Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38


for GRADE 9

An entrepreneur is comprehensively defined by Zimmerer & Scarborough
(2005) as someone who creates a new business in the face of risk and
uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profit and growth by identifying
significant opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to
capitalize on them (p.3). They are the ones who act on their business
Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies
There has been many studies to characterize the entrepreneurial
personality; although there is no isolated set of traits that guarantee
success, there were identified behaviors found common to most successful
entrepreneurs. There is a well-known research on human behavior done by
McClelland and McBer which identified 10 behavioral patterns organized
into three general clusters: the achievement, planning, and power clusters
(SERDEF, 2007; 1998). It was found out that these behaviors were also
typical entrepreneurial behaviors. The entrepreneurial qualities, more
known as the Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) are as follows:

Achievement Cluster
Opportunity seeking Entrepreneurs have a good eye for spotting business
opportunities and acts on these opportunities appropriately.
Persistence - Entrepreneurs do not easily give up in the face of obstacles.
They will take repeated or different actions to overcome the hurdles of business.
This includes making a personal sacrifice or extraordinary effort to complete a
Commitment to work contract - Entrepreneur do their best to satisfy
customers and to deliver what is promised. They accept full responsibility for
problems when completing a job for customers.
Risk-taking - Entrepreneur are known for taking calculated risks and doing
tasks that are moderately challenging.
Demand for efficiency and quality - Entrepreneur see to it that the business
meets or exceeds existing standards of excellence and exerts efforts to improve
past performance and do things better. They set high but realistic standards.

Planning Cluster
Goal setting - Entrepreneur knows how to set specific,
measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-bound (SMART)
goals. It is easy for them to divide large goals into shortterm goals.
Information seeking - Entrepreneur update themselves

with new information about her customers, the market,

suppliers, and competitors. This is rooted to their innate
sense of curiosity.
Systematic planning and monitoring - Entrepreneurs

develop and use logical, step-by-step plans to reach their

goals. They monitor progress towards goals and to alter
strategies when necessary.

Power Cluster
Persuasion and networking - Entrepreneurs
know how to use the right strategies to influence
or persuade other people. They have naturally
established a network of people who they can
turn to in order to achieve their objectives.
Self-confidence - Entrepreneurs have a strong
belief in themselves and their own abilities. They
have self-awareness and belief in their own
ability to complete a difficult task or meet a

Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) Self-rating Questionnaire

Read each statement carefully and answer honestly based on how well it describes you.
There are five choices as follows: 5 = Always, 4 = Usually, 3 = Sometimes, 2 =
and 1 = Never. Please write the number you have selected on the space before
each statement. Some statements may be similar but no two are exactly alike.
Please go through each statement and answer all the item.
_______1. I look for things that need to be done.
_______2. When I am faced with a difficult problem, I spend a lot of time trying to find a
_______3. I complete my work on time.
_______4. It bothers me when things are not done very well.
_______5. I prefer situations in which I can control the outcomes as much as possible.
_______6. I like to think about the future.
_______7. When starting a new task or project, I gather a great deal of information before
going ahead.
_______8. I plan a large project by breaking it down into smaller tasks.
_______9. I get others to support my recommendations.
_______10. I feel confident that I will succeed at whatever I try to do.

_______11. No matter whom Im talking to, Im a good listener.

_______12. I do things that need to be done before being asked to by others.
_______13. I try several times to get people to do what I would like them to do.
_______14. I keep the promises I make.
_______15. My own work is better than that of other people work with.
_______16. I dont try something new without making sure I will succeed.
_______17. Its a waste of time to worry about what to do with your life.
_______18. I seek the advice of people who know a lot about the tasks I am
working on.
_______19. I think about the advantages and disadvantages or different ways of
accomplishing things.
_______20. I do not spend much time thinking how to influence others.
_______21. I change my mind if others disagree strongly with me.
_______22. I feel resentful when I dont get my way.
_______23. I like challenges and new opportunities.
_______24. When something gets in the way of what Im trying to do, I keep on
trying to accomplish what I want.
_______25. I am happy to do someone elses work if necessary to get the job
done on time.

_______26. It bothers me when my time is wasted.

_______27. I weigh my chances of succeeding or failing before I decide to do
_______28. The more specific I can be about what I want out of life, the more chances I
have to succeed.
_______29. I take action without wasting time gathering information.
_______30. I try to think of all the problems I may encounter and plan what to do if
each problem occurs.
_______31. I get important people to help me accomplish my goals.
_______32. When trying something challenging, I feel confident that I will succeed.
_______33. In the past, I have had failures.
_______34. I prefer activities that I know well and with which I am comfortable.
_______35. When faced with major difficulties, I quickly go on to other things.
_______36. When I am doing a job for someone, I make a special effort to make sure
that person is happy with my work.
_______37. I am never entirely happy with the way things are done; I always think there
must be a better way.
_______38. I do things that are risky.
_______39. I have a very clear plan for my life.
_______40. When working on a project for someone, I ask many questions to be sure I
understand what that person wants.

_______ 41. I deal with problems as they arise, rather than spend time trying to
anticipate them.
_______ 42. In order to reach my goals, I think of solutions that benefit.
_______ 43. I do very good work.
_______ 44. There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone.
_______ 45. I try things that are very new and different from what I have done before.
_______ 46. I try several ways to overcome things that get in the way of reaching my
_______ 47. My family and personal life are more important to me than work
deadlines I set for myself.
_______ 48. I find ways to complete tasks faster at work and at home.
_______ 49. I do things that others consider risky.
_______ 50. I am as concerned about meeting my weekly goals as I am for my yearly
_______51. I go to several different sources to get information for tasks or projects.
_______ 52. If one approach to a problem does not work, I think of another approach.
_______ 53. I am able to get people who have strong opinions or ideas to change their
_______ 54. I stick with my decisions even if others disagree strongly with me.
_______55. When I dont know something, I dont mind admitting it.

Business Environment and Market
The study of the business environment in a particular location has
far-reaching and long-term effects on a small or micro enterprises
viability. In fact, business ideas and opportunities are partly shaped
or determined by the business location. Unless it is possible to
migrate to more favorable locations, the ideas and opportunities
for business will oftentimes be delimited to the surrounding areas.
The business environment consists of both the tangible and
intangible factors that affect either the external or internal
business operations. They may include the land area available for
economic zones, the physical layout and barriers such as rivers,
parks or lakes, and building obstructions as well as the
transportation network; all of which are considered tangible factors.

They also include the demography of clients and suppliers,

the competitors in the locale/area and the available technology
for production. The intangible factors, on the other hand,
include the sub-culture, industry trends, economic and
government activity or the political situations in the area.

Test I Multiple Choice

Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
Write the letter of your choice in your quiz notebook.
1. Any substance that causes contamination
a) Contaminant
b) Contamination
c) Infection
2. The loose skin separated from the cuticle.
a) Hangnails b) Bitten Nails c) Bruised Nails d) Split Nails
3. The technical term for nail.
a) Onconail
b) Onyx
c) Onycholysis
d) Onyxil
4. The yellowish fluid that oozes from the wound.
a) Pus
b) Fungus
c) Bacteria
d) Yeast
5. The plastic liners that increase heat retention when used with
a) Plastic bag
b) Plastic
c) Cling wrap bottle d) Mittens

6. The electronic gadget used to soothe pain of arthritis,

muscle spasms and dry cracked skin of the hands.
a) Paraffin wax

b) Hand spa machine c) Foot spa machine d) Handkerchief

7. A condition in which white spots appear on the nails but

do not indicate disease.
a) Leuconychia b) Paronychia c) Koilonychia d) Onychauxis
8. Halfmoon shape found at the base of the nail
a)Cuticle b) Nail bed c) Nail root d) Lunula
9. Visible portion of the nail that is attached to the nail bed.
a)Nail plate b) Nail walls c) Nail grooves d) Nail root
10. The portion of the skin under the free edge of the nail.
a) Nail Walls b) Eponychium c) Hyponychium d) Nail Grooves

11. Any substance or chemical used to destroy bacteria.

a) Antiseptic
b) Disinfectant
c) Contaminant
12. A Japanese term which means that tools, equipment, and
materials must be systematically arranged and organized.
a) Seiri b) Seiton
c) Seiso
d) Seiketsu
13. This is immediately applied when the skin is accidentally cut.
a) Hand lotion
b) Disinfectant
c) Detergent
14. If you notice signs of infection such as pain, swelling, redness,
and pus, you must refer your client to a ______.
a) Physician
b) Nail technician
c) Manicurist
15. The proper way to brush the nails.
a) Any direction
b) Upward movement
c) Sideward movement
d) Downward movement
16. A top coat is applied
A) After color enamel
b) Before color enamel

17. A cosmetic which is used to prevent stains against colored nail

a) Color enamel b) Base coat c) Quick dry d) Cuticle oil
18. This is used to give color to nail body or nail plate.
a) Liquid polish b) Base coat c) Quick dry d) Cuticle oil
19. It is a new nail-imprinting kit that allows you to put designs by
stamping pre-designed images on your nails.
a) Nail stickers b) Nail stamper c) Nail polish d) Nail file
20. The following are the items used as nail accessories except
a) Scraper b) Glitters c) Beads d) Rhinestones
21. This technique consists of dropping nail lacquers into clean
water creating a pattern or design of the resulting art on the
surface; which is then transferred to your nails.
A) Water stamping b) Water sticking
c) Water designing
d) Water marbling

22. Among the tools used in nail designing, which tool is used
to create a simple flower?
a) Nail stripers b) Nail stickers c) Nail dotters d) Nail scraper
23. These are nail polishes that come with a long, thin brush
rather than the usual flat and broad ones.
a) Nail scraper b) Nail striper c) Nail brush d) Nail polish
24. It protects the polish against chipping or cracking.
a) Base coat b) Color enamel c) Top coat d) Cuticle coat
25. Bea will create fancy nail design as her class requirement.
What preparation will she perform before applying it?
a) Basic cleaning

b) Basic brushing

c) Basic designing d) Basic trimming


Hand Spa is a hand care treatment to pamper

our tired hands and to keep the nails look
healthy and strong. This treatment is another
way to relax and relieve stress from day to day
activities accompanied by massage and has
many beneficial effects. Hand Spa which is
used by professional skin care technicians
done in salon and spa shops was found helpful
to combat anti-ageing.
Once you learned the concepts about hand spa, this
could be your stepping stone to augment personal
income. This activity can be performed at home.

As you go through this module, you will be able to

understand the concepts in performing Hand Spa as
an added service to manicure. Readings and
enhancement activities are provided to serve as a
guide for you. So keep going!
At the end of the lesson, the learner is expected to:
1. Analyze condition of the clients hand
2. Observe safety precautions and sanitation at all
3. Prepare the necessary tools, supplies/materials and
equipment for used in hand spa
4. Perform the steps in hand spa following the steps

Lesson 1.1
It is very essential for a manicurist to have knowledge on the
different parts of the nails for this will be your basis in giving nail care
services to your clients.
The nail is an appendage of the skin. Nail is a horny, translucent
plate that protects the tips of the fingers and toes. It is composed
mainly of keratin, a protein substance that forms the base of all
horny tissue. The nail is whitist and transluscent in appearance and
allows the pinkish colour of the nail bed to be seen. The horny plate
contains no nerves or blood vessels
Onyx is the technical term for the nail. The condition of the nail, like
that of the skin, reflects the general health of the body. Onychology
is the study of nail. The nails vary in thickness, being heaviest on the
thumbs and big toes.
The characteristics of healthy nails are firm and flexible, slightly pink
in color and the surface is smooth, curved and unspotted, without
any hollows or wavy ridges.

Diagram of the nail and its structure

The nail consists of three parts: nail body,

nail root and free edge
Nail Body or Nail Plate - visible portion
of the nail that is attached to the nail bed.
Free edge - end portion of the nail plate
which extends beyond the fingertip. It is
shaped during manicure.
Nail root - beginning of nail found at the
base and is embedded underneath the skin.

Structures Beneath the Nail

The structures beneath the nail include the nail bed,
matrix and lunula.
Nail Bed the skin upon which the nail body or
nail plate rests. It is supplied with many blood
vessels and nerves. The blood vessels supply
nourishment for the nail.
Matrix part of the nail bed which contains nerves
and blood vessels and is located beneath the nail
root. It produces cells that generate and harden the
nail and will continue to grow as long as it receives
nutrition and remains in a healthy condition.
Lunula halfmoon shape found at the base of the
nail where the matrix connects with the nail bed.

Structures Surrounding the Nail

The structures surrounding the nail include the cuticle,
eponychium, hyponychium, perionychium, nail walls
and nail grooves
Cuticle - the overlapping skin around the nail. A normal
cuticle should be loose and pliable.
Eponychium - cuticle extension at the base of the nail body
which partly overlaps the lunula
Hyponychium portion of the skin under the free edge of
the nail.
Nail Walls folds of the skin overlapping the sides of the nail
Nail Grooves - are slits or tracks in the skin at the side of
the nail upon which the nail moves as it grows.
Mantle deep fold of the skin in which the nail root is

Nail Growth
There are factors that can influence the growth
of nails such as nutrition, general health and
disease. A nail grows forward, starting at the
matrix and extending over the tip of the finger.
Like hair, nails grow faster in warm weather.
Adults nail growth is about 1/8 inch per month
whereas the nails of the children grow faster
than those of the elderly. Toenails grow slowly
but they are thicker and harder than fingernails.

Lesson 1.2

Examine your own fingernails. Check its

structure and analyze its condition. What have
you observed?
Have you seen somebody who has nail
disorder? Nail problem? Are you aware what
cause it? In your next lesson, you have to
study why some people have nail problems. In
microorganisms can infect and affect your
body particularly the nails and learn more
about how this can be treated.


Did you know your nails can reveal signs to your overall health?
Have you noticed some abnormalities in your fingernails? Are you
aware that problems in the liver, lungs and heart can show up in
your nails? Do you bite your nails? Watch out and learn what your
nails will reveal!
Onychosis refers to any disease, disorder or condition of the nails.
Having knowledge about infections caused by bacteria will prevent
the spread of infectious diseases, preserve the health of the
cosmetologist and the patron and appreciate the value of proper
Pus is the yellowish fluid that oozes from the wound. It is a sign of
infection. White blood cells attack the bacteria and consume them.
The pus contains blood cells, body cells and dead and living
bacteria. Bacteria may invade the body through cuts, scratches or
punctures in the skin or through any of the body openings.

Fungi are plant organisms that live on dead, decaying or living

matter. Some fungi are capable of causing serious infections
but some are harmful and beneficial.
Diseases may be considered contagious or non-contagious. A
disease becomes contagious or communicable when it
spreads from one person to another by direct or indirect
contact. Some of the common contagious diseases are
tuberculosis, common cold, ringworm, scabies, head
lice, and virus infections. Coughing, sneezing, unclean
hands, eating utensils and salon equipment play a role in
spreading diseases. Diseases that are not able to be spread
from person to person are considered as non-contagious.
autoimmune diseases and heart disease are some of the
many diseases that aren't contagious.

Sterilization is the process whereby

microorganisms are destroyed. Equipments
and tools found in salon are needed to be
sterilized. Sanitizing or sanitation refers to
the physical or chemical means used to
keep the salon and its equipment as clean
and free of germs as possible in order to
protect the health of the public.

Nail Disorders are condition

caused by injury to the nails,

diseases or imbalances in the