Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

Technology Overview

GSM/WCDMA/LTE

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY (3GPP)

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

GENERATION OF DIGITAL CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

FDMA (Frequency division multiple access):

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

FDMA & CHARACTERITICS

1. The RF (radio frequency) channel is split into several smaller subchannels. For example, one 12.5kHz wide narrowband FM channel that
previously carried only one conversation becomes two 6.25kHz subchannels, each capable of carrying a separate conversation.
Characteristic of FDMA:
. The FDMA channel carries only one phone circuit at a time.
. If an FDMA channel is not in use, then it sits idle and it cannot be used
by other users
to increase share capacity.
. After the assignment of the voice channel the BS and the MS transmit
simultaneously and continuously.
. The bandwidths of FDMA systems are generally narrow i.e. FDMA is
usually implemented in a narrow band system.
.
FDMA requires tight filtering to minimize the adjacent channel
interference.

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

TDMA (Time division multiple access):

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

TDMA & CHARACTERITICS

1. In digital systems, continuous transmission is not required because


users do not use the allotted bandwidth all the time. In such cases, TDMA
is a complimentary access technique to FDMA.

2. In TDMA, the entire bandwidth is available to the user but only for
a finite period of time.
Characteristic of TDMA:
. TDMA shares a single carrier frequency with several users where
each users makes use of non overlapping time slots.
. The number of time slots per frame depends on several factors
such as modulation technique, available bandwidth etc.
. Data transmission in TDMA is not continuous but occurs in bursts.
This results in low battery consumption.
. Because of a discontinuous transmission in TDMA the handoff
process is much simpler for a subscriber unit.
. TDMA uses different time slots for transmission and reception
thus
duplexers are not required.
Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

CDMA(Code division multiple access):

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

CDMA & CHARACTERITICS

1. In CDMA, the same bandwidth is occupied by all the users,


however they are all assigned separate codes, which
differentiates them from each other.
Characteristic of CDMA:
. CDMA employs analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in
combination with spread spectrum technology.
. Audio input is first digitized into binary elements.
. The frequency of the transmitted signal is then made to
vary
according to a defined pattern (code), so it
can be intercepted only by a receiver whose frequency
response is programmed with the same code.
. So it follows exactly along with the transmitter frequency.
There are trillions of possible frequency-sequencing codes,
which enhances privacy and makes cloning difficult.
Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

CDMA & CHARACTERITICS

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

OFDMA (Orthogonal frequency division multiple access):

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

OFDMA

1. OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex.


-Technique to send data over frequency band.
-Subcarrier: Narrow bands of 15kHz frequency band.
-All these freq. bands are mutually orthogonal(All have frequency, integral multiple
fundamental) so they cant interfere.

Band Width= N X (Subcarrier


frequency band)
(N=number of subcarriers in
Band width)
Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

of

WCDMA (Wide band code division multiple access):

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

WCDMA
Introduction

3G also known as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third


generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.
Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division
Duplex (TDD) variants are supported.
It used code division multiple access technology using
a concept known W-CDMA which is spread-spectrum
modulation technique Transmitted on a pair of 5MHzwide radio channels.
Processing Gain : In spread spectrum system, the
process gain (or 'processing gain') is the ratio of the
spread (or RF) bandwidth to the un-spread (or
baseband) bandwidth.
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) system
provides certain resistance against narrowband
interference, as the interference is not subject to the
process gain of the DSSS signal and hence the signalto-interference ratio is improved.
Employs coherent detection on uplink and downlink
Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

WCDMA Modulation Technique

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

WCDMA Characteristics

Frequency band:1920 MHz -1980 MHz and 2110 MHz - 2170 MHz (Frequency Division
Duplex) UL and DL
Minimum frequency band required: ~ 2x5MHz
Carrier Spacing: 4.4MHz - 5.2 MHz
Voice coding: AMR codecs (4.75 kHz - 12.2 kHz, GSM EFR=12.2 kHz) and SID (1.8 kHz)
Channel coding: Convolutional coding, Turbo code for high rate data
Receiver sensitivity: Node B: -121dBm, Mobile -117dBm at BER of 10-3
Data type: Packet and circuit switch
Modulation: QPSK/DQPSK
Pulse shaping: Root raised cosine, roll-off = 0.22
Chip rate: 3.84 Mcps
Maximum user data rate (Physical channel): ~ 2.3Mbps (spreading factor 4, parallel
codes (3 DL / 6 UL), 1/2 rate coding), but interference limited.
Maximum user data rate (Offered): 384 kbps (year 2002), higher rates ( ~ 2 Mbps) in the
near future. HSPDA will offer data speeds up to 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbps for MIMO
systems)
Channel bit rate: 5.76Mbps
Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

WCDMA Characteristics

. Frame length: 10ms (38400 chips)


. Number of slots / frame: 15
. Number of chips / slot: 2560 chips
. Handovers: Soft, Softer, (inter frequency: Hard)
. Power control period: Time slot = 1500 Hz rate
. Power control step size: 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 dB (Variable)
. Power control range: UL 80dB, DL 30dB
. Mobile peak power: Power class 1: +33 dBm (+1dB/-3dB) = 2W; class 2 +27 dBm,
class 3 +24 dBm, class 4 +21 dBm

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

WCDMA Characteristics

Downlink modulation : The UMTS modulation format for the downlink is more
straightforward than that used in the uplink. The downlink uses quadrature
phase shift keying, QPSK. The QPSK modulation used in the downlink is used with
time-multiplexed control and data streams. While time multiplexing would be a
problem in the uplink, where the transmission in this format would give rise to
interference in local audio systems, this is not relevant for the downlink where
the NodeB is sufficiently remote from any local audio related equipment to
ensure that interference is not a problem.

Uplink modulation : However the uplink uses two separate channels so that
the cycling of the transmitter on and off does not cause interference on the
audio lines, a problem that was experienced on GSM. The dual channels (dual
channel phase shift keying) are achieved by applying the coded user data to the
I or In-phase input to the DQPSK modulator, and control data which has been
encoded using a different code to the Q or quadrature input to the modulator.
Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

3G Architecture:

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

GSM

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

GSM INTRODUCTION

. GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communication. GSM is a circuit-switched network;
ideal for the delivery of voice but with limitations for sending data. The standard for GSM was
designed to evolve. In 2000 the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) added
packet-switched functionality and kick started the delivery of the Internet on mobile handsets.

Basic purpose of developing GSM

It should offer good subjective speech quality


It should have a low phone or terminal cost
Terminals should be able to be handheld
The system should support international roaming
It should offer good spectral efficiency
The system should offer ISDN compatibility

GSM cellular technology uses 200 kHz RF channels. These are time division multiplexed to enable up to eight users to access each carrier.
In this way it is a TDMA / FDMA system.

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

GSM GPRS Architecture:

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

4G Architecture: Data Network:

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #

LTE-IMS Architecture:

Confidential | DD.MM.YY | version #