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GSM/WCDMA - HSPA+/LTE RF

Optimization Course
Date: Feb 2016

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Cellular Mobile Evolution

Reference: www.3gpp.org
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GSM/UMTS/LTE Network Architecture and Interfaces

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Network Evolution process

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Network Quality of Service (QoS)

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Network RF Optimization Flowchart


Start
Preparation:
Set the optimization targets
Divide the optimization Areas
Draw out the test route line
Prepare the DT tools

Data Collection and Analysis


Drive test
Site configuration, Parameters
OSS KPIs

The DT result is satisfied


with KPI optimization target?

Ye
s
RF Optimization
finished

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Adjustments:
Physical parameters
adjustment
Parameters adjustment
Neighbor cell list
adjustment
Problem Analysis and troubleshooting
N
neighbor cell list
o
poor coverage
cell overshooting/overlapping
pilot pollution
handover
interference
Congestion

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Network Optimization Methods

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GSM RF Optimization

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GSM RF Optimization Process


Problem Analysis

Analyzing performance retrieve tool reports and statistics for the worst performing BSCs and/or Sites
Viewing Reports for BSC/Site performance trends
Examining Planning tool Coverage predictions
Analyzing previous drive test data
Discussions with local engineers to prioritize problems
Checking Customer Complaints reported to local engineers

Checks Prior to Action

Cluster definitions by investigating BSC borders, main cities, freeways, major roads
Investigating customer distribution, customer habits (voice/data usage)
Running specific traces on Network to categorize problems
Checking trouble ticket history for previous problems
Checking any fault reports to limit possible hardware problems prior to test

Drive Testing & OSS KPI for Root cause investigation

Preparing Action Plan Defining drive test routes


Collecting Drive logs & OSS KPIs with relevant Sub counters
Scanning frequency spectrum for possible interference sources
Redriving questionable data

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GSM RF Optimization Process Cont.


Subjects to Investigate

Nonworking sites/sectors or TRXs


Inactive Radio network features like frequency hopping
Disabled GPRS
Overshooting sites coverage overlaps
Coverage holes
C/I, C/A analysis
High Interference Spots
Drop Calls
Capacity Problems
Other Interference Sources
Missing Neighbors
Oneway neighbors
PingPong Handovers
Not happening handovers
Accessibility and Retain-ability of the Network
Equipment Performance
Faulty Installations

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GSM RF Optimization Process Cont.


Recommendations
Defining missing neighbor relations
Proposing new sites or sector additions with Before & After coverage plots
Proposing antenna azimuth changes
Proposing antenna tilt changes
Proposing antenna type changes
BTS Equipment Check
Retuning of interfered frequencies
BSIC changes
Adjusting Handover margins
Adjusting accessibility parameters (RX Lev Acc Min, etc..)
Changing power parameters
Attenuation Adds/Removals
MHA/TMA adds

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GSM RF Optimization Process Cont.

Other optimization issues


Verifying performance of new sites
Verifying propagation model by importing DTI scan files to Planet (any Analyzer)
Periodic consistency checks
Frequency planning check
Analyzing power control parameters
Analyzing frequency hopping parameters (HSN, MAIO)
Implementing/analyzing optional features
Benchmarking

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Major GSM Problem Investigations

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General Causes Affecting Rx Quality (RxQual)


Major cause behind Bad Rx Quality during the call is
Interference:
Due to close Frequency re-use, Co-Channel interference reduce C/I and Hence
RxQuality.
Due to Missing neighbor, call is dragging on poor service cell and after
sometime it will suffer from interference.
Due to Hardware issues.
Due to Congestion issue, sometime the target cell is strong but doesnt have
free resources to take the handover, so call will drag in serving cell and it will
suffer from interference.

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General Causes Affecting Paging Success Rate

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General Causes Affecting LAU Success Rate

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General Causes Affecting SDCCH Congestion

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General Causes Affecting TCH Congestion Rate

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General Causes Affecting TCH drop rate

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General Causes Affecting Handover Success rate

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GSM Traffic Balance Optimization

Physical Optimization: minimize the cell overlapping/overshooting for the cells


which are congested with the following actions:

Antenna M/E down tilt/Up tilt


Azimuth
Antenna height

Multi Band Cell Implementation: Traffic balance between (900 -> 1800) within
same site.
Traffic balance between (900 -> 900 and 1800 -> 1800) with neighboring non
congested cells.
TRX Shifting between (900 -> 900 and 1800 -> 1800) within neighboring non
congested cells.
Parameter Optimization such as CRO, RXLEVACCMIN, Max TX POWER etc

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GSM Traffic Optimization Parameters/features


Traffic Balancing
Parameters/Features
Accmin
C1

C2

Description
Minimum received signal level in dBm at the MS for permission to access the system
C1 = (rxlev ACCMIN) max (CCHPWR P, 0)
The MS camps on the cell providing the highest positive C1. CCHPWR is MS power which may use in
UL
C2 = C1 + CRO TO * H(PT T) for fast moving mobiles
C2 = C1 CRO for normal mobiles
CRO, TO, and PT are broadcast on the BCCH of each cell. The cell reselection process employs a
quantity C2 for GSM phase 2 MSs, which depends on these parameters (GSM 03.22). GSM phase 1
MSs use the quantity C1 for cell reselection instead, i.e. these mobiles do not experience an offset.

CRO

Cell Reselection Offset as given above

PT
TO
CBQ
CB
Cell Load Sharing

Penalty Timer
Temporary offset
Cell Barred Qualify
Cell Barred
Cell load is shared based on % Available FR TCHs
Different Codec rates for both HR & FR, it maintains the quality of call as well as high congestion
improvement
Change SDCCH/8 to TCH & vice versa in the cell depending on the demand for such channels based
on congestion
Multiband Cell implementation will balance traffic nicely between 900 & 1800 cells of the same site
and also increases the site capacity with very less neighbor definitions

AMR
Adaptive configuration of
Logical Channels
Multi Band Cell
Implementation

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WCDMA RF Optimization

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3G WCDMA Wide CDMA


Power (P)
CDMA
Power
Tim
e

eq
Fr

y
nc
e
u

Traffic channels: different


users are assigned unique
code and transmitted over
the same frequency band,
for example, WCDMA and
CDMA2000

TDMA

Codes

Power

FDMA

Tim
e

e
qu
e
r
F

Us
e
U
Us ser r
Us e r
Us e r
er

Power
Tim
e

Time

cy
en
u
eq
Fr

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y
nc

Traffic channels: different time slots


are allocated to different users, for
example, DAMPS and GSM

Frequency

Traffic channels: different frequency bands


are allocated to different users,for example,
AMPS and TACS

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3G WCDMA Technology
Channel bandwidth: 5MHz

User A P

Chip rate: 3.84Mcps


Frame length: 10ms

Voice coding: AMR (Adaptive MultiRate)

Data

QPSK/QPSK
Fast closed loop power control:
1500Hz

Uplink/downlink modulation:

User B

Data after
spreading

f
Transmission
over the air

Handover: soft/hard handover

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f
Despread
User
User BA signal
signal
at the receiver

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UMTS Structure-Basic
Core Network
Iu

Iu

RNS

RNS
Iur
RNC

Iub
Node B

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RNC

Iub
Node B

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Iub
Node B

Iub
Node B

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Soft/Softer/IRAT HO
Softer handover
-two cells within the same RBS in Active Set
Cell B

Cell C

Soft/Softer handover
-three cells in Active Set

Cell A

Single Link

Soft handover
-two cells from different RBS in Active Set
Inter RAT Handover

The UE measured the CPICH Signal strenght (RSCP) and quality (Ec/No) to
determine which cell to add in the active set
Using the WCDMA Frequency

Add and remove from active set is based on relative measurments

Using the GSM Frequency

WCDMA Coverage

GSM Coverage

Road

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WCDMA Optimization Basic


RF optimization based on Drive test & OSS KPIs includes the following aspects:
Coverage optimization
Pilot pollution optimization
Handover optimization

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis


Coverage Analysis Processes:
Downlink Coverage Analysis
Analyzing Pilot Coverage Strength
Analyzing Pilot Coverage quality
Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell
Analyzing comparison of UE and Scanner Coverage

Uplink Coverage Analysis


Analyzing Uplink Interference
Analyzing distribution of UE Transmit Power

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis


Downlink coverage analysis - Pilot Coverage Strength Analysis
Check areas of poor coverage, suggestion value as below:
Good: RSCP -85 dBm
Fair: -95 dBm RSCP < -85 dBm
Poor: RSCP < -95 dBm
Mark the areas with weak coverage or common seamless coverage of large areas for further analysis

Downlink coverage analysis - Pilot Coverage quality Analysis


Ec/Io plot should also be analysed based on the thresholds :
Good: Ec/Io -8 dB
Fair: -14 dB Ec/Io < -8 dB
Poor: Ec/Io < - 14 dB
Areas of poor Ec/Io should be highlighted for further investigation

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis


Downlink coverage analysis - Pilot Coverage Strength Analysis

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis


Downlink coverage analysis - Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell:

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis


Downlink coverage analysis - Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell:
Cell primary pilot analysis is analyzing cell scramble information obtained in DT
The content to be checked include :
Weak coverage cell
Cross-cell coverage cell
No primary pilot cell

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis


Downlink coverage analysis - Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell:

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis

Uplink coverage analysis:

Uplink coverage analysis is analyzing UE transmit power obtained in DT.


The quality standards of UE transmit power must be combined with optimization standards.
Assume the optimization indexes of UE transmit power as below:

UE_Tx_Power 10 dBm

>= 95%

The test result of voice service by test


handset. Assume the maximum transmit
power of UE is 21 dBm

The defined corresponding quality standards are:

Good if UE_Tx_Power 0 dBm

Fair if 0 dBm < UE_Tx_Power 10 dBm

Poor if UE_Tx_Power > 10 dBm

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RF Coverage Problem Analysis

Uplink - Distribution of UE Transmit Power:

The distribution of UE transmit power reflects the distribution of uplink interference and
uplink path loss

The distribution of UE transmit power


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Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis


Pilot Pollution Definition - Judgment Standards :
-60
Margin

RSCP (dBm)

-65
-70
-75

-62

-63

-80

-64

-66

-67

-85

-81

-90
SC1

SC2
Active Set

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SC3

SC4

SC5

Pilot Pollution

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SC6
Not
Pilot Pollution
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Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis


Pilot Pollution Definition - Estimated Active Set Size Example :

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Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis


Causes of Pilot Pollution :

Improper Cell Distribution


Over High NodeB or Highly-mounted Antenna
Improper Antenna Azimuth
Improper Antenna Down Tilt
Improper PICH Power

Influence of Pilot Pollution :

Pilot pollution causes the following network problems:


Ec/Io Deterioration
Call Drop Due to Handover
Capacity Decline

Solutions of Pilot Pollution :


Antenna Adjustment
PCPICH Power Adjustment
Using RRU or Micro Cells

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Handover Problem Analysis


By adjusting RF parameters ,we can Control the size and location of handover
areas ,then we can eliminate handover call drop due to sharp fluctuation and
increase handover success rate.
During RF optimization stage, the involved handover problem include:
Neighbor cell optimization
Controlling SHO Factor

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Handover Problem Analysis - Neighbor cell optimization


During RF optimization stage, missing neighbor cell is a key problem. The neighbor cell
optimization includes adding and removing neighbor cells
Add: Missing neighbors
Remove: These neighbors that were not measured but are in the neighbor list.

Neighbor cell optimization can be analyzed by :


Scanner Data
UE Data Analysis

We can Compare the active set Ec/Io distribution diagram measured by UE and that
measured by scanner
The spots with missing neighbor cells has a poor Ec/Io measured by UE and a strong Ec/Io
scanned by scanner

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RF Analysis Approaches Neighbor List


Controlling SHO Factor
If the SHO Factor is large, decrease or change the handover areas by using the following methods for

shrinking coverage areas:


Increase the down tilt
Adjust azimuth
Decrease the antenna height
Decrease the PICH power

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WCDMA Optimization - Advanced


Preparations

Accessibility

Retainability

Consistency
Check

Idle mode

Parameters
Neighbours
Scrambling Codes

Random Access Neighbour Relations Throughput

Statistics
Counter types
Profiles
Counter Activation

HO Performance

Integrity

RRC Connection

BLER

SF Usage

NAS
RAB Assignments

Alarms
Cell availability
Call Setup Success rate
RRC Setup success rate
RAB Setup success rate

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Abnormal release
(drop)-CS/R99/HSPA
Soft HOSR
IRAT HOSR
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BLER
Throughput(Kbps)
Code Usage

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WCDMA Major OSS KPIs

KPI
CSSR%

Drop Call Rate%

Call Attempts(in Millions)

Coverage/Quality/
Availability/Capac
ity/Usage
Considerations

Payload(GB)

Handover Succ Rate%


Downtime(Hrs)
Avg User Thrpt(Kbps)

RRC+RAB Rejects
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CSSR-HSDPA
CSSR-HSUPA
CSSR-Rel99
CSSR-Voice
DCR-HSDPA
DCR-HSUPA
DCR-Rel99
DCR-Voice
CS Video Call Att
CS Voice Call Att
HSDPA Estab Att
HSUPA Estab Att
Rel99 Estab Att
DL Payload HSDPA(GB)
DL Payload R99(GB)
DL Payload Signalling(GB)
DL Payload Voice(GB)
UL Payload HSUPA(GB)
UL Payload R99(GB)
UL Payload Signalling(GB)
UL Payload Video(GB)
UL Payload Voice(GB)
SOFT HOSR
3G-2G HOSR
Downtime
HSDPA_Avg Thrpt_per user(kbps)
HSUPA_Avg Thrpt_per user(Kbps)
R99_Avg Thrpt_per user(DL) kbps
RRC+RAB DL CE Reject
RRC+RAB DL Code Reject
RRC+RAB DL Power Reject
RRC+RAB Iub Reject
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WCDMA Performance analysis

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General Causes of 3G Bad Quality (Ec/No)


1) Poor Coverage
2) Pilot Pollution
3) Improper PSC Planning
4) Missing Neighbors
5) UL interference
6) UE Tx Power (UL Coverage)
7) Dead spot (No Coverage)
8) Coverage overlapping
9) Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
10) Inverted Sectors / Cross Feeders
11) Hardware issue

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General Causes of 3G Low CSSR%


1) Missing Neighbors.
2) Poor Coverage.
3) Pilot Pollution / Spillover.
4) Poor Cell Reselection.
5) Core Network Issues.
6) Non availability of resources.
7) Admission Control denies.
8) Hardware Issues.
9) Improper RACH Parameters.
10) External Interference.
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General Causes of 3G Drop call(CS/PS)


1) Poor Coverage (DL / UL).
2) Pilot Pollution / Pilot Spillover.
3) Missing Neighbor.
4) Scrambling Code Collisions.
5) Delayed Handovers.
6) No resource availability (Congestion).
7) Loss of Synchronization.
8) Hardware Issues.
9) External Interference

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General Causes of IRAT failures


1) Missing 2G relations.
2) Non availability of 2G Resources.
3) Poor 2G Coverage.
4) Missing 3G Relations

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High Speed Downlink Packet Access - HSDPA

SPEED

Higher bit rates: up to 14 Mbps

CAPACITY

2 3 times improved system throughput

REDUCED DELAY

Reduced round trip time

STANDARDIZED
Smooth Upgrade

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Integral part of WCDMA (3GPP Release 5)

Short time to market with existing sites

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HSDPA Basic Principles


P

Dynamic Power Allocation


Efficient power &
spectrum utilisation

Shared Channel Transmission


Dynamically shared in time & code
domain

Fast Hybrid ARQ with


Soft Combining
Reduced round trip delay

Higher-order Modulation
16QAM in complement to QPSK for
higher peak bit rates

Fast Radio Channel


Dependent Scheduling

Fast Link Adaptation


Data rate adapted to radio
conditions on 2 ms time basis

2 ms

Short TTI (2 ms)

Scheduling of users on 2 ms time


basis

Reduced round trip delay

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HSDPA Dynamic Power Allocation


3GPP Release 99

3GPP Release 5
Power

Power

Used for HSDPA


Total cell power

Total cell power

Unused power

Dedicated channels (power controlled)

Common channels

Common channels
t
Power usage with dedicated channels

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Dedicated channels (power controlled)

t
Power usage with dedicated channels

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3.5G (HSPA+)
High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile telephony
protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink
Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of existing
WCDMA protocols
3.5G introduces many new features that will enhance the UMTS technology in future.

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Why DC-HSDPA?

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DC-HSDPA Vs MIMO

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LTE RF Optimization

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4G (LTE)
High data rates
Downlink: >100 Mbps
Uplink: >50 Mbps
Cell-edge data rates
2-3 x HSPA Rel. 6 (16QAM, no MIMO, no DC)

Low delay/latency

User plane RTT: <10 ms


Channel set-up: <100 ms

High spectral efficiency

Targeting 3 x HSPA Rel. 6

High Performance Broadcast services

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LTE features
OFDM Radio Technology

OFDM
SC-FDMA

Multi-antenna transmission
TX

TX

Spectrum flexibility
1.4

Simplicity

10

15
FDD

20 MHz
TDD

SON
IP transport

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LTE Vs HSPA+
HSDPA +

LTE

Architecture

NodeB RNC CN

eNodeB EPC

Transport

Mixed ATM & IP All IP

All IP

Bandwidth Support

5MHz 10MHz (DC 2x5MHz)

1.4 3 5 10 15 20MHz

Radio Bearers

CS, PS (RACH/FACH, DCH, HSDSCH, E-DCH)

PS only PDSCH/PUSCH

UE States

Detached, Idle, URA_PCH,


CELL_FACH, CELL_DCH

Detached, Idle, Active

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LTE Architecture
IP networks
GGSN/MPG (P/S-GW)
SGSN/MME

EPC

BSC
RNC

Data

WCDMA

Signaling

LTE

MME = Mobility Management Entity


MPG = Mobile Packet Gateway
P/S-GW = PDN/Serving gateway

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LTE Access Technique


Frequency
Division
Multiple
Access

frequency

Time
Division
Multiple
Access

tim
e

time

frequency
Each User has a unique
frequency

All users transmit at the


same time

Each User has a unique


time slot

Several users share the


same frequency
IS-136, GSM, PDC

AMPS, NMT, TACS

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Orthogonal
Frequency
Division
Multiple
Access

Code
Division
Multiple
Access

Each Transmitter has a


unique
Scrambling Code
Each Data Channel has a
unique Channelization
code
Many users share the
same frequency and time
IS-95, cdma2000,

frequency
Each User and each channel
has a unique
Time and Frequency
Resource
Many users are separated in
frequency and/or time

LTE, Wimax
(WLAN 802.11a,g, DAB radio)

WCDMA

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Multiple Antenna Techniques


MIMO
TX

RX

MIMO Improves speed & capacity

TxDiv
TX

RX

TxDiv
Improves speed at cell edge

SIMO
TX

RX

All LTE Terminals


Support RxDiv

Path loss /
Distance from RBS

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UE States in LTE & Mobility

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LTE Coverage & Quality Indicators


RSRP,RSRQ,CINR
RSRP is Reference signal Received power
RSRP mainly affected by MIMO use, PA Power, Power boost & Pathloss.
Assumptions/Formula:

- BW = 5 MHz

- PCPICH power as 10% of PA power = 33dBm

- PA Power = 43 dBm with MIMO 2x2 in DL

- Same Pathloss in UL/DL for WCDMA & LTE

- RS Power with Power Boost = 18.2 dBm

- RSRP=RSCP-(PCPICH power - RS Power)


RSRP Calculated Vs RSCP = RSCP-(33-18.2) => RSCP 14.8(dBm)
Poor RSRP: New site needs to be planned else Site Optimization required
RSRQ is Reference Signal Received Quality
Definition: RSRQ = N x RSRP / RSSI [N = # PRB]
RSRQ is mainly dependent on RSRP, BW & load in own and external
cells
The maximum value of RSRQ is -3 dB, and the lower practical limit is
around -20 dB
RSRQ can be Poor if RSRP is poor or DL loading is High

CINR is Carrier to Interference plus Noise Ratio.


CINR is mainly dependent on RSRP, MIMO Configuration, &
Interference due to High load.
Poor CINR can mainly be due to Low RSRP & High
Interference/Load in DL.
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Delivering Value. Together 64

LTE PCI
Group #0

Group #1

Group #2

Group #167

PCI0

PCI3

PCI6

PCI501

PCI1 PCI2

PCI4 PCI5

PCI7 PCI8

PCI502 PCI503

PSS signal
3 different sequences called Physical-Layer Identities (0-2)
Nin(2)3GPP. Parameter: PhysicalLayerSubCellId
ID

SSS signal
168 different sequences called Physical-Layer Cell-Identity groups (0-167)
Parameter: PhysicalLayerCellIdGroup
Nin(1)3GPP.
ID

Physical Cell Identity


cell
(1)
(2)
N ID
3 N ID
N ID

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LTE Call flow & measurements(1)

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LTE Call flow & measurements(2)

Default EPS bearer Activation for LTE is used in similar context with PDP Context activation in
WCDMA here and the measurement flow is shown below
UE

eNB

MME/SGW

RANDOM ACCESS PREAMBLE


RANDOM ACCESS RESPONSE
RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST
RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP

SRB1

RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE
(PDN_CONNECTIVITY_REQUEST, ATTACH REQUEST)
DL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (IDENTITY REQUEST)
UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (IDENTITY RESPONSE)

DL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (AUTHENTICATION_REQUEST)
UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (AUTHENTICATION_RESPONSE)
DL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (SECURITY MODE COMMAND)

INITIAL UE MESSAGE
(PDN_CONNECTIVITY_REQUEST, ATTACH REQUEST)
DOWNLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (IDENTITY REQUEST)
UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (IDENTITY RESPONSE)
DOWNLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (AUTHENTICATION_REQUEST)
UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (AUTHENTICATION_RESPONSE)
DOWNLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (SECURITY MODE COMMAND)

UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (SECURITY MODE COMPLETE)

UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (SECURITY MODE COMPLETE)

DL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (ESM INFORMATION REQUEST)

DOWNLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (ESM INFORMATION REQUEST)

UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (ESM INFORMATION RESPONSE)


SECURITY_MODE_COMMAND

UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (ESM INFORMATION RESPONSE)


INITIAL_CONTEXT_SETUP_REQUEST
(ACTIVATE_DEFAULT_EPS_BEARER_CONTEXT_REQUEST, ATTACH ACCEPT)

SECURITY_MODE_COMPLETE

Default EPS Bearer


Activation Success rate

UE CAPABILITY ENQUIRY
UE CAPABILITY INFORMATION

SRB2 &
DRB3

RRC_CONNECTION_RECONFIGURATION

UE CAPABILITY INFORMATION INDICATION

ATTACH ACCEPT, (ACTIVATE_DEFAULT_EPS_BEARER_CONTEXT_REQ)


RRC_CONNECTION_RECONFIGURATION_COMPLETE
INITIAL_CONTEXT_SETUP_RESPONSE
UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER
(ACTIVATE_DEFAULT_EPS_BEARER_CONTEXT_ACCEPT, ATTACH COMPLETE)

Copyright 2015 LCC. All rights reserved.

UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT
(ACTIVATE_DEFAULT_EPS_BEARER_CONTEXT_ACCEPT, ATTACH COMPLETE)

LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

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LTE Call flow & measurements(3)

ERAB Establishment Success rate

RRC Connection Success rate

RRC Connection Success rate & ERAB Establishment success rate


are 2 KPIs recommended for Accessibility for drive test KPI.

UE

eNB

MME/SGW

RANDOM ACCESS PREAMBLE


RANDOM ACCESS RESPONSE
RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST
RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP

SRB1

INITIAL UE MESSAGE
(PDN_CONNECTIVITY_REQUEST, ATTACH REQUEST)

RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE
(PDN_CONNECTIVITY_REQUEST, ATTACH REQUEST)

DOWNLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (IDENTITY REQUEST)

DL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (IDENTITY REQUEST)


UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (IDENTITY RESPONSE)

UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (IDENTITY RESPONSE)


DOWNLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (AUTHENTICATION_REQUEST)

DL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (AUTHENTICATION_REQUEST)
UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (AUTHENTICATION_RESPONSE)

UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (AUTHENTICATION_RESPONSE)
DOWNLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (SECURITY MODE COMMAND)

DL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (SECURITY MODE COMMAND)


UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (SECURITY MODE COMPLETE)

UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (SECURITY MODE COMPLETE)

DL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (ESM INFORMATION REQUEST)

DOWNLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (ESM INFORMATION REQUEST)

UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER (ESM INFORMATION RESPONSE)

UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT (ESM INFORMATION RESPONSE)


INITIAL_CONTEXT_SETUP_REQUEST
(ACTIVATE_DEFAULT_EPS_BEARER_CONTEXT_REQUEST, ATTACH ACCEPT)

SECURITY_MODE_COMMAND
SECURITY_MODE_COMPLETE
UE CAPABILITY ENQUIRY
UE CAPABILITY INFORMATION

SRB2 &
DRB3

UE CAPABILITY INFORMATION INDICATION

RRC_CONNECTION_RECONFIGURATION
ATTACH ACCEPT, (ACTIVATE_DEFAULT_EPS_BEARER_CONTEXT_REQ)
RRC_CONNECTION_RECONFIGURATION_COMPLETE

INITIAL_CONTEXT_SETUP_RESPONSE
UL_INFORMATION_TRANSFER
(ACTIVATE_DEFAULT_EPS_BEARER_CONTEXT_ACCEPT, ATTACH COMPLETE)

Copyright 2015 LCC. All rights reserved.

UPLINK_NAS_TRANSPORT
(ACTIVATE_DEFAULT_EPS_BEARER_CONTEXT_ACCEPT, ATTACH COMPLETE)

LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

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LTE drive test KPIs - Sample


DL data Default EPS Bearer Succ rate%
Voice CSSR%
Voice Call SetupTime (Mobile Originated)
Voice Call SetupTime (Mobile Terminated)
Call SetupTime DL Data call
Call drop rate%
DL data call Handover Succ rate%
DL Thrpt(Mbps)
UL Thrpt(Mbps)
Ping RTT(ms)
% On air sites
Good Coverage%(>xxdBm)
Bad Coverage%(<xxdBm)

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LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

Delivering Value. Together 69

LTE OSS KPIs - Sample

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Delivering Value. Together 70

LTE Vs. LTE-Advanced

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LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

Delivering Value. Together 71

LTE RF Optimization

Detecting interference using field measurements


Detecting interference and bad coverage from counters
Detecting overshooting cells
PCI optimization
Impact of interference on LTE network performance
importance of physical RF optimization
Impact of network load
MIMO X-feeders

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LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

Delivering Value. Together 72

Detecting interference using field measurements


RSRP measurement with scanner is the most reliable way to
detect areas with possible interference problems and bad
dominance
Not impacted by network load
RSRP measurement appears to be consistent between UEs/scanners
The number of PCIs in e.g. 10 dB power window is a useful indicator

From drive test with test terminal.


Serving PCI vs. Top N PCIs
Less than 5dB difference to the serving PCI can be considered a potential
interferer.
A common rule for antenna tilt optimization consideration: 3 or more PCIs
inside 5dB window

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Delivering Value. Together 73

Detecting interference and bad coverage from counters


PUSCH RSSI and PUSCH SINR measurement can be used to
detect UL coverage and UL interference problems
CQI can be used for DL interference detection

Detecting overshooting cells


Cells with too large or largely distributed dominance area.
Will cause increased interference to other cells
Can collect excessive amount of traffic.
How to detect overshooting cells?
Drive tests
Analyzing HO performance and neighbor cell measurements from drive test logs.

Counters
Cell pair HO analysis with inter site distance information. Indicating HOs to cells with
long inter site distance.

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LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

Delivering Value. Together 74

PCI Optimization
Avoid using the same PCIs within the same site and as neighbors
[High priority]
Avoid using conflicting Physical-Layer Identity (
) values within the
same site and adjacent facing sectors.
Avoid using conflicting Physical-Layer Cell-Identity group (same
)
within the same site and as neighbors.
Avoid using conflicting PCI mod30 values within the same site and as
neighbors.

The following 2 EUtranCellFDD parameters control the PCI:


physicalLayerSubCellId
physicalLayerCellIdGroup
PCI = 3x physicalLayerCellIdGroup + physicalLayerSubCellId
Collision: cells neighbors
or neighbors neighbors
have the same PCI

Copyright 2015 LCC. All rights reserved.

Confusion: direct
neighbors have the same
PCI

LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

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Impact of interference on LTE network


DL load Impact
Single user throughput, 0%, 100% load, DL TCP
50

Ave Phy DL Tput (Mbps), SINR (dB)

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Max of Tput
mobility 0% DL

Copyright 2015 LCC. All rights reserved.

Max of SINR

Max of Tput

Max of SINR

mobility 100% DL

LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

Delivering Value. Together 76

Impact of interference on LTE network


X-feeders analysis
Using Drive Test PCI Check: A dominance plot, showing

the PCIs measured by the scanner during the drive test is


the best method to identify these cases. The Figure
shows an example of swapped feeders between sectors 2
(light green) and 3 (turquoise) in site 36431. The scanner
is measuring sector 3 in the area where the dominant
should be sector 2 and vice versa. If there are crossed
feeders then the PCIs between sectors are swapped, the
sectors just appear swapped over.
Using Counters & Statistics: Degradation of KPIs like
Throughput, Drop rate, RSSI,HO Statistics etc. is
expected for the affected Cells. HO Counters/Stats can
be used for finding Cross Feeders.

GSM&/WCDMA
- Ant

LTE Sec1
- Ant

LTE Sec2/3
- Ant

LTE Complete Cross Feeder

Sample

GSM&WCDMA
- BTS

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LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

BTS
-LTE

Delivering Value. Together 77

LTE Coverage / Quality Ranges and Target - Sample

Legends for RSRP


Poor RSRP

Legends for CINR


Poor CINR

Legends for DL Throughput

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Delivering Value. Together 78

ANR(Automated Neighbor Relation)


Automated Neighbor Relation (ANR) builds up and maintains
a neighbor list used for handover.
ANR feature adds neighbor relations to the cells when UE
measurement reports indicate that a possible new neighbor
relationship has been identified. ANR also sets up, maintains and
removes X2 connections between the cells.

Therefore maintenance is reduced and the performance of


the network is imporoved.
The feature also reduces dropped call due to missing neighbors,
when a site is down, since ANR will detect unused neighbors

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ANR Function
The UE reports neighbor
measurement; PCI=5.
Cell A concludes that PCI=5 is not
known.
Cell A orders the UE to read CGI for
Cell B.
The UE reads and reports CGI
broadcast for Cell B. A neighbor cell is
added and handover can be done.
The RBS checks if X2 is allowed to the
RBS where Cell B is contained.
The RBS gets the IP address for the
target RBS from DNS or through S1
configuration transfer. More information
can be found in X2 Configuration
X2 is established.
Cell A updates OSS-RC and
observation data.

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LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

Delivering Value. Together 80

LTE DL Throughput Troubleshooting

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LCC Ref No: ET_LCC:15_442

Delivering Value. Together 81

Thank you
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