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Basic Quality Tools, an

Introduction to Problem Solving

Review of Basic Quality Tools

What will we Learn?

Teams
Brainstorming
Process Mapping
Pareto Charts
Histograms
Box Plots
Cause and Effect
Diagrams

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What will we Do?


Brainstorm
Process Map
Histogram
Cause and Effect
Diagram

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Review of Basic Quality Tools


TEAMS
Why: Teams allow people most knowledgeable about a process to provide the
expertise they possess to the improvement process.
Communication between affected organizations is improved, more ideas can
be generated, and, ultimately, decisions are of higher quality in a team
environment than when tasks are accomplished by individuals.
Moreover, members of a team are much more willing to take ownership in the
resultant decisions and to actively pursue their successful implementation.

How: Determine which organizations/individuals have some ownership in the


problem, decision, or task under consideration.
Request representation from each of the affected groups to act as members
of the team.
Establish a schedule for the team meeting(s).
Conduct team meetings. Apply appropriate problem-solving tools such as
described in this document. Attempt to reach consensus on decisions
whenever possible.
Tooling Engineering Supplier
Shop

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Planning

Purchasing Finance

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Quality

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TEAM DYNAMICS SCENARIO
You are the team leader for an important opportunity in your factory. You are to lead six
(6) people in a Kaizen.
At the last minute you are informed that the CEO has asked to participate. What are the
positives and negatives of this situation:

Positives Effects:

Negative Effects:

The rest of the team shows up On


Time

Everyone looks to the CEO for


Answers

Everyone puts on their Best


Performance

CEO Dominates the Team

The event has Political Weight now

Ideas do not Flow ..

Motivation is High

Conversation is Stifled

Commitment is High

Team becomes Dysfunctional

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Review of Basic Quality Tools


BRAINSTORMING - a process for generating new ideas
Why: To produce a wide variety of ideas in a short period of time.

To have full participation of team members to document their knowledge.


To increase involvement of team members and elicit buy-in.

How: Clearly define the problem or opportunity

and make sure that all team members


understand it.
List criteria for acceptable solutions.
Team members present their ideas, one at a
time, in sequence. Members should pass
on their turn if they dont have an idea.
Record suggestions exactly as presented.
Make no judgements until all ideas are
recorded.
Have the team clarify any items or ideas in
question.
Have the team members vote on which
items should be pursued (grading 0-10
against criteria)
Explore the top three ideas.

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Review of Basic Quality Tools


PROCESS MAPPING
Why do we need a process map?

A process map could help everyone involved with a


process to agree on the steps it takes to produce a good
product or service.

A good process map will create a sound starting block for


the improvement activities.

A process map allows a team to define any potential KPIVs


and KPOVs which will eventually lead to the determination of Y= f (x).

A process map should be a visual living document used to


monitor and update changes in the process.

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Review of Basic Quality Tools


PROCESS MAPPING -- SYMBOLS
This Symbol...

Represents...
Start/Stop

Receive Trouble Report


Machine Operable

Decision Point

Approve/Disapprove
Accept/Reject
Yes/No & Pass/Fail

Activity

Drop off Travel Voucher


Open Access Panel

Connector (to
another part or part
of the diagram)
Start/Stop

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Examples...

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A
B

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PROCESS MAPPING
How to create a useful process map:
Step 1: Define the scope of the process you need to work on.
Step 2: Identify all operations needed in the production of a good
product or service.
Step 3: Identify each operation above as either value-added or
non-value added.
Step 4: List both internal and external KPOVs at each process step.
Step 5: List both internal and external KPIVs at each process step.
Step 6: Classify all KPIVs as one or more of the following:
Controllable - knob variables: can be easily changed to see effect on KPOV.
Critical - inputs which have been statistically proven to effect KPOV(s).
Noise - inputs which are very difficult or not necessary to control.
Standard Operating Procedure - standard instruction for running the process.

Step 7: Add any known operating specifications to each input & output.
Step 8: Clearly identify all process data collection points.

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PROCESS MAP
EXAMPLE 1
Example 1:
Basic Mapping of
Installation of
Software

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Review of Basic Quality Tools

Example 2:
Map including
KPIV and KPOV

PROCESS MAP
EXAMPLE 2
Get Tools

o Correct Position
o Pre-Raise Car

Jack
Lug Wrench
Spare

Spare Tire

Remove Lugs
& Flat

All Tools
On Hand

Install
Spare

Lower Car
to Tighten

o Hand Tighten
o Snug Lugs

Tire Removed
Ready for Spare

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Spare Located
On Hub

Break Lugs
Free

Jack Car

o Remove Wheel
Cover
Op. Manual

o Elevate to
Correct Height
Op. Manual

Position Jack

Jack Positioned
Car Correct Height

Remove
Jack

Cross-Tighten
Op. Manual

Return Tools
& Flat

o Lower Completely

All Lugs Tight

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Car Lowered

Lugs Rotate
Freely

Clearance
To Remove
Flat

Drive

PROCESS MAP - EXAMPLE 3

__KPIVs__
Raw Bracket #1
Raw Housings
Loading SOP (#1)

Op loads brckt #1 & housing into weld fixture A.


Initiates cycle start

Weld Schedules
Air Pressure
Voltage
H20 Circulation

Data

Unloading / Transport SOP (#2)

NV
A
Raw Bracket #2
Subassembly
Loading SOP (#3)
Weld Schedules
Air Pressure
Voltage
H20 Circulation
Tip Dressing

__KPOVs__

Start

Machine clamps. Weld (10 welds)


VA
Unclamps subassembly
Operator removes subassembly
Transports to weld fixture B or C NV

NV
A
SubAssy Critical Dimensions
SubAssy Weld Location
SubAssy Weld Nugget Size

B or C ?

Op loads subassembly & brckt#2


into fixture B. Initiates cycle start
Machine clamps
Weld (20 welds)
Unclamps final assembly

VA

Op loads subassembly & brckt#2 N


into fixture C. Initiates cycle start VA
Machine clamps
Weld (20 welds)
Unclamps final assembly

VA

Operator removes final assembly


NV
Transports to gauge fixture
A
Unloading / Transport SOP (#4)
Operator dimensionally gauges
Gauging / V.I. SOP (#5)
FinalAssy Critical Dimensions
Data Visually inspects final assembly N
VA
FinalAssy Weld Location
FinalAssy Weld Nugget Size
OK or
Scrap
FinalAssy Free of Weld Flash
not ?
Stop

Review of Basic Quality Tools


PROCESS MAP EXAMPLE 3
KPIV

Specification

All SOPS (#1-#5)


Raw Bracket #1
Raw Housing
Raw Housing
Weld Schedules
Air Pressure
Voltage
H20 Circulation
Raw Bracket #2
Subassembly Criticals
Tip Dressing

Dimension 1:200 +/- 1mm


Steel Thickness: 5 +/- 0.2 mm
Dimension 2: 55 +/- 0.5 mm
200 psi +/- ?
460 V +/- ?
Dimension 3: 45 +/- 0.5 mm
Once per day

KPOV

Specification

SubAssy Crit Dimension(s)


FinalAssy Crit Dimension
Weld Locations
Weld Nugget Size
Product Free of Weld Flash
All Welds Present?

Stack up issues?
Dimension 4: 300 +/- 2.0mm
See print
4 mm nugget minimum
No visible flash
30 welds +/- 0

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KEY PROCESS INPUT VARIABLES
EXAMPLE:

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KPIV

CLASSIFICATION

Raw Bracket # 1
Raw Housings
Loading SOP(#1)
Weld Schedules
Air Pressure
Voltage
Water Circulation
Unloading / Transport SOP (#2)
Raw Bracket # 2
Subassembly
Loading SOP (#3)
Weld Schedules
Air Pressure
Voltage
Unloading / Transport SOP (#4)
Gauging / V.I. SOP (#5)

Critical
Critical
Noise, S.O.P.
Critical, Controllable
Noise
Noise
Noise
Noise, S.O.P.
Critical
Critical
Noise, S.O.P.
Critical, Controllable
Noise
Noise
Noise, S.O.P.
Critical, Noise, S.O.P

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CLASS EXERCISE
Construct a Process Map
MAKING COFFEE
(Include KPIV & KPOV)

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PARETO CHARTS
Why: To prioritize actions needed to solve complex problems.

To separate important from unimportant causes contributing to a problem.

How: Define a problem and collect data on the factors that contribute to it.

Percent of Total Errors

Historical records generally provide sufficient information.


Classify the data by type, cost, percent, number of occurrences, or
whatever is appropriate for the situation.
Arrange the data in descending order.
Assign costs, if possible, to selected categories and reprioritize.
A bar graph is produced displaying the following data.

100

Type of error

Cumulative % line
Reasons
for
Rejected
Crushed
Core Panels

80
60
40
20
0

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3
4
5
Type of Error

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1 Resin Starvation
2 Split Core
3 Scrap
4 Discoloration
5 Warped
6 Broken
7 Other
Total errors =

%
42
20
17
9
5
5
2
100

Review of Basic Quality Tools


HISTOGRAM - Frequency of Occurrence
Why: Allows one to quickly visualize whats going on within a large amount of data.
Provides clues to causes of problems
May be used to show the relationship between engineering tolerances and
capabilities of the manufacturing process.

How: Collect measurements (variable data) from a process or key characteristics.


Thirty or more measurements are preferred.
Construct a check sheet to record the data.
Find the range by subtracting the smallest measurement from the largest.
Using this guide, determine the proper number of class intervals.

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HISTOGRAM - Frequency of Occurrence
Observations

Number of classes

25 to 50
51 to 100
101 to 250
251 and over

5 to 8
6 to 11
9 to 13
11 to 15

Determine the width of the classes. Set the class width so that no data
values fall on one of the limits. This is done by adding the next logical
decimal value to each limit.
For instance, if you create intervals for whole number data with limits of 1 to
5, 5 to 10, and so on , a value of 5 could go in either the first or second
interval. You can avoid this problem by setting the intervals at 0.51 to 5.50,
5.51 to 10.50, and so on, so that no data value falls on a class limit.

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HISTOGRAM - Frequency of Occurrence
Construct a frequency table like the one below.
Then tally the number of observations found in each class.

Class

Class limits

1
2
3
4
5
6

0.51 to 5.50
5.51 to 10.50
10.51 to 15.50
15.51 to 20.50
20.51 to 25.50
25.51 to 30.50

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Tally
IIII IIII
IIII IIII IIII IIII
IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII
IIII IIII IIII IIII
IIII IIII IIII
IIII IIII IIII

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Number of
observed measures
10
20
25
20
15
10

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HISTOGRAM - Frequency of Occurrence
Draw and label the histogram
Histogram

Frequency

40

Distribution

Lower limit

Upper limit

30
20
10
0
Strengths:

Simple and powerful.


Quickly summarizes large amounts of data.
May be used to show relationship of key
characteristic variation to engineering specs.

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Classes

6
Weaknesses:

Will not assess process stability.


Not time-sensitive.
Needs large amounts of data to see
patterns.

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CLASS EXERCISE
Construct a Histogram
based on the following data:

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HISTOGRAM - Frequency of Occurrence
Patterns:
The histogram on the previous slide has a normal distribution. However,
sometimes the histogram from a process does not produce a normal
curve. Studying histogram patterns provides clues to causes of problems.
Some common non-normal patterns, with their probable causes, are listed
below.
Skewed to the Left:
Could be caused by centering
the process toward the high end
of the tolerance, and sorting the
parts that fall out on the high side;
or the nature of the process physically
prohibits any measurements past a
maximum value.

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Review of Basic Quality Tools


HISTOGRAM - Frequency of Occurrence
Skewed to the Right:
Could be caused by centering
the process toward the low end
of the tolerance and sorting the
parts that fall out on the low side;
or the nature of the process physically
prohibits any measurements past a
minimum value.

Bimodal:
Two combined populations. Reasons:
two shifts, operators, inspectors,
suppliers, machine settings, gages,
tools, machines, measurement
locations, etc.

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HISTOGRAM - Frequency of Occurrence
Truncated:
This distribution is not normal because
there are no gradually tapering outer
ends. This can happen when a process
is not capable of meeting the specifications,
the parts are sorted from both ends, or too
few classes are chosen.

Missing Center:
The center of the distribution has been
sorted from the rest. This portion may
have been delivered to a customer with
tighter specifications.

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HISTOGRAM - Frequency of Occurrence

Spike(s) at the Tail(s):


The parts in the outer ends of the
distribution are probably being
reworked to bring the characteristics
just within specifications.

Extreme value(s) or Outlier(s):


The parts beyond the outer ends of
the distribution are probably
deviating from the rest because of a
one-time special cause. Can also be
a stray part from another population.

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BOXPLOTS
Why: Shows data graphically.
visually shows differences in data groups.
Presents both average and variation data at a
glance for each data group.
Shows distribution of variation data with
quartiles indicated.
Shows outlying data points.
How: The data is sorted from high to low.
Top whisker represents 4th quartile of data
(75% - 100% of the values).
Box represents middle two quartiles (25% - 75%).
of the data, separated by the median value line.
Bottom whisker represents 1st quartile of data
(0% - 25%).
Asterisks show outlier data points.

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BOXPLOT Example from MINITAB
Boxplot of Weight (kg) vs Day
110
Low weights and high
variance on Day 4

Weight (kg)

105

100

95

Low variance
on Day 5

High variance
on Day 1

4
Day

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CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM
(also known as Ishikawa - or Fishbone Diagram)
Why: Helps identify key characteristics and key process parameters.
Illustrates the various causes affecting a process.
Helps a group reach a common understanding of a problem.
Exposes gaps in existing knowledge of a problem.
Helps reduce the incidence of subjective decision making.

How: Generate potential causes of a problem through either structured


brainstorming or submission of written ideas.
Construct the Cause & Effect Diagram by:
- Place problem statement in a box on right-hand side of paper.
- Draw the major cause category boxes on the left-hand side of paper.
- Place the brainstormed ideas under the appropriate major cause
category.
- For each cause, ask, Why does it happen? and list responses as
branches off the major causes.

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Ishikawa Diagram or Cause and Effect Diagram


Objective: Define the few key inputs that drive the output
6 Ms
Man
Method
Mother Nature
Machine
Measurement
Materials

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Class Exercise:
Construct C&E Diagram with
output of GAS MILEAGE

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CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM - Exercise
MEASUREMENT

METHOD

MACHINE

GAS
MILEAGE

MAN

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MATERIAL

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MOTHER NATURE

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What we have learned:


Teams
Brainstorming
Process Mapping
Pareto Charts
Histograms
Box Plots
Cause and Effect Diagrams
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