electricity deptts. controlled by the
respective state govts.
1975 The Electricity (supply) Act was
amended. Intervention of the central govt in
development of generation facilities led to
the formation of NTPC, NHPC
Effect of this intervention started being felt
in early 80s.

INDIAN POWER
SCENARIO

10

MAJOR REASONS FOR POWER


SECTOR ILLS
Inadequate power generation capacity;
Lack of optimum utilization of the
existing generation capacity;
Inefficient use of electricity by the end
consumer;
Inadequate inter-regional transmission
links;
Huge T&D losses (theft) and skewed
tariff structure, making SEBs unviable.

POWER QUALITY
Definition
Power quality refers to maintaining a
sinusoidal waveform of bus voltages at
rated voltage and frequency. The waveform
of electric power at
generation stage is purely sinusoidal and
free from any distortion.
A Utility may define power quality as
reliability and show statistics demonstrating
that its system is 99.98 percent reliable.

A manufacturer of load equipment may


define power quality as those
characteristics of the power supply that
enable the equipment to work properly.
These characteristics can be very different
for different criteria.
Any power problem manifested in voltage,
current, or frequency deviations that result
in failure or misoperation of customer
equipment