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. ..

M. Motornov, Yu. Roiter, I. Tokarev, S. Minko, Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles, nanogels and capsules
for integrated multifunctional intelligent systems, // Progress in Polymer Science, 2010, Vol. 35, pp. 174
211

(, , ,
, ..)
(,
, )
106 109 ...
(, ,
, ), 103 109 ...
-
, (-,
, , ,
)
100 350 ...
-
( , ,
) 50 250 ...

(H2O, CO2, NH3, O2), 18
64 ...

-TTT GGG-CGG-CAC AAT CTT CCA AAT -


-AAA UUU-GCC-GUG UUA GAA GGU UUA -


- Lys - Phe Ala Val Leu Glu Gly Leu -

1... . : , 2003.
2. .. . , .: , 1981.
3. .. . : , 2013.
4. . .. . - , : , 2007
5. .. , .. , , : ,
2007



+ + // http://www.chem.msu.ru/rus/teaching/vms.html

//
http://www.vmsmsu.ru/what.html
// http://www. pslc.ws/russian/index.htm

, ,
1000

(-CH2-CH2-)n
, ,
(
), ,
,

CH2=CH
COOH

...-[CH2-CH]-[CH2-CH]- [CH2-CH]- [CH2-CH]-...


COOH

COOH

COOH

COOH

-[CH2-CH]pCOOH


-
(Ser)

(Glu)

(Ala)

+ HOOC-CH-NH2

+ HOOC-CH-NH2

CH2OH

HOOC-CH-NH2 +

CH3

CH2CH2COOH

- pH2O

- -

...-OC-CH-NH-OC-CH-NH- OC-CH-NH-...
CH2OH

CH3

CH2CH2COOH

-Ser-Ala-Glu-


()

()

--

d
L

d.


,
d,
L = P x d
(P ).
L/d ~ P 102.
( L/d ~ 1). ,
.

-


,

:
1 ( );
2 (
)



1 -
()

Mn fn( i )M i
i

Ni

Ni

Mi

MiNi

fn( i )

Ni
i

Ni

Ni
i

fn(i)
(i-)

( )

M n f w ( i )M i
i

NiMi

NiM i
i

MZ

N i M i3
i

N i M i2
i

Mi

NiM
i

2
i

NiMi
i

fw(i)

NiMi
NiMi
i

fw(i)
(i-)

Z- (
) ,

Mn

< Mw

Mw

Kd
1 2 1
Mn
Mn
Mw
Kd
Mn

Mn

= Mw

fn ( i ) (M i M n )2
i 1

Kd 1 ;

;
d (..
)

,

100 1000.

:
Mn
Pn
M0
Mw
Pw
M0

M n 550 M w 918 K d 1.67


,
0

M w Pw
Kd

M n Pn
,
0

3 -

fn (M )

M Mi

Fn (M )

M i M i dM

lim Fn ( M ) 1

fn (M )dM 1

Fn (M ) fn (M )dM
0

fn (M )MdM Mn

Kd

n (M )

Fn (M )

2
1 2.
(>, <, =, )
,
.
fw (M)

:
1

M w (1) M w ( 2)
K d ( 2) K d (1)

M n (1) M n ( 2)
M


,


1.
2. :
-, -, -,

3. - : - -
4. : -, -


- -
-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-

2 CH2=CH2

-CH2-CH-CH2-CH- " - "

1 - ""
2
1
2 CH2=CH
2 - ""

-CH2-CH-CH-CH2-

X = CH3, Cl, Ph, ..

" - "
" - "



1,4

1
2 3 4
2CH2=CH-CH=CH2

1,4

1
2
3 4
1
2
3 4
-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-

1
2 3 4
2CH2=CH-CH=CH2
1
1,2

2 CH2=CH

1,2

1
2 1
2
- CH2-CH- CH2-CH-

3 CH

3 CH

3 CH

4 CH2

4 CH2

4 CH2

- -

1
CH2
C

4
CH2
C

1
CH2

120o
H

2
C

4
CH2

C
120o

-1,4-

( = -106)

1
CH2
C
H

H
C

120o
4

CH2

H
1
CH2

2
C

4
CH2

C
120o

-1,4-

( = +80)


3. - -
CH2

CH2

CH CH

CH2

CH CH

CH2

CH2

CH CH

CH2

CH2

CH CH
CH2

- 1,4-

- 1,4-

2
3

C
1

(L) (-)

H
4
3 C
X

C
4

(D) (+)

2 CH - P
2
2
1

CH2 - P1

- -

X H
C

C
H2

X
Y

C
H2

H
C

C
H2

C
H2

X
C

C
H2

C
H2

1 - ,

2 - ,

llllllllll
dddddd

3 - ,

- -

X

H H
C

X
C

C
H2

X
C
C
H2

H
C
C
H2

X
C
C
H2

C
C
H2

H
C

C
H2

1 - ,
X

2 - ,
ldldldldldldldldldl

H H
C

C
H2

C
H2

X
C
C
H2

X
C
C
H2

C
C
H2

H
C

C
H2

1 - ,
X

2 - ,
ldlldddlddllldlddlldl


- ( = 40); - ( = 160);
- ( = 110).
-

CH3
CH2

H CH3

H CH3

CH
H H

O
H H
OH

CH2OH
H
O

CH2OH
O

H
OH

OH

H
O

C O
C
H N
CH3
C O H

CH2OH
O

H
OH

OH

H
O

-1,4-, d- ()

O
H
OH

OH

CH3
H N
H
C O
H2N

C
H

CH3
-l-

:
1
CH2
1

1
CH2

2
C

,4

3
4
CH CH2

CH3

,4

1
4
2 3
C CH CH2 CH2

2
3
4
C CH CH2

CH3

CH3

-,

4
CH2

3
4
CH CH2

3
CH

H2C

CH3

CH3

,2

CH2

-,
-,
-, -

CH3

CH3

CH2

C CH2

H2C

CH

CH CH2


,



- ,
.

H2O
l(O-H) = 0.99 A ,
H-O-H = 105.4o

CH4
l(C-H) = 1.54 A,
H-C-H = 109.5o

C6H6
l(C-H) = 1.09 A ,
l(C-C) = 1.39 A,
H-C-H = C-C-C =
120o.


CnH2n+2, n >> 1
1

11

13

10

12

14

18
17

16

14

18

6
12

10

13

11

17
10

11
15

16

14

12

10

18
17

18

16
7

14

11

15
4

8
13

13

11

16

12

14

13

15
17

7
5

18

16

15

17

15

125

10

6
9

..

(
)

(
)

(
)

(
)

(
)

( )

h 0

h
0

2
h

1/ 2

2 1/ 2

r1
rn
r2

ri

r3

R g2

1 n 2
ri
n i 1
Rg2

h2
6

n = 2P 1 2P

n - , l

L (

2 1/ 2

l n

s n~ P ~ M

-
l

L l nl

i 1

L
h

2 1/ 2

nl
l

n
S ; ,
l n

W(h )dV

3
2
2nl

3
3 h2
2
2
e 2 nl dxdydz

3
W(h )dV 4h
2
2nl

R g2

(r ) n

3
3 r2
2
2 R g2

2 bh 2

~ Ah e

2
2
2
hmax
nl 2 h 2
3
3

2 h

3
3 h2

2
2
e 2 nl dh

(r )

3
3 h2
2
2 h2

dxdydz

dh

1 cos
1 cos

/2
l

X
L

l n

2 1/ 2

L nl' nl cos( / 2)
nl sin( / 2)

- .
.

- .
( ).

2 1/ 2

1 cos
l n
1 cos

h2

1/ 2

l n

1 cos
1 cos

1 cos
1 cos

1 cos
1 cos


.
=

Ideal Chain

Real Chain

2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

A N

L = L = NA
A

2 1/ 2

h2
L

L
L2
N 2
A h

CH3

Si

CH3

1.4

4.9

2.0

7.9

3.0

11.7

3.9

17.4

20.0

30

62.0

100

-[CH2-CH]p-

-[CH2-CH]p-

Cl
-[CH2-CH]p-

CH2ONO2

4 ONO
H2
3

--

ONO2

H
P

NH C
O

4

:
(1) ;
(2) ;
(3) :

800.

() - ( - - 0.154 );
()
( - 0.154 ;
-- = 109.5; cos(180-109.5) = 0.334; sin(109.5/2) = 0.817 ;
()

( - 2 ,
- 8).
?

:
() L = 246. 4 ; <h> = 6.2 ; S = 40;
() L = 201. 3 ; <h> = 8.7 ; S = 23;
() L = 200 ; <h> = 200 ; S = 10;


U

U,

U0
.
U0,

C
C

O
C

O
O

O
p

Si