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Calculation of Air-fuel Ratio

Applying the steady flow energy equation to


sections A-A and B-B per unit mass flow of
air:
1

qw

h2 h1

C
2

2
2

2
1

Here, q and w are the heat and work


transfers from the entrance to the throat
and h and C stand for enthalpy and
velocity respectively.
If we assume reversible adiabatic
conditions, and there is no work transfer,
q=0, w=0, and if approach velocity C10

2 h1 h2

C2

If air is assumed to be a perfect gas we get


h c pT hence we can write

Assumin g

C2 2c p T1 T2

Assume flow from inlet to throat to be isentropic


T2 p2

then

T1 p1

T1 T2

p2

T1 1

p1

Substituting for T1 T2 from Eq. 5 in Eq. 3, we get

p2

C 2 2c p T1 1

p1

(6)

e continuity equation we can write down the theoretical mass flow rate
.

m a 1 A1C1 2 A2 C 2

(7)

where A1 and A2 are the cross-sectional areas at the air inlet (point 1)
and venturi throat (point 2).
To calculate the mass flow rate of air at the throat, we have assumed t
isentropic till the throat so the equation relating p and v (or ) can be

p1v1 p2 v2

p1
p2

1
2

(8 B )

(8 A)

p2
2 1
p1

p2
m a 1
p1

A2

p2

2c p T1 1

p1

For a perfect gas we have

p2

ma
p1

Thu
s

(9)

p1
1
RT1

(9 A)

p2
p1

A2 2c p T1 1

RT1
p1

(10 A)

and rearranging the above equation we have

ma

A2 p1
R T1

p2

2c p
p1

p2

p1

(10 B)

ince the fluid flowing in the intake is air, we can put in the approximate
alues of R = 287 J/kgK, cp = 1005 J/kgK and = 1.4 at 300K.

A2 p1 p 2

ma 0.1562
T1 p1

1.43

0.1562

A2 p1

p2

p1

where

T1

1.43

p2

p1

p2


p1

1.71

(11)
1.71

ere, pressure p is in N/m2, area A is in m2,and temperature T is in K.


we take the ambient temperature T1 = 300Kand ambient pressure
= 105 N/m2, then
.

ma 901.8 A2

(12)

tion 11 gives the theoretical mass flow rate of air. The actual mass flow

can be obtained by multiplying the equation by the coefficient of discha


.
r the
venturi, Cd,a. Thus
.

ma

where

C d ,a

ma 0.1562 C d ,a

ma

A2 p1
T1

(13)

(14)

ma

The coefficient of discharge and area are both constant for a given
venturi, thus
.

ma

p1

T1

(15)

Since we have to determine the air-fuel ratio, we now calculate the


fuel flow rate.
uel is a liquid before mixing with the air, it can be taken to be incompres

n apply Bernoullis equation between the atmospheric conditions preva


top of the fuel surface in the float bowl, which corresponds to point 1 a
oint where the fuel will flow out, at the venturi, which corresponds to po

l flow will take place because of the drop in pressure at point 1 due to t
turi effect. Thus

C 2f

p1
p2

gz
f f
2

(16)

where f is the density of the fuel in kg/m3, Cf is the velocity of the fue
at the exit of the fuel nozzle (fuel jet), and z is the depth of the jet ex
below the level of fuel in the float bowl. This quantity must always be
above zero otherwise fuel will flow out of the jet at all times. The valu
of z is usually of the order of 10 mm.
From Eq. 16 we can obtain an expression for the fuel velocity at
the jet exit as

p1 p 2

C f 2
gz
f

(17)

ing the continuity equation for the fuel, we can obtain the theoretical
.
.
flow rate,

mf

mf f A f C f

A f 2 f p1 p 2 f gz

(18)

where Af is the exit area of the fuel jet in m2. If Cd,f is the coefficient of
.
of the fuel nozzle (jet) given by

Cd , f

the
n

mf

(19)

mf
.

m f C d , f A f 2 f p1 p 2 f gz

(20)

Since

Air
A ma
.
Fuel F m
f

C d ,a A2
A
0.1562
F
Cd , f A f
If
we
p a
put

p1 p 2

(21)

p1

2 f T1 p1 p 2 f gz

(22)

, we get the following equation for the airfuel ratio

a
f

A C d ,a A2

F Cd , f A f
where

p2

p1

p a

pa f gz

p2

p1

p2
1
p1

1
2

(24)

(23)

p a
the normal carburetor operating range, where
0.1
p1

the effects of compressibility which reduce below 1.0 are small.

The equivalence ratio, , where

A

F

A
F

(25)

is given
by

C d ,a A2
Cd , f A f

a
f

f gz

p a

1
2

(26)

In Eq. 22, if we take T1 = 300K and p1 = 105 N/m2 then

C d ,a A2
A
901.8
F
Cd , f A f

2 f p1 p 2 f gz

(27)

The coefficient of discharge defined in Eq 19 represents the effect o


all deviations
1.Fluid mass
flow rate,
from the ideal one-dimensional
isentropic
flow. It is influenced b
2.Orifice length-to-diameter
many factors of
ratio,
which the most important are:
3.Orifice area-to-approach
area ratio,
4.Orifice surface area,
5.Orifice surface roughness,
6.Orifice inlet and exit
chamfers,
7.Fluid specific gravity,
8.Fluid viscosity, and

The use of the orifice Reynolds


number
VDo
Re o

(28)

as a correlating parameter for the


coefficient of discharge accounts for
the effects of mass flow rate, fluid
density and viscosity, and length
scale to a good approximation. The
discharge coefficient of a typical
carburetor main fuel-metering
system orifice increases smoothly
with increasing orifice Reynolds

Air-fuel ratio neglecting


compressibility of air
If we assume air to be
incompressible, then we can apply
Bernoullis equation to air flow also.
Since initial velocity
Thus is assumed zero,
p1
p 2 C 22
we have

(29)
a a
2
Thus

p1 p 2
C 2 2

(30)

. continuity
Applying the
equation
for the fuel, we can obtain the
,
.
theoretical mass
flow rate,
ma a A2 C 2
a from

A2 2 a p1 p 2

(31)

where A2 is the venturi in m2. If


. Cd,a is the coefficient of discharge of the
venturi given by
ma

C d ,a

ma
.

then

(32)

m a C d ,a A2 2 a p1 p 2
.

Since

Air
A ma
.
Fuel F m
f

(34)

(33)

A C d ,a A2

F Cd , f A f
A C d ,a A2

F Cd , f A f

a p1 p 2
f p1 p 2 f gz
a
f

p1 p 2

p 2 f gz

If we assume z = 0, then

A C d ,a A2

F Cd , f A f

a
f

(36)

(35)

(35 A)

Carburetor Performance

In Eq. 26, the terms A1, A2, a, and f are all


constant for a given carburetor, fuel, and
ambient conditions. Also, for very low flows,
pa fgz. However, the discharge
coefficients Cd,a and Cd,f and , all vary with
flow rate. Hence, the equivalence ratio
delivered by an elementary carburetor is
not constant.

Figure shows the performance of an


elementary carburetor. The top graph
shows the variation of Cd,a and Cd,f and
with the venturi pressure drop. For pa
fgz, there is no fuel flow. Once fuel starts
to flow, the fuel flow rate increases more
rapidly than the air flow rate. The