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# Distance Protection

Over-current Protection ?
Inverse time will introduce considerable delays in clearing faults
Zs= 10 Ohms

IF

ZL= 4 Ohms

Zs= 10 Ohms

F
F

Zs= 10 Ohms

X
Zs= 10 Ohms

IF
X

ZL= 4 Ohms

X
F

## Even HSI over current protection is not capable of providing fast

protection under all system operational conditions.
Hence a new concept needs to be adopted to provide fast protection to
transmission/distribution networks.

Alternative Concept
Distance of a transmission/distribution line is fixed
and determined at the time of commissioning.
It remains constant under all system conditions.
Hence
measurement
of
distance
of
transmission/distribution line is a good concept.

## If the distance measured is less than the known,

that indicates a faulty condition.
If it is more than the known it indicates a healthy
condition

Concept
Virtually independent of fault current level
Fast discriminative protection
Can be modified to provide unit protection by
combining with signaling channels
Can be directional

Measurement of Distance
~

ZL

ZS

IR

VR
IR

ZS

ZL

VR

~
Normal Operation
Impedance measured = Z

Relay

## = VR/ IR = ZL+ ZLOAD

Measurement of Distance
IR
~

ZS
VR

ZF= xZL

~
Impedance measured = Z Relay =VR/IR = Z F= x ZL where x < 1

## If the relay is set to operate when the

impedance measured (Z Relay ) is less than Z Lthe
relay will operate when Z Relay= ZF= x Z L, as x
<1

~

ZS

ZF= xZL

VR

ZL

## Plain Impedance Characteristic

Secondary Impedance
Distance relay inputs are the currents and
voltages from CTs and PTs
Relays are set to measure the positive
impedance of the protected line
All distance relays except numerical relays
are calibrated in secondary ohms.

VS

## Primary Impedance and Secondary

=
Impedance
VP / VT ratio
IS
=
IP / CT ratio
ZS
=
(VP/ VT ratio) / (IP /CT ratio)

## Distance Relay Inputs

As distance relays measure the positive sequence
impedance, inputs to the relay have to be suitably
selected.
Single voltage and a current can not cover all types of
faults
Inputs for phase faults are as follows:

## Distance Relay Inputs Earth Faults

Zones

First zone

Second zone

Second zone
First zone

Second zone

First zone

A
D
B

Characteristic presentation
Distance relay operates when
Z measured < Z setting
Remains stable when
Z measured > Z setting
Hence it has a balanced point .
Characteristic is presented in a polar
characteristic with resistance on X-axis and Xon Y axis.
Angle of impedance relative to R axis.
Describes the locus of relay in balance condition
for different impedance angles.

Impedance Measuring
Comparators
Amplitude comparator
Phase comparator
Numerical techniques
Solving the differential equation

## Amplitude and Phase Comparators

SO

SR
Amplitude
comparator

Output > 0
when So SR
Marginal operation
when SO = SR

SO

Phase
comparator

Output >0
when
-900 900
Where is phase
angle between SO and
SR

SR

Comparators
SO

SO

S2= SO+ SR
SR

SR

## Marginal operation of an amplitude comparator can be defined by

SO= SR
For such a condition sum and difference of SO and SR are at right
angles.
When SO > SR , a decisive operation angle between S1 and S2
is< 900
When S < S , decisive restraint angle between S and S is >

## Distance Relay Performance

Defined in terms of reach accuracy, a
comparison of actual ohmic reach of the
relay with setting
Underreaching
Overreaching