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CHAPTER 6

WATER PUMP

INTRODUCTION
Water pump

A pump is a device used to


move fluids, such as gases,
liquids or slurries.

A pump displaces a
volume by

a. physical action; or
b. mechanical action.

INTRODUCTION
Types of pump

One common
misconcept
ion about
pumps is the
thought that
they create
pressure.

Pumps alone do not create


pressure; they only displace
fluid, causing a flow.

Adding resistance to flow

causes pressure

Pumps fall into two major groups:


a. positive displacement
pumps (hydro static
pump) ; and
b. Rotor dynamic pumps
(hydro dynamic pump).
Their names describe the method for
moving a fluid

POSITIVE
DISPLACEMENT
PUMPS
Types of pump

A positive displacement pump


causes a fluid to move by trapping a
fixed amount of it then forcing
(displacing) that trapped volume
into the discharge pipe.

ROTOR DYNAMIC
PUMPS
Types of pump

A rotor dynamic pump


is a type of pump in which the dynamic
motion of a fluid is increased
by pump action

rotor dynamic
pumps

Examples of

include adding kinetic


energy to a fluid by using a
centrifugal pump
to increase fluid velocity or
pressure

SPECIFICATION
of pump

Pumps are commonly rated by


i. horsepower
ii. flow rate
iii. outlet pressure in feet of head
iv. inlet suction in suction feet of
head
Head is the height of a column of water,
the pump can raise or lower at

DIFFERENTIAL
Rotor static & rotor dynamic
pump

i.

Hydrodynamic pumps produce a


constant and uniform flow while the
fluid flow will be reduced when the
circuit resistance is increased.

Among these types of pumps are


radial and axial type pump.

ii. Hydrostatic pumps works by


shifting the predetermined
quantity of fluid in each round of
the pump shaft as output.
These pumps are classified
according to whether the internal
motion of rotation or
reciprocation.

PUMPS SELECTION
factor

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Noise levels.
Maintenance methods.
The loss of power.
The required flow rate.
Load to be supplied.
Operating speed.

Type of service required


continuous or intermittent.
viii. Types of liquids to be handled
dirty, viscous, corrosive, etc.
ix. Heads required to be overcome.
vii.

vii.

Discharge conditions such as

static head

friction head

required discharge pressure

Pipe size (diameter), and


length of pipe.

PUMP TERMS
Water pump

Priming (Penyebuan)
i. Pressure in the centrifugal pump
impeller directly proportional to the
density of water in the impeller.
ii.

If only the air is present when the


impeller spins, the partial vacuum
that occurred is not sufficient to
suck water in through the suction
pipe, thus priming process needs
to be done.

Penyebuan (priming)
iii.

Priming is done by adding water in


the space between pump housing and
impeller to create a 'seal' between
blades and the housing and hence
water can be sucked into the eye of
the pump.

Penyebuan (priming)
iv.

With this' seal ', a partial vacuum


will be created and help suck more
water. This can increase the efficiency
of the pump and allow the pump to
operate properly.

Air Chamber (Kebuk udara)


i.

ii.

It is a cast iron cavity with an opening


below where the water flows into or out
of the cavity
Air chamber is filled with compressed
air. Air chamber is installed in the
suction pipe and delivery pipe near the
pump cylinder.

Air Chamber (Kebuk udara)


The main purpose of installing air
chamber is to get a uniform discharge or
release of water from reciprocating
pump.

Air Chamber installed on the suction pipe and the


delivery pipe near the pump in the pump cylinder
reciprocal

WATER PUMP
CALCULATIONS

PUMP HEAD.
a. Untuk menggerakkan cecair daripada

satu lokasi ke lokasi yang lain, pam


mestilah mengatasi banyak daya-daya.
b. Daya-daya ini boleh dipecahkan kepada
empat komponen;

turus
turus
turus
turus

statik
geseran
tekanan
halaju

STATIC HEAD
i.

ii.

Turus statik ialah tenaga yang


diperlukan untuk menggerakkan
cecair dari satu ketinggian ke
tinggian yang lain.
Contoh turus statik seperti
sedutan angkat statik.
turus sedutan statik.
turus singkiran statik.
turus statik total

FRICTION HEAD (HF)


Turus geseran mengambil kira
rintangan dalam saluran paip yang
disebabkan oleh rekabentuk paip,
sambungan paip dan injap yang
dipasang.

VELOCITY HEAD (HV)


Turus halaju adalah tenaga cecair di
mana terdapat perubahan pada
kadar alir.

TURUS TEKANAN (HP)


Turus tekanan wujud jika tangki
bekalan atau tangki singkiran
diberi tekanan atau berada dalam
keadaan hampagas.

TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD


Merupakan kesemua jumlah daya-daya bagi
menunjukkan berapa besarkah kerja yang
perlu dilakukan oleh pam. Ia diperlukan
untuk melakukan pemilihan pam.

POWER CALCULATION
Examples

Kes 1
Sebuah pam empar digunakan untuk
menghantar air pada kadar 800 liter/minit
daripada sebuah kolam yang berada 9 meter
dibawah paras tanah. Hujung sedutan terdiri
daripada injap kaki, turas, sesiku 90, dan 11
meter paip lurus. Hujung penghantaran terdiri
daripada injap bebola, dua sesiku 90 dan 3
meter paip lurus. Semua saiz paip
dan
sambungan berdiameter 127mm
Tentukan kuasa yang diperlukan oleh motor
jika kecekapan keseluruhan pam adalah 85%.
Dengan mengambil pekali geseran untuk paip
sebagai 0.012, pekali kehilangan untuk sesiku
90 ialah 0.9, injap bebola bersamaan 10,
injap kaki bersamaan 2.5 dan turas 0.6

Sebuah pam empar digunakan untuk


menghantar air pada kadar 500 liter/minit
daripada sebuah kolam 10 meter dibawah
paras tanah seperti yang ditunjukkan.
Bahagian sedutan mempunyai injap kaki,
turas, sesiku 90, dan 12 meter paip lurus.
Bahagian penghantaran mempunyai injap
bebola, dua sesiku 90 dan 4 meter paip
lurus. Semua saiz paip dan sambungan
berdiameter 75mm.
Tentukan kuasa yang diperlukan oleh
motor jika kecekapan keseluruhan pam
adalah 85%. Dengan mengambil pekali
geseran untuk paip sebagai 0.012, pekali
kehilangan untuk sesiku 90 ialah 0.9,
injap bebola bersamaan 10, injap kaki

Kes 3
A pump used for a power plant system has
10cm3/rev displacement is driven by a shaft at
speed 0f 1000rev/min. It is subjected to a maximum
pressure 125 bar. The volumetric efficiency is 0.7
and total efficiency for this system is 0.6.
Calculate
i.The pump flow rate
ii.The intake power of the pump
iii.The torque efficiency
iv.The torsion force in pump shaft