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Behavioral Psychology

Dr. Bill Bauer


EDUC 202

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bac


on

Overview
Understanding Learning
Early Explanations of Learning
Contiguity and Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Applied Behavior Analysis
Behavioral Approaches to Teaching &
Management
Recent Approaches: Self-Regulated Learning &
Cognitive Behavior Modification
Problems & Issues

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Concept Map for Chapter 6

Problems
& Issues

Self-Regulated
Learning & Cognitive

Understanding
Learning

Early Explanations

Behavioral Views
of
Learning

Contiguity and

Applied

Teaching &

Behavior

Management

Analysis

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2001
Allyn
and Bacon
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by Allyn
and Bacon

Classical
Conditioning

Behavior Modification

Behaviorism,

of Learning

Operant
Conditioning

Definition of Learning
Permanent change
Change in behavior or knowledge
Learning is the result of experience
Learning is not the result of maturation or
temporary conditions (illness)

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Contiguity Learning
Learning by simple associations:
Pairing
Stimulus Response
Examples:
Golden Arches = McDonalds
Times tables (7 X 8 = 56)
States & capitals (Lansing, MI)

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Pavlov: Classical Conditioning


Pavlovs dilemma
Involuntary
responses:
Respondents
Generalization
Discrimination
Extinction

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Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned
Stimulus

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Unconditioned
Response

Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned
Stimulus
Unconditioned
Stimulus

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Neutral
Neutral
Stimulus
Stimulus

Unconditioned
Response
Unconditioned
Unconditioned
Response
Response

Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned
Stimulus
Unconditioned
Stimulus

Unconditioned
Response

Neutral
Neutral
Stimulus
Stimulus

Repeat
Repeatpairing
pairingUS
USwith
withNS
NS

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Unconditioned
Unconditioned
Response
Response

Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned
Stimulus
Unconditioned
Stimulus

Unconditioned
Response

Neutral
Neutral
Stimulus
Stimulus

Unconditioned
Unconditioned
Response
Response

Repeat
Repeatpairing
pairingUS
USwith
withNS
NS

Conditioned
Conditioned
Stimulus
Stimulus

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Conditioned
Conditioned
Response
Response

Classical Classroom Examples


A first grader feels ill when recess time
approaches because he was beat up on the
playground the last 3 days in a row.
Certain smells that can elicit nauseous sensations
(Hopefully NOT from the cafeteria!)
Speech phobia : cold sweat, shaking knees and
hands
Phobias in general

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Skinner: Operant Conditioning

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Operants : Deliberate
actions
Thorndikes Law of
Effect
ABCs
Reinforcement
Punishment

Types of Consequences

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Types of Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Examples:
Praise
Teacher attention
Rewards

Negative reinforcement
Avoid the loss of privileges
Take away an aversive stimulus

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Types of Punishment
Presentation Punishment
Detention
Extra work

Removal Punishment
Loss of recess
Loss of privileges

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Kinds of Reinforcement & Punishment


Behavior
Behaviorencouraged
encouraged Behavior
Behaviorsuppressed
suppressed

Stimulus
Stimulus
presented
presented

Stimulus
Stimulusremoved
removed
or
orwithheld
withheld

Positive
Reinforcement:

Presentation
Punishment:

Praise / reward

Detention / extra
work

Negative
Reinforcement

Removal
Punishment

Avoid losing
points

Loss of recess /
grounded!

See Woolfolk, Figure 6.1, p. 208 and Table 6.1, p. 209

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Reinforcement Schedules
Types of Reinforcement Schedules
Continuous

Intermittent

Fixed
Interval

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2001
by Allyn and Bacon

Ratio

Variable
Ratio

Interval

Reflection Questions
What is the difference between
punishment and negative
reinforcement?
What schedule of reinforcement is best
for building persistence? Why?
What happens when all reinforcement
is withdrawn?

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Controlling Antecedents

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Antecedents
Providing previous information about
expected behaviors
Signaling when a behavior should be
emitted
Cueing: Lights off means Be quiet!
Prompting: Verbal reminder after students
do not get quiet after lights were turned off :
they missed the cue.

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Applied Behavior Analysis


Baseline behavior
Target behavior
Classroom application:
1

- Specify the desired behavior

- Plan a specific intervention

- Keep track of the results

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Interventions: Encouraging
Positive Behavior

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Teacher attention
Premack principle
Shaping
Positive practice
See Guidelines,
Woolfolk, pp. 214 &
217

Coping with Undesirable


Behaviors
Negative reinforcement: No recess until
Satiation: I would like 1000 of those perfect spit wads,
please!
Reprimands: soft & private
Response cost
Social isolation
Punishment
See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 220

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Coping with Undesirable


Behaviors
Cautions: Use a two pronged
approach:
Punishment

for undesired behavior


Clarify and reinforce desired
behavior

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Behavioral Approaches to
Teaching & Management

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Teaching : Mastery Learning

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Students must
demonstrate
competence before
moving to next unit
Mastery means 80
90% correct
Focuses on basic skills

Behavioral Management
Group
consequences
Token
reinforcement
Contingency
contracts

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Recent Approaches: Self-Regulation &


Cognitive Behavior Modification

The object of teaching a child is to enable him to


get along without his teacher.

Elbert
Hubbard
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Self-Regulated Learning
Self management

Set goals and make the goals public

Note: Standards and effect on performance

Evaluate & record performance

Promote self-reinforcement

See Family & Community Partnerships,


Woolfolk, p. 227

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Cognitive Behavior Modification


& Self-Instruction

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Similar to selfregulated learning


Adds thinking and
self-talk
More cognitive
than behavioral
approach

Cognitive Behavior Modification


& Self-Instruction
Teaching self-talk:
Demonstrate & supervise
Talk out loud while practicing,
student imitates
Whisper while practicing, student
imitates
Work toward private speech while
practicing

See Woolfolk, Figure 6.4, p. 229


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Reflection Question
What is a habit you would like to change?
How would you implement the steps of
cognitive behavior modification to change
your habit?
Make a graphic organizer or flow chart to
illustrate your goal and steps toward
meeting that goal.

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Problems & Issues


Extrinsic rewards may lead to loss of
interest in learning for learnings sake
Decrease in motivation
Motives for influencing student
behaviors: control?
See PointCounterpoint, Woolfolk
pp. 230-231

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Summary
Understanding Learning
Early Explanations of Learning
Contiguity and Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Applied Behavior Analysis
Behavioral Approaches to Teaching &
Management
Recent Approaches: Self-Regulated Learning &
Cognitive Behavior Modification
Problems & Issues

ght 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

Review Questions
Define learning.
How does a neutral stimulus become a
conditioned stimulus?
Discriminate between generalization and
discrimination.
What defines a consequence as a reinforcer?
As a punisher?
How are negative reinforcement and
punishment different?

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Review Questions
How can you encourage persistence in a
behavior?
What is the difference between a prompt
and a cue?
What are the steps in applied behavior
analysis?
How can the Premack principle help you
identify reinforcers?
When is shaping an appropriate approach?

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Review Questions
What are some cautions in using
punishment?
What is mastery learning?
Describe group consequences, token
programs, and contracts.
What are the steps in self-management?
What are the main criticisms of behavioral
approaches?

ght 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

End Chapter 6

ght 2001 by Allyn and Bacon