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Breast Cancer

Dr. Anuradha Rahul Deshmukh


MBBS,DNB,DGO
Specialist Obstetrics and Gynecology

Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the


cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of
cancer cells that can grow into (invade) surrounding
tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of
the body.

Breast cancer is the top cancer in women worldwide


and is increasing particularly in developing countries
where the majority of cases are diagnosed in late
stages.

Facts about Breast Cancer


1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their life
time.
Every 1.7 minutes a women diagnosed with breast cancer
worldwide.
there are about 2.6 million female survivors of breast cancer in
the world.
27% survival rate in advanced stage.
98% survival rate in early detection.
25% of women with breast cancer are less than 50 years old.
About 2 to 4 of every 1000 mammograms leads to diagnosis of
breast cancer.
70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have no identifiable
risk factor for the disease.

Risk Factors (Controllable)


More than 1 alcoholic drink a day
Obesity after menopause
Weight gain as an adult
Recent use of oral contraceptives
Never having children
1st child after age 30
Current/recent use of HRT

Uncontrollable
Being a woman
Getting older
Family History
Biopsy (Pre-Cancerous Condition)
1st period before age 12
Menopause after 55
Positive testing for breast cancer gene (BRCA1 & BRCA2)

Warning Signs of Breast Cancer

Common Causes of Nipple


Discharges
Colour
Probable diagnosis
Milky

Physiologic
Pregnancy
Oral Contraceptives
Galactorrhoea

Bloody
Sanguineous

Intraductal Papilloma
Intraductal
Malignancy
ductal Ectasia
Fibrocystic disease

Clear
Watery

Ductal Cancer

Green,Yellow

Ductal Ectasia

Purulent

Infective

Serous or sticky

Fibrocystic disease

Diagnostic Techniques

Mammography

Ultrasonography

Magnetic Resonance
Imaging (MRI)

Blood Chemistry Studies

Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy

Open Biopsy

Treatment

Surgery

Radiation Therapy

Chemotherapy

Targeted Therapy

Early detection offers the best chance for a cure. Women of age 35
or older should have mammogram once a year if they are at risk.

Avoid becoming overweight. Obesity raises the risk of


breast cancer after menopause, the time of life when
breast cancer most often occurs. Avoid gaining weight over
time, and try to maintain a body-mass index under 25

Eat healthy to avoid tipping the scale. Embrace a diet high in


vegetables and fruit and low in sugared drinks, refined
carbohydrates and fatty foods. Eat lean protein such as fish or
chicken breast and eat red meat in moderation, if at all. Eat
whole grains. Choose vegetable oils over animal fats.

Keep physically active. Research suggests that increased


physical activity, even when begun later in life, reduces overall
breast-cancer risk by about 10 percent to 30 percent. All it
takes is moderate exercise like a 30-minute walk five days a
week to get this protective effect.

Drink little or no alcohol. Alcohol use is associated with an


increased risk of breast cancer. Women should limit intake to no
more than one drink per day, regardless of the type of alcohol.

Breast Self Examination

Stand before a mirror and look at both breasts.


Check for anything unusual,
such as nipple retraction, redness, puckering,
dimpling, or scaling of the skin. Look
for nipple discharge. Some discharge
can be normal, due to hormones or
medication. However, all discharge
should be reported to your doctor.
Note the color of the discharge,
whether it came from both breasts
and whether it came from one or more openings.

Next, press your hands firmly on your hips and


lean slightly toward your mirror
as you pull your shoulders and
elbows forward with a squeezing
or hugging motion. Look for any
change in the normal shape of
your breasts. Now, bend forward
at the waist, hold your head up
and look in the mirror. You may
notice that one breast is larger
than the other and this is normal.

Looking in the mirror, raise your arms


and rest
your hands behind your head.
This allows you to see the underside of
your breasts.

Place your left hand on your


waist, roll your shoulder forward
and reach into your underarm area
and check for enlarged lymph nodes
(small glands that fill with fluid when
you have an infection). An enlarged
node would feel like a corn kernel or a
bean. Also check the area above and
below the collar bone. Repeat on the
right side.

Raise your left arm. Use the pads


of three or four fingers of your right
hand to examine your left breast. Use
three levels of pressure (light, medium,
and firm) while moving in a circular
motion. Check your breast area using a set
pattern. You can choose (1) lines, (2) circles
or (3) wedges.

1. Lines
Beginning at the outer edge of your breast
move your fingers downward using a circular
motion until they are below the breast. Then
move your fingers slightly toward the middle
and slowly move back up. Go up and down
until you go over the entire breast area.

2. Circles
Beginning at the outer edge of your breast
use the flat part of your fingers, moving in
circles slowly around the breast. Gradually
make smaller and smaller circles toward the
nipple. Be sure to cover the entire breast
and check behind the nipple.

3. Wedges
Starting at the outer edge of the breast,
move your fingers toward the nipple and
back to the edge. Check your entire
breast, covering one wedge-shaped area
at a time.

Lie flat on your back, left arm over your head and a
pillow or folded towel under your left shoulder. This
position flattens the breast and makes it easier to
examine.

Thank You!
Dr. Anuradha Rahul Deshmukh
MBBS, DNB, DGO
Specialist Obstetrics & Gynecologist
For appointments: www.asterclinic.ae
For more information call : 04 4 400 500
Aster Clinic, Al Muhaisnah,
Behind Madina Mall, Muhaisnah -4,
Near Russian International School