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ANALYSIS AND

DESIGN

Analysis of structure
Modeling

of structure
Analysis of structure under vertical load and
horizontal load
Analysis by
a) Portal method
b) Cantilever method
c) Substitute frame
method

Results
Member forces,
Displacements, Shear
force, Bending moment
and Axial load

To be continued

Analysis for various secondary effects


Creep, shrinkage and temperature effects

Stability Analysis
Analysis by
a) Equilibrium approach
b) Energy approach
c) Imperfection approach
d) Dynamic approach

Results
Critical load Maximum load that
the member/structure can carry
without any stability loss

P- Delta effect analysis


P- Delta effect due to lateral load
Out of plumb effect
Foundation Instability

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Modeling for accurate


analysis
Modeling

of structure depends upon

Arrangement of the structure


Anticipated behavior of the structure
Type of analysis

Assumptions for
Modeling

Materials
Materials of the structure are assumed as elastic materials
Allows the use of linear methods of analysis

Participating Components
Only primary structural components participate in the overall

behavior
Effects of secondary structural components are negligible
But in some structures, such as infilled frame and frame with
heavy cladding, in addition to primary components infill wall
also affects the behavior of structure

To be continued
Floor slabs
Floor slabs are assumed to be rigid in plane
This assumption causes the horizontal

plane
displacements of all vertical elements at a floor level
and is definable in terms of rigid body rotation and
translations at the floor level
Reduces the number of unknown displacements in
the analysis
But this assumption is not applicable in certain cases
in which the slab plan is very long and narrow

To be continued
Negligible

Stiffnesses

Component

stiffnesses of small magnitude are

negligible
This assumption depends upon the role of the
components in the structures behavior
Negligible

Deformations

Deformations that are small are negligible


Example: Shear and axial deformations of the beam

are negligible

To be continued
Cracking
Effects of cracking in reinforced concrete members

due to flexural tensile stresses are represented by


reduced moment of inertia
Beams Moment of inertia for the cracked one are
reduced to 50% of uncracked values
Columns Moment of inertia for the cracked one
are reduced to 80% of uncracked values

Approaches to Analysis
Prelimina
ry
analysis

Simple models are made


To compare the performance of
alternative proposals for the structure

Intermedi
ate and
Final
analysis

Detailed models are made


Analysis results gives the member forces
and displacements
3D Model
Columns, beams and bracing members
are modeled as beam elements
Shear wall and core components are
modeled as membrane elements

Modeling for Accurate


Analysis
Modeling

of rigid and braced frames as


inverted cantilever does not yield the design
forces for sizing the elements
Detailed models are required for accurate
analysis
Finite elements are used in modeling for
accurate analysis

a) Beam Element b) Quadrilateral Membrane


Element c) Truss Element d) Quadrilateral
Plate Bending Element

Plane Frames Modeling


RIGID FRAMES
Column and beam members are represented by beam
elements
Shear deformations of the members are neglected
except for beams with span-to-depth ratio less than 5
BRACED FRAMES
Braces are represented by truss elements or smallinertia beam elements
Column as beam elements
Beam members are represented by beam elements
with their end rotations released

Model of Rigid Frame and


Braced Frame

Plane Shear Walls


Modeling
Shear

wall not connected by beams to other


parts of the structure vertical stack of beam
elements located on the centroidal axis of the
wall
Shear wall connected by beams to other parts
of the structure vertical stack of beam
elements located on the centroidal axis of the
walls with horizontal beam elements

To be continued
Non

slender shear walls and shear walls with


openings are modeled with plane stress
membrane elements.
Non rectangular shear walls can be modeled
using quadrilateral elements.
Membrane elements Plates whose thickness
is so small that the bending stiffness tends to
vanish, and transverse loads must be
resisted entirely by membrane action

Shear Wall Model

Non Slender Shear


Wall

Non - Rectangular
Shear Wall

3D Frame Structures
High

rise rigid frame structure has momentresisting joints, and its columns and beams are
modeled by three-dimensional beam elements.
These elements deform axially in shear (one
direction) and bending in two transverse
directions.
Shear deformations of the columns and beams
and axial deformations of the beams are assumed
as negligible.

3D Frame Structures

Wall Structures
Shear

wall are indicated by plane stress


elements but in these elements transverse
stiffness are not indicated at orthogonal wall
connections.
In order to get accurate shear wall 3D model,
nodes of shear wall can be linked by rigid
beams in addition to plate elements.

Assembled Model

Combination of all model can form any high rise


structure consisting of a combination of frames,
walls, and cores with beam and slab connections
If the lateral load resistance is by slabs, then slabs are
modeled by beams of equivalent flexural stiffness
Auxiliary beams and real beams are used at the floor
level
Auxiliary beam connects slab with walls, columns
and core at the floor level
Real beams connects slab in plane with wall

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Out of Plumb Effects


When

walls or columns are constructed outof-plumb, the gravity loads acting on the
vertical misalignment causes drift and
moment.
Erection tolerances restrict the out-of-plumb
effects to negligible.
If the out-of-plumb P-Delta effects are larger,
then that P-Delta effect should be taken into
consideration for structural design.

To be continued

The erection tolerances used to estimate out-of-plumb


drift (i) vary between various codes of practice.
Typical value for i is (Height of the building)/1000
As per West German Code for reinforced concrete, i is
given as

hi
i
100 H (meters)

where H is the total height of the building


i 0,1,2,3..n
hi height of the single storey

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Foundation Instability
Particular

attention must be given to tall buildings


to take care of the high short-term transient
moments and shear that arises from wind loads.
If the building is not able to resist the moment
caused due to wind load, then there is a cause of
development of tensile stresses which may result
in uplift of the foundation.
Foundation Instability
1. Soil deformation 2. Flexible foundation

Effects of Soil Deformation on


Structural Members
Soil

deformation results in increase of forces


in the horizontal and vertical elements.
If the rotational settlement of the soil
occurs, then lateral deflections will be
increased by H in addition to existing drift.

Effects of Foundation Rotation


on Structural Behavior
A

flexible foundation also affects the overall


stability of structure.
Flexible foundation also increases the
horizontal drift of the structure.

NOTE:
Regarding the increase in deflection due to
foundation rotation derivation, refer to Bryan
Stafford Smith and Alex book (Page No: 415 -416)

Building Failures due to


Foundation Settlement

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P Delta Effect
P
DRIFT

M=P

H
Mi + Ma

P Additional moment
due to eccentricity of
gravity
loading
M Initial
Moment
Mi Initial internal
resistance
M
a Additional internal
resistance due to
Additional
drift

Moment at the base of column


Mub = -WH + P + P

Influence of P Delta
Effect
Second-order P-delta effect additional deflections
and moments are small, usually of less than 5% of
the first-order values.
More flexible structures or structures with heavy
gravity loading has the chance of collapse through
instability.
P-delta effect

Translational P-Delta effect


Torsional P-Delta effect (Building twists and its walls and

frames displace at each floor about its center of rotation)

Collapse due to P effect

Significance of P-Delta
Effect
P-Delta effect is considerable when the lateral
deflections exceed a value of height/500.
For very flexible structures additional deflections
may be caused which may exceed human comfort
criteria.
Strength of the member may be exceeded because
of additional moments.
Instability failure may occur.
Instability may be either translational or rotational.

Methods of analysis for P


Delta Effect
Amplification

factor P delta analysis


Iterative P delta analysis
Iterative gravity load P delta analysis
Direct P delta analysis
Simultaneous first-order and P- delta analysis