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Basic Microcontroller System

Microcontroller-Based System

Memory

CPU

I/O
Interface

To I/O

BUS
CPU: Central Processor Unit
Microcontroller
I/O: Input/Output
e.g. M68HC11
Memory: Program and Data
Bus: Address signals, Control signals, and Data signals

Central Processing Unit


(CPU)
68HC11

68HC11 Register Set


7

Accumulator A

15

15

15

15

15
15

Clock is implied

0 7

Accumulator B

Double Accumulator D
INDEX REGISTER X
INDEX REGISTER Y
STACK POINTER
PROGRAM COUNTER

00

68HC11 Memory Address


Space

Instruction Execution Cycle


Fetch Decode - Execute
Fetch stage
Operations code (op-code) is loaded from memory
into the Instruction Register (IR)

Decode stage
Instruction is decoded into a set of microinstructions (e.g. FSM)

Execution stage
The micro-instructions are executed. This may
involve loading the operand from memory.

Instruction Execution Cycle


Comments:
Each instruction requires N clock cycles for
execution. N varies from 2 to 12
An Op-code is also referred to as
Machine code which are the binary codes that are
used to represent the instruction.

Simple Example
Reset EQU $FFFE ; Set symbol Reset to FFFE16
Program EQU $E000 ; Set symbol Program to E00016
ORG Program
; Set the assemblers location to the value
; represented by symbol Program.
Top: LDAA #$23
; Load the A register with 2316
LDAB #$BE
; Load the B register with BE16
ABA
; Add the A and B registers. Result is stored in A.
STAA $1000
; Store the value in the A register in
; memory location $1000. The A reg is
; unchanged.
L0: BRA L0

Org Reset

; Branch to Label L0

; set the assemblers location to the value


; represented by symbol Reset.

FDB Top

; Form a double byte from symbol TOP. Stored it at the


; current memory location.

Simple Example
We can also represent this as:
A $23 ; The A register is assigned $23
B $BE ; The B register is assigned $BE
AA+ B ; A=A+ B
($1000) A ;The contents at memory location
; $0100 is replaced with $23+$BE

Simple Example (cont)


The assembler will convert our program
to:

What do all of these numbers mean?

Simple Example (cont)


Example: $E000 86 23
$E000:
This is the memory location or address where the program or
data is located.

$86
This is the Operation Code or opcode
The opcode is the Hex (i.e. binary) representation of the
instruction.
$86 means LDAA # or
Load the A register with a constant value for the 68HC11

Where is the value to be loaded?

$23
This is the operand for the opcode. For this instruction, 23 is the
constant value to be loaded into the A register.

Simple Example (cont)


Example: $E002 c6 be
$E002:
This is the memory location or address where this program or
data is located.

$C6 (note the change from the previous instruction)


This is the Operation Code or opcode
The opcode is the Hex (i.e. binary) representation of the
instruction.
$c6 means LDAB # or
Load the B register with a constant value for the 68HC11

Where is the value to be loaded?

$be
This is the operand for the opcode. For this instruction, 23 is the
constant value to be loaded into the A register.

Simple Example (cont)


$E004 1b
$1b = ABA
Note: we dont need an operand for this one

$E005 b7 10 00
$b7 = STAA in an extended memory address
address is stored at the operand
$1000 is the storage address
Note: the contents at location $1000 are
overwritten

Simple Example (cont)


$E008 20 fe
$20 = This is the BRAnch opcode.
The program counter (PC) is set to
PC= PC + relative address (signed addition)

$fe is the relative address.


After fetching the instruction, the PC points to the next
instruction.
In this case

PC = $E00A, after fetching this instruction


PC = $E00A + $FE = $E00A + $FFFE(sign extended)
PC = $E008 (or we branch right back to this instruction)
This is an infinite loop. How do we get out of this?

Simple Example (cont)


Hit the RESET button!!!!!!
$FFFE E0 00
This is data (not program) stored in the
Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) at the Reset
interrupt location.
This will cause our program to begin
executing the program stored at location
$E000 whenever we hit the Reset button.

Simple Example (cont)


In memory, our program appears as
$E000: 86 23 c6 be 1b b7 10 00 20 fe
..
$FFFE: E0 00
When we hit the Reset button, the Program
counter is set equal to the data stored at location
$FFFE.

Instruction Execution Cycle


How does this all work?
Recall, Instruction Execution Cycle
Fetch Decode Execute
Fetch stage
Operations code (op-code) is loaded from memory into
the Instruction Register (IR)

Decode stage
Instruction is decoded into a set of micro-instructions
(e.g. FSM)

Execution stage
The micro-instructions are executed. This may involve
loading the operand from memory.

Simple Example (cont)

When we hit the Reset button, the


Program counter is set equal to the data
stored at location $FFFE, or
1. PC ($FFFE) = $E000
Program counter is loaded with the contents
of memory location $FFFE

Simple Example (cont)


2.

Fetch Opcode
IR ($E000) = 86

3.

Decode Opcode
CPU decodes as LDAA #

4.

Execute opcode
CPU fetches operand as next byte from program memory.
Instruction is executed.
Program counter is incremented PC = PC + 2

Process repeats for next byte

Simple Example (cont)


2.

Fetch Opcode
IR ($E002) = c6

3.

Decode Opcode
CPU decodes as LDAB #

4.

Execute opcode
CPU fetches operand as next byte from program memory.
Instruction is executed.
Program counter is incremented PC = PC + 2

Process repeats for next byte


..

TPS Quiz

THRSIM11

Design Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Use THRSIM11 to develop program


Assemble program with THRSIM11 assembler
Correct any assembly errors
Simulate program using THRSIM11 simulator
Correct any logical errors
Download program to board (if needed)
Correct any hardware errors

Assembler
An assembler converts the assembly
language program into machine code.
The machine code is also known as the
op-code. We will use a Mnemonic (e.g.
LDAA) to represent this op-code.

Assembler THRSIM 11
Well use the THRSIM11 assembler
Syntax: () = Optional
(Label) Opcode (Operand) (Comment)
Ex:
Loop:

LDAA #$2F Load Accumulator A with


Hex $2f

Label Field - Optional


Must start in the first position of line
One to fifteen characters
Upper- and lower-case letters a-z
Case sensitive

Digits 0-9, Period (.), Dollar sign ($), or underscore (_)

First character must be


Alphabetic, period, or underscore

Last character should be a colon (:) (BP)


Label may be by itself

Label Field - Optional


Labels must be unique
If an asterisk (*) is the first character, the
rest of the line is considered a Comment.

Op-code or Operation Field


Required field
Contains mnemonic for the operation or
assembler directive (or pseudooperation)
Not case sensitive
Must not begin in the first position
Will be treated as label if it begins in the first
position

Operand Field
Operand of Op-Code (if, needed)
Can consist of:
Symbols assembler replaces the symbol
with its value
Ex: COUNT EQU $5F

LDAA COUNT
EQU is an assembler directive. It instructions the
assembler to replace the symbol COUNT with the
value of $5F, so the above is equivalent to:

LDAA $5F

Operand Field
Constants - Value does not change
Formats:

$ = Hex: Ex: COUNT EQU $5A


% = Binary: Ex: COUNT EQU %01011010
Blank = Decimal: Ex: COUNT EQU 70
= ASCII: COUNT EQU 0 (i.e. $30)
Note: assembler will convert each format to HEX

Constants must be consistent with


bit width (i.e. 8-bit or 16-bit)
type (i.e. signed or unsigned)

Operand Field
Expressions Assembler can evaluate
simple expressions to compute the value
of the operand
Operators

+ = Addition
- = Subtraction
* = Multiplication
/ = Division

Operand Field
Expressions
Operators (continued)

% = Remainder after division


& = Bitwise AND
| = Bitwise OR
^ = Bitwise XOR

Evaluated by assembler from left to right


Signed twos complement arithmetic
Can use only constants

Operand Field
Expressions
Examples
COUNT EQU $1F
EX1: LDAA COUNT+$0A
A ($1F+$0A) = ($19)

Assembler Directive: EQU

Equates a symbol to a value


Syntax:
Label EQU Expression (comment)
Note: the Label is NOT stored in memory. Label
is just an alias for expression
Ex:
TEST EQU $3000

LDX #TEST
This is the same as
LDX #$3000

Assembler Directive: ORG

Set assemblers counter to expression


Syntax:
(Label) ORG Expression (comment)
Ex:
Code EQU $3000

ORG Code
Assembler assumes Program Counter now
contains the value of $3000

Assembler Directive: RMB

Reserve memory bytes


Syntax:
(Label) RMB Expression (comment)
Ex:
Buffer1 RMB $10
Buffer2 RMB $10
The assembler saves $10 bytes of RAM for a data
buffer located at address Buffer1. For example, if
Buffer1 is located at address $2000, assembler will
locate Buffer2 at $2000+$0010 = $2010.

Assembler Directive: FCB


Form constant byte
Syntax:
(Label) FCB Expression, (Exp), (Exp), (comment)

Stores a constant byte in a memory location. Note:


difference with EQU

Ex:

Data

EQU $1000
ORG Data
Buffer1 FCB $10,$FA,$2F
Result is at memory address $1000, we have
$1000: 10 FA 2F

Assembler Directive: FDB


Stands for Form Double-Byte constant
Using square brackets [ ] to denote optional elements
Syntax:
[label][:] FDB expression [, expression] [, expression] [comment]

Semantics (meaning, function, behavior):


Stores one or more 16-bit values in subsequent memory
locations.
Uses Big Endian format: stores MSB first, LSB second.

Note the difference between this and EQU!


EQU assigns the symbol (label) to the value of given Expression
FCB, FDB, etc. assign the symbol to the current address, and
specify the contents of memory starting at that address

Example:
Buffer1 FDB $10FA,$2FFF
Contents of memory bytes starting at address Buffer1:
$10, $FA, $2F, $FF

Assembler Directive: FCC


Stands for Form Constant Character string
Syntax:
[label][:] FCC string [comment]

Converts the given string into its ASCII equivalent.


ASCII = American Standard Code for Information
Interchange
See http://www.asciitable.com for a list of codes.

Example:
String: FCC Hello
The data bytes stored at address String are
$48, $65, $6c, $6c, $6f

A few other useful directives


BSZ Block Storage of Zeros
A.k.a. ZMB Zero Memory Bytes
Like RMB, but clears each memory byte to 0.

FILL Fill memory with constant


Syntax: FILL value, howMany
Stores value at next howMany bytes.

OPT Assembler output options


Syntax: OPT opt1 [, opt2 ]
Each opti is one of these tags: c, cre, l, noc, nol, or s.
See textbook, pp.29 & 31 for details.

PAGE Output a page break in program listing

Comment Field
Available with all assembler directives and
instructions.
Placed after operand field
Use asterisk to indicate comment in first
character position

Need comments at the beginning of


program (BP)
Need comment on every line. (BP)

EEL-4746 Best Practices

EEL-4746 Best Practices


1. All programs submitted for homework
assignments must begin with the following
comment:
***************************
*
EEL-4746 Spring 2004 Semester
*
Homework #N Due (Due Date)
*
Problem #M
*
Name of Partner A
*
Name of Partner B
****************************
*
Description of Program

EEL-4746 Best Practices


2. All subroutines must begin with the
following comment
***************************
*
Subroutine Name: Mysub
*
Input parameter list:
*
Output parameter list:
*
Registers changed list:
****************************
*
Description of Subroutine

EEL-4746 Best Practices


3. All lines must contain a comment
4. All labels must end with a colon (:)
5. Must declare and use a symbol for all
constants, using EQU.

EEL-4746 Best Practices


6. Program must have a well-organized overall format, such
as:
Header Comment, from previously
***********************
*

Standard Symbols

Data
EQU $0200 ; Start of RAM in U5, to $FFF
Program EQU $1040 ; Just above config registers
Stack
EQU $7FFF ; Top of RAM in U5
Reset
EQU $FFFE ; Reset vector location
************************

(Define your own symbols here)


***********************
*
Program area

Start:

ORG Program
1st program line

; comment

***********************
*
Data area
ORG Data
Symbol
Directive

Example
Write an 68HC11 assembly language
program to monitor the temperature of a
power plant. If the temp >= 50C, sound
the alarm.
Given the following memory addresses
Analog to digital converter = temperature (in Hex)
Port B bit 0 = Output alarm
0 no alarm
1 alarm will sound

Pseudo-Code

MC68HC11 Instruction Set

M68HC11 Instruction Set


Categories
Load and Store
Stack
Transfer
Decrement and Increment
Clear and Set
Shift and Rotate
Arithmetic Instructions

Arithmetic Instructions

Add and Subtract


Decimal Arithmetic
Negating Instruction
Multiplication
Division

Other Instructions

Logic
Data Test
Conditional Branch
Unconditional Jump and Branch
Subroutines
Interrupt
Miscellaneous

Instruction Cycle
1. IR (PC)
Opcode is fetched into Instruction Register

2. Instruction is decoded
3. Data or address is loaded from memory
(if needed)
Program Counter is updated

4. Instruction is executed (if needed)

Load Instructions
Mnemonic Operation
LDAA Load Accumulator A
LDAB Load Accumulator B
LDD - Load Accumulator D
LDS - Load Stack Pointer
LDX - Load Index X Register
LDY - Load Index Y Register

Addressing modes:
Condition codes:

All except INH


Set N,Z and V=0

Mnemonic Machine Code


Immediate Mode
LDAA #$02

86 02

Direct Addressing Mode


LDAA $02

96 02

Extended Addressing Mode


LDAA $1002

B6 10 02

Register Indexed (X = $1000)


LDAA $02, X

A6 02

Register Indirect (X = $1002)


LDAA 0,X

A6 00

Store Instructions
Mnemonic Operation

STAA Store Accumulator A


STAB Store Accumulator B
STD Store Accumulator D
STS Store Stack Pointer
STX Store Index X Register
STY Store Index Y Register

Addressing modes: All except IMM and INH


Condition codes: N,Z and V=0

Mnemonic Machine Code


Immediate Mode
STAA #$02

(Illegal operation)

Direct Addressing Mode


STAA $02

5A 02

Extended Addressing Mode


STAA $1002

7A 10 02

Register Index (X = $1000)


STAA $02, X

6A 02

Register Indirect (X = $1002)


STAA 0,X

6A 00

Notation: Memory Locations


$C000: 12 34 56 78 9A BC DE F0
This means the hex bytes shown are
contained in consecutive memory locations
starting from address $C000.

In other words:
[$C000]=$12, [$C001]=$34, [$C002]=$56,
[$C003]=$78, [$C004]=$9A, [$C005]=$BC,
[$C006]=$DE, [$C007]=$F0

Notation: Memory Locations


You can visualize the
memory bytes as
arranged in a table
$C000: 12 34 56 78
9A BC DE F0
Gives this table:

Address
$C000
$C001
$C002
$C003
$C004
$C005
$C006
$C007

Data
$12
$34
$56
$78
$9A
$BC
$DE
$F0

16-bit Load and Store


For a 16-bit (2 byte) load and store, the high byte is stored at the
lower address and the low byte is stored at the higher address.

This is called big endian byte ordering


The big end of the word comes first.

Ex: $C000: 12 34 56 78 9A BC DE
LDAA $C001 A ($C001) = $34
LDX $C002
X $5678
STX $C004
($C004) $5678
$C000: 12 34 56 78 56 78

Transfer Register Instructions


Mnemonic Operation

TAB : Transfer A to B:
TBA : Transfer B to A:
TSX : Transfer SP to X:
TSY : Transfer SP to Y:
TXS : Transfer X to SP:
TYS : Transfer X to SP:
XGDX: Exchange D and X:
XGDY: Exchange D and Y:

B (A)
A (B)
X (SP) + 1
Y (SP) +1
SP (IX) -1
SP (IY) 1
X D
Y D

Addressing modes: INH Only


Condition codes: N,Z and V=0 (TAB and TBA
only)

Decrement Instructions
Mnemonic Operation

DECA
DECB
DES
DEX
DEY

: Decrement A: A <- (A) 1


: Decrement B: B <- (B) 1
: Decrement SP: SP <- (SP) -1
: Decrement X : X <- (X) - 1
: Decrement Y : Y <- (Y) 1

Addressing modes: INH Only


Condition codes:
DECA,DECB: N,Z and V
DEX, DEY: Z
DES: none

Decrement Instructions
Mnemonic Operation
DEC : Decrement Mem: (M) <- (M) -1

Addressing modes: All but INH


Condition codes: N,Z and V

Increment Instructions
Mnemonic Operation

INCA
INCB
INS
INX
INY

: Increment A: A <- (A) + 1


: Increment B: B <- (B) + 1
: Increment SP: SP <- (SP) + 1
: Increment X : X <- (X) + 1
: Increment Y : Y <- (Y) + 1

Addressing modes: INH Only


Condition codes:
INCA,INCB: N,Z and V
INX, INY: Z
INS: none

Increment Instructions
Mnemonic Operation
INC : Increment Mem: (M) <- (M) +1

Addressing modes: All but INH


Condition codes: N,Z and V

Clear Instructions
Mnemonic Operation
CLR : Clear Memory: (M) <- 0
CLRA : Clear A: A <- 0
CLRB : Clear B: B <- 0

Addressing modes:
CLR: EXT, IX, IY
CLRA, CLRB: INH only

Condition codes: N=0,Z=1,V=0,C=0

Clear and Set Bit Instructions


Mnemonic Operation
BCLR : Clear Bits
BSET : Set Bits

Addressing modes: Direct, Index


Condition codes: N,Z,V=0
Example:
BCLR $33 $AA
Clear bits 2,4,6, and 8 at memory add $33

Arithmetic Instructions - ADD


Mnemonic Operation

ABA: Add B to A: A <- (A) + (B)


ABX: Add B to X: X <- (X) + (B)
ABY: Add B to Y: Y <- (Y) + (B)
ADDA: Add memory to A: A <- (A) + (M)
ADDB: Add memory to B: B <- (B) + (M)
ADDD: Add memory to D: D <- (D) + (M:M+1)
ADCA: Add memory to A and C: A<- (A)+ (M) +C
ADCB: Add memory to B and C: B<- (B)+ (M) +C

Addressing modes: INH or All except IHN


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C (except X and Y)

Arithmetic Instructions - Sub


Mnemonic Operation

SBA: Sub B from A: A <- (A) + (B)


SUBA: Sub memory from A: A <- (A) - (M)
SUBB: Sub memory from B: B <- (B) - (M)
SUBD: Sub memory from D: D <- (D) - (M:M+1)
SBCA: Sub memory and C from A: A<- (A)-(M)-C
SBCB: Sub memory and C from B: B<- (B)-(M)-C

Addressing modes: INH or All except IHN


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C

Arithmetic Instructions - Neg


Mnemonic Operation
NEG: 2s comp memory: (m) -1*(M)
NEGA: 2s comp A : A -1*(A)
NEGB: 2s comp B : B -1*(B)

Addressing modes: INH or Ext, Ix, Iy


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C

Condition Code Register


Special Register used for control and
provide arithmetic information to
programmer and CPU.

Condition Code Register


S

Condition Code Register


7

S = Stop
X = X Interrupt Bit
I = Interrupt Mask

Control Bits

N = Negative
Z = Zero
V = Overflow
C = Carry
H = Half Carry

Arithmetic Bits

Compare Instructions - CMP


Mnemonic Operation

CBA: Compare B to A:
A-B
CMPA: Compare memory to A:
CMPB: Compare memory to B:
CMPD: Compare memory to D:
CMPX: Compare memory to X:
CMPY: Compare memory to Y:

A - (M)
B - (M)
D - (M:M+1)
X - (M:M+1)
Y (M:M+1)

Addressing modes: INH or All except IHN


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C
Note: Only Condition Code Register (CCR) is changed
by these instructions. All other registers unaffected.

Examples of SBA (AB) results


Minuend (A)
7F
80
81

AB

00

01

(0)

(1)

(127)

(128, 128)

(129, 127)

(255, 1)

00

00
NZVC

01
NZVC

7F
NZVC

80
NZVC

81
NZVC

FF
NZVC

FF
NZVC

00
NZVC

7E
NZVC

7F
NZVC

80
NZVC

FE
NZVC

81
NZVC

82
NZVC

00
NZVC

01
NZVC

02
NZVC

80
NZVC

80
NZVC

81
NZVC

FF
NZVC

00
NZVC

01
NZVC

7F
NZVC

7F
NZVC

80
NZVC

FE
NZVC

FF
NZVC

00
NZVC

7E
NZVC

01
NZVC

02
NZVC

80
NZVC

81
NZVC

82
NZVC

00
NZVC

(0)

Subtrahend (B)

01
(1)

7F
(127)

80
(128, 128)

81
(129, 127)

FF
(255, 1)

FF

Branch Instructions
A Branch Instruction typically follows a
Compare instruction. The Branch
instruction will branch if certain CCR bits
are set or clear

Branch Instructions
BRA Branch Always
Unconditional Branch (i.e. GoTo)

BEQ - Branch if equal


Z bit = 1

BNE Branch if not equal


Z bit = 0

BCC Branch if Carry Clear


C bit = 0

BCS Branch if Carry Set


C bit = 1

Branch Instructions
BMI - Branch if Minus
Branch if N = 1

BPL Branch if Plus (Positive or Zero)


Branch if N = 0

BVS Branch if Overflow Set


Branch if V=1

BVC Branch if Overflow Clear


Branch if V=0

Branch Instructions
Unsigned
BHI - Branch if High
Unsigned, Branch if C OR Z = 0

BHS Branch if Higher or Same


Unsigned, Branch if C=0

BLO Branch if Low


Unsigned, Branch if C = 1

BLS Branch if Lower or Same


Unsigned, Branch if C OR Z = 1

Branch Instructions
Signed
BGE - Branch if Greater Than or Equal
Signed, Branch if N XOR V = 0

BGT Branch if Greater Than


Signed, Branch if Z OR (N XOR V) = 0

BLE Branch if Less Than or Equal


Signed, Branch if Z OR (N XOR V) = 1

BLT Branch if Less Than


Signed, Branch if (N XOR V) = 1

Signed vs. Unsigned Inequalities


Branch
Signed

Test

Rationale

BLT

NV = 1

A<B if AB is really negative;


but if V=1 then the sign bit is wrong.

BGE

NV = 0

AB if its not true that A<B.

BLE

Z+(NV) = 1

AB if either A<B,
or if A=B (that is if AB=0, so Z=1).

BGT

Z+(NV) = 0

A>B if its not true that AB.

Unsigned

BLO,BCS C = 1

A<B if AB produced a carry


(borrow) out of its high-order bit.

BHS,BCC C = 0
BLS
C+Z = 1
BHI
C+Z = 0

AB if its not true that A<B.


AB if either A<B or A=B (Z=1).
A>B if its not true that AB.

The Seven Possible Subtraction/


Comparison Outcomes
They are: (1) Normal, (2) Carry, (3) Overflow,
(4) Zero, (5) Negative, (6) Negative-Carry, and
(7) Negative-Overflow-Carry.
Examples
Subtract
B from A (SBA)

AB=?

Condition
Code Flags

Universal

Signed Only

Unsigned

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B
N E M P G L G L V V H H L L
N Z V C E Q I L E E T T S C I S O S

FF 80 = 7F

N Z V C

01 FF = 02

N Z V C

81 7F = 02

N Z V C

80 80 = 00

N Z V C

FF 7F = 80

N Z V C

80 81 = FF

N Z V C

7F 81 = FE

N Z V C

Proof this list is exhaustive


If Z=1, then clearly N=V=C=0.
Thus our list only includes one line where Z=1.

If V=1, then C=N, because:


If V=1, then either AB>127, or AB < 128.
If AB>127, then A>0, and B<0 (so that B>0).
Thus, A<$80 and B$80, so AB will do a carry (C=1).
Also, the result of AB will be <0 ($80), so N=1.

If AB<128, then A<0 and B>0 (so that B<0).


Thus, A$80 and B<$80, so AB causes no carry (C=0).
Also, the result of AB will be >0 (<$80), so N=0.

In either case, we note that C=N.

For V=0 we list all 4 combinations of C and N,


but for V=1 we need only C=N=0 and C=N=1.

Branch Examples
Example 1

LDAA #$F2 (-14, signed) (242 unsigned)


LDAB #$F0 (-16 signed) (240 unsigned)
CBA (Compute A-B)

Result is $F2-$F0 = $F2 + $10 = $102 => $02

N bit = 0 (result is not negative)


Z bit = 0 (result is not zero)
V bit = 0 (2s comp overflow did not occur)
C bit = 0 (this is really, not carry out)

Note: A > B for both signed and unsigned numbers.


The following instructions will branch
BNE,BGE,BGT,BHI,BHS

Branch Example
Example 2

LDAA #$F2 (-14, signed) (242 unsigned)


LDAB #$F2 (-14, signed) (242 unsigned)
CBA (Compute A-B)

Result is $F2-$F2 = $F2+$0E=$100 => $00

N bit = 0
Z bit = 1 (result is zero)
V bit = 0
C bit = 0 (not carry out)

Note: A = B for both signed and unsigned numbers.


The following instructions will branch
BEQ,BGE,BLE,BHS,BLS

Branch Example
Example 3

LDAA #$F2 (-14, signed) (242 unsigned)


LDAB #$FF (-1, signed) (255 unsigned)
CBA (Compute A-B)

Result is $F2-$FF = $F2 + $01 = $0F3

N bit = 1 (result is negative: -13)


Z bit = 0
V bit = 0
C bit = 1 (not carry out)

Note: A < B for both signed and unsigned numbers.


The following instructions will branch
BNE,BLE,BLT,BLO,BLS

Branch Example
Example 4

LDAA #$F2 (-14, signed) (242 unsigned)


LDAB #$02 (2, signed) (2 unsigned)
CBA (Compute A-B)

Result is $F2-$02 = $F2+$FE=$1F0

N bit = 1 (result is negative: signed- positive unsigned)


Z bit = 0
V bit = 0
C bit = 0 (not carry out)

Note: A < B for signed and A>B unsigned numbers.


The following instructions will branch
BNE,BLE,BLT,BHI,BHS

Branch Example
Example 5

LDAA #$02 (2, signed) (2 unsigned)


LDAB #$F2 (-14, signed) (242 unsigned)
CBA (Compute A-B)

Result is $02-$F2 = $02+$0E=$10

N bit = 0 (result is positive signed: negative unsigned)


Z bit = 0
V bit = 0
C bit = 1 (not carry out)

Note: A > B for signed and A<B unsigned numbers.


The following instructions will branch
BNE,BGE,BGT,BLO,BLS

Branch Example
Example 6

LDAA #$80 (-128 signed, +128 unsigned)


LDAB #$7F (+127 signed, +127 unsigned)
CBA (Compute A-B)

Result is $80-$7F = $80+$81=$101

N bit = 0 (result is negative unsigned, positive signed)


Z bit = 0
V bit = 1 (Twos comp overflow)
C bit = 0 (not carry out)

Twos comp overflow occurs when the carry into the


MSB is not equal to the carry out of the MSB. In this
case, carry in =0 and carry out = 1

Branch Example
Example 6

LDAA #$80 (-128 signed, +128 unsigned)


LDAB #$7F (+127 signed, +127 unsigned)
CBA (Compute A-B)

Result is $80-$7F = $80+$81=$101

N bit = 0 (result is negative unsigned, positive signed)


Z bit = 0
V bit = 1 (Twos comp overflow)
C bit = 0 (not carry out)

Note: A < B for signed and A>B unsigned numbers.


The following instructions will branch
BNE,BLE,BLT,BHS,BHI

Example 4-43
Let A=$FF and ($1000) = $00
Given Code Fragment:
CMPA $1000

Indicate whether each of the following


branches will be taken
BGE, BLE, BGT, BLT, BEQ, BNE, BHS,
BLS, BHI, BLO

Example 4-43: Solution


Let A=$FF and ($1000) = $00
BGE, BLE, BGT, BLT, BEQ, BNE, BHS,
BLS, BHI, BLO
CMPA $1000
As an unsigned number A = 255
So, for unsigned numbers A>$00, A <> $00

Unsigned Branches
BHS yes, BLS no, BHI yes, BLO no

Example 4-43: Solution


Let A=$FF and ($1000) = $00
BGE, BLE, BGT, BLT, BEQ, BNE, BHS,
BLS, BHI, BLO
CMPA $1000
As a signed number A = -1
So, for signed numbers A<$00, A <> $00

Signed Branches
BGE no, BLE yes, BGT no, BLT yes

Example 4-43:
Solution Summary
Signed Branches
BGE no, BLE yes, BGT no, BLT yes

Unsigned Branches
BHS yes, BLS no, BHI yes, BLO no

Other Branches
BEQ no, BNE yes

TPS Quiz

Test Instructions - TST


Test if Memory = 0
Mnemonic Operation
TST: Test memory = 0: (m) - 0
TSTA: Test A = 0 : A - 0
TSTB: Test B = 0: B - 0

Addressing modes: INH or Ext, X, Y


Condition codes: N,Z,V=0,C=0

Test Example
PULA ; A (SP)
* Pull instruction does not affect CCR
TSTA ; Tests if A=0
* This instruction will set N and Z bits
BPL Label ; Branch if A>0

Test Bits Instructions - BIT


Mnemonic Operation
BITA: AND Register A with memory: A AND (MEM)
BITB: AND Register B with memory: B AND (MEM)

Addressing modes: IMM,DIR, Ext, X, Y


Condition codes: N,Z,C=V=0
Note: Memory does NOT change, Only CCR

Bit Example
Memory EQU $1000
MASK EQU %10000000

LDAA #MASK ; A ($80)


BITA Memory ; Result = $80 AND $FF = $80
; N=1 and Z=0
ORG Data
Memory FCB $FF
*

Shifting Instructions

Shift Bit Instructions - ASL


Mnemonic Operation

ASL Arithmetic Shift Left Memory


ASLA: Arithmetic Shift Left A
ASLB: Arithmetic Shift Left B
ASLD: Arithmetic Shift Left D (16 bits)

Addressing modes: INH or Direct, Index


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C

Multiplies by 2

Shift Bit Instructions - ASR


Mnemonic Operation

ASR Arithmetic Shift Right Memory


ASRA: Arithmetic Shift Right A
ASRB: Arithmetic Shift Right B
ASRD: Arithmetic Shift Right D (16 bits)

Addressing modes: INH or Direct, Index


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C

Sign bit preserved

Divides by 2

Shift Bit Instructions - LSL


Mnemonic Operation

LSL Logical Shift Left Memory


LSLA: Logical Shift Left A
LSLB: Logical Shift Left B
LSLD: Logical Shift Left D (16 bits)

Addressing modes: INH or Direct, Index


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C

Multiplies by 2

Shift Bit Instructions - LSR


Mnemonic Operation

LSR Logical Shift Right Memory


LSRA: Logical Right Left A
LSRB: Logical Right Left B
LSRD: Logical Right Left D (16 bits)

Addressing modes: INH or Direct, Index


Condition codes: N=0,Z,V,C

Divides by 2

Shift Bit Instructions - ROR


Mnemonic Operation
ROR Rotate Right Memory
RORA: Rotate Right A
RORB: Rotate Right B

Addressing modes: INH or Direct, Index


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C

Shift Bit Instructions - ROL


Mnemonic Operation
ROL Rotate Left Memory
ROLA: Rotate Left A
ROLB: Rotate Left B

Addressing modes: INH or Direct, Index


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C

Logic Instructions
Mnemonic Operation

ANDA: Logical A and mem: A A AND (M)


ANDB: Logical B and mem: B B AND (M)
EORA: Exclusive OR A and mem: AA XOR (M)
EORB: Exclusive OR B and mem: BB XOR (M)
ORAA: OR A and mem: A A OR (M)
ORAB: OR B and mem: B B OR (M)

Addressing modes: All except IHN


Condition codes: N,Z,V,C

Complement Instructions
Mnemonic Operation
COM: 1s Complement of mem: (M) (M)
COMA: 1s Comp of A: A (A)
COMB: 1s Comp of B: B(B)

Addressing modes: INH or EXT, X, Y (mem)


Condition codes: N,Z,V=0,C=1

Subroutine Instructions
JMP/JSR/BSR/RTS

JMP Instructions
Jump to Address
Similar to BRA but uses absolute address

Mnemonic Operation
JMP Address

Addressing modes: EXT, X, Y


Condition codes: none
PC Address

JMP Example
Program EQU $E000
Stack
EQU $00FF
ORG Program
E000: 8E 00 FF Top:
E003: 7E E0 03 Done:
********** Compare with
E000: 8E 00 FF Top:
E003: 20 FE
Done:

LDS #Stack
JMP Done
LDS #Stack
BRA Done

Why use JMP instead of BRA?

Why use JMP instead of BRA?


We can only Branch up to -128 to +127 bytes from the
current address. If we need to Branch to an address
outside of this range, well need to use JMP instruction.
* EXAMPLE. Assume FAR_LABEL is +$1000 bytes away
from this address
TSTA
BEQ FAR_LABEL
LDAA #NUMA ; This is the A<>0 code
* This code will give us an error (out of range)

Why use JMP instead of BRA?


* We need to use a JMP instead
TSTA
BNE L1
; Use a BNE because the label
; is local.
JMP FAR_LABEL
L1: LDAA #NUMA ; This is the A<>0 code

JSR Instructions
Jump to Subroutine
Similar to JMP except we have the ability to return to
the calling program. Same as HLL.

Mnemonic Operation
JSR Address

Addressing modes: DIR, EXT, X, Y


Condition codes: none
PSH PC ; Program Counter pushed onto stack
PC Address

JSR Instruction
JSR
Pushes Program Counter onto Stack
Note: PC is pointing to the next instruction

Loads PC with Addressing of Subroutine


Starts executing program beginning at EA

How do we return from the subroutine?

BSR Instructions
Branch to Subroutine
Mnemonic Operation
BSR Relative_Address

Addressing modes: REL


Condition codes: none
PSH PC ; Program Counter pushed onto stack
PC PC + Relative_Address
Note: PC is pointing to the NEXT instruction.

JMP/JSR/BSR Instructions
JMP Jump to Address
Unconditional jump to address

JSR- Jump to Subroutine


Unconditional jump to subroutine

BSR Branch to Subroutine


Unconditional branch to a subroutine

RTS - Instruction
RTS Return from Subroutine
PULL PC from Stack
Recall this contains the EA of the instruction
following the original JSR/BSR

PC Value pulled from stack


Execute program

Note: You must POP anything you have


PUSHed onto the stack or the RTS will start
executing the wrong program

Special Arithmetic Operations

Hexadecimal Number System

Base 16
Sixteen Digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F
Example: EF5616
Positional Number System
n1

16 L 16 16 16 16 16

0000

0100

1000

1100

0001

0101

1001

1101

0010

0110

1010

1110

0011

0111

1011

1111

Packed Binary Coded Decimals


(Packed BCDs)
Use 4-bits 0-9 to represent a decimal number
Example: 123410
As hex = $4D2
As BCD =$0102, $0304
As Packed BCD = $1234

Example: 5137
As Hex = $1411
As BCD = $0501,$0307
As Packed BCD = $5137

Subroutine Example
*************************
*
Subroutine Name: Bcd2Asc
*
Input parameter list:
A
*
Output parameter list: A,B
****************************
* This routine converts a Packed BCD byte in A
* into a pair of ASCII characters in A,B.
**************************************************
LOWER
EQU
$0F
; Mask for low nybble
UPPER
EQU
$F0
; Mask for high nybble
ASCII
EQU
$30
; ASCII code for numeral 0
Bcd2Asc: TAB
; Copy A register to B
ANDB #LOWER
; Mask-select lower nybble of B
ADDB #ASCII
; Convert B to ASCII code
ANDA #UPPER
; Mask-select upper nybble of A
LSRA
; Logical shift right 4
positions
LSRA
LSRA
LSRA
ADDA #ASCII
; Convert A to ASCII

Using Subroutine
* Standard equates
CODE
EQU $E000
DATA
EQU $0000
STACK
EQU $7FFF
EOS
EQU $FF
array
result

ORG
FCB
RMB

ORG
Main:
LDS
LDX
LDY
Loop:
LDAA
CMPA
BEQ
JSR
STD
INX
INY
INY
BRA
Done:
WAI
Infloop: BRA

;
;
;
;

Start
Start
Start
Well

code in EEPROM
data in page 0 internal RAM
stack at top of external RAM.
use hex $FF to mark end-of-string of BCD bytes.

DATA
$01,$23,$45,$67,$89,EOS
10

; Begin data segment.


; Array of packed BCD bytes
; We'll put the resulting chars here

CODE
#STACK
#array
#result
0,X
#EOS
Done
BCD2ASC
0,Y

;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;

Loop

; Do it all again
; End of main program, wait for interrupts
; If we ever get here, stay here

Infloop

Begin code segment.


Load stack pointer
Load address of data array
Ditto for result array
Get byte to convert
Compare byte with end of string
If end of string, then stop
Call subroutine to do conversion
Store D in result array
Go to the next input byte
Go to next output word

Decimal Arithmetic Instruction


DAA Decimal Adjust A Instruction
Used to adjust the result of the addition of two
packed BCDs
Use immediately after the ADDA instruction.
Affects the A register

Example:

34 = $22 (hex) or $34 as packed BCD


29 = $1D (hex) or $29 as packed BCD
$34+$29 = $5D (not a valid packed BCD)
DAA: A (A) +$06 = $63 (correct packed BCD)

Decimal Arithmetic Instruction


DAA Decimal Adjust Instruction
Why do we add $06?
Note:
$01+$09 = $0A + $06 = $10

What about $01+$02 = $03?


DAA checks CCR to determine if adjust is
needed, so DAA: $03+$00 = $03
See reference manual (p.536) for a
complete list of cases

MUL Instruction
MUL Multiply Instruction
Multiplies 8-bit unsigned numbers loaded into the A
and B registers
D AB
Max result = $FF$FF = $FE01 = 65,020 =2552
For signed multiplication:
Determine sign of A and B
()()=(+), (+)(+)=(+),
NEG negative numbers
MUL, NEG (if needed)

()(+)=(),

Range: -1282 = -16,384 = $E100 to


+1272 = 16,129 = $3F01

(+)()=()

IDIV Instruction
IDIV Integer Divide Instruction
Divides 16-bit unsigned D register by the 16-bit
unsigned X register
Quotient is stored in the X register
X Integer portion of D/X

Remainder is stored in the D register


D D Integer portion of D/X

If X is $0000, C 1, and D $FFFF


For signed division
Determine sign of A and B
(-)/(-)=+ (+)/(+)=+ (-)/(+)=(-) (+)/(-)= NEG negative numbers
IDIV, NEG (if, needed)

Fractional Numbers
Recall 20=1, 21=2, 22=4, .
But, we can also go the other way
2-1=0.5, 2-2=0.25, 2-3=0.125, 2-4=0.0625,

In general, we have 2-n=1/2n


So, for example, to represent
2.5 = %10.10 and 5.25 = %101.01
Check: 2+0+0.5+0=2.5
Check: 4+0+1+0+0.25=5.25

Fractional Numbers
We have
2.5 = %10.10 and 5.25 = %101.01

As 8 bit numbers, these become


%000010.10 and %000101.01

Now, we really DONT have a way to represent the


decimal point in our numbers, so we have to
remember where it is located.
So really, we have
2.5 = %00001010 = $0A
5.25 = %00010101 = $15
And we remember that we are using 2 bits for the
fractional part.

Fractional Numbers
Lets use 16-bit numbers where 4-bits (or one
nybble) are reserved for the fractional part
So, Y = $NNN.N
Example, What is 375.875 in Hex?
375 $177
0.875 = 1*0.5+1*0.25+1*0.125+0*0.0625
= %1110 = $E

Or, 375.875 = $177E

Fractional Numbers
Lets use 16-bit numbers where 4-bits (or one
nybble) are reserved for the fractional part
So, Y = $NNN.N
Example, What is $24E3 as a fractional decimal?

$24E 590
$3 = 0*0.5+0*0.25+1*0.125+1*0.0625=0.1875
Or, $24E3 = 590.1875

FDIV Instruction
FDIV Fractional Divide Instruction
Divides 16-bit unsigned D register by the
16-bit unsigned X register
D register is assumed less than X register.
(Answer is less than one)
Radix point is assumed to be the same
Fractional quotient is stored in the X register.
Ex: %0.1010.
Remainder is stored in the D register
If X is $0000, C 1, and D $FFFF

Miscellaneous Instructions

NOP Instruction
NOP No operation
Performs no operation
Can be used for crude timing routines
2 Clock Cycles for each instruction

Also used for debugging


Insert NOPs in place of SWI
Software Interrupts

STOP Instruction
STOP STOP operation
Puts the CPU to sleep
Can be awakened by using an interrupt

Can be disabled by setting the STOP bit

Interrupt
Instructions

Interrupt Instructions
CLI Clear Interrupt Mask
Clears I bit to 0

SEI Set Interrupt Mask


Sets I bit to 0

RTI Return from Interrupt


SWI Software Interrupt
WAI Wait for Interrupt

End of Section

TPS Quiz

Example 4-43
Let A=$FF and ($1000) = $00
A = -1 (signed), A=255 (unsigned)
Given Code Fragment:
CMPA $1000
$FF - $00 = $FF+$00 = $FF
Condition Code Register

N=1
Z=0
V=0
C=0

Example 4-43: Solution


We have: A=$FF, Mem=$00 (CMPA Mem)
CCR: N=1, Z=0, V=0, C=0
Mnemonic:Condition checked|Our example| Yes or No

BEQ: Z = 1| Z = 0 | No
BNE: Z = 0| Z = 0 | Yes

Example 4-43: Solution


Unsigned Branches
We have: A=$FF, Mem=$00 (CMPA MEM)
CCR: N=1, Z=0, V=0, C=0

Condition | Example | Yes or No


BHS: C =0| C=0| Yes
BLS: C OR Z = 1| 0 or 0 = 0| No
BHI: C OR Z = 0 | 0 or 0 = 0| Yes
BLO: C = 1| C=0| No

Example 4-43: Solution


Signed Branches
We have: A=$FF, Mem=$00 (CMPA Mem)
CCR: N=1, Z=0, V=0, C=0

Branch : Condition | Example | Yes or No


BGE: (N XOR Z) = 0 | (1 XOR 0) = 1 | No
BLE: Z OR (N XOR Z) = 1| (0 OR (1 XOR 0)) =1|Yes
BGT: Z OR (N XOR Z) = 0| (0 OR ( 1 XOR 0)) =1| No
BLT: (N XOR Z) = 1 | (1 XOR 0) = 1 | YES