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ATMOSPHERE

By: Meneer Abdul Rahman, S.Pd

STANDARD OF COMPETENCE
ANALYSING THE GEOSPHERES COMPONENTS

THE BASE COMPETENCE


ANALYSING THE ATSMOSPHERICS COMPONENTS AND
THEIR IMPACTS TO THE LIVES ON THE EARTH
SURFACE

Compositions of Our
Atmosphere
Gas Name

Chemical Formula

Percent Volume

Nitrogen

N2

78.08%

Oxygen

O2

20.95%

*Water

H2O

0 to 4%

Argon

Ar

0.93%

CO2

0.0360%

Neon

Ne

0.0018%

Helium

He

0.0005%

*Methane

CH4

0.00017%

Hydrogen

H2

0.00005%

N2O

0.00003%

O3

0.000004%

*Carbon Dioxide

*Nitrous Oxide
*Ozone

The Main Disciplines To


Discuss Atmospheric About
1. Meteorology It will discuss about
weather and its elements
2. Climatology It will discuss about
weather wider and deeper and its
elements

Atmospheric Layers
1. Troposphere
a. It has different height in every latitudes
-. Tropical 16 km above sea layer
-. Medium 11 km above sea layer
-. Pole 8 km above sea layer
b. The place where weather phenomenon is taking place
c. The air temperature decrease 0,5-0,6oC for every 100 m
above sea layer
d. This layer is bordered with stratosphere by tropopause
layer
e. Its air temperature from 50oC - -60oC

2. Stratosphere Layer
a. This layer is an inversion layer, where the
temperature will increase as well as
height increase
b. It can be found in 16 50 km height
c. Theres an ozone layer

3. Mesosphere Layer
a. It can destroy all the alien things from
extraterrestrial
b. Theres ionosphere layer that able to
reflect radio waves from the earth surface
c. It can be found in 50 85 km above the
sea layer
d. For every 100 m above the sea layer
height increase, the air temperature will
decrease 0,4oC

4. Thermosphere Layer
a. It can be found in 80 500 km above the
sea layer
b. Theres very significant air temperature
increase from just -100oC until a
thousand degrees celcius according the
layer height

5. Exosphere Layer
a. Theres very thin air layer
b. This layer top is in 1000 km above sea
layer height
6. Magnetosphere
a. This layer is a boundary of the earth
atmospheric layer to the extraterrestrial

Atmospheric Optical
Phenomena
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Rainbow
Halo
Aurora
Thunder
Guntur

RAINBOWS
WHITE LIGHT
RAIN DROP
Refraction

Reflection

You See a
Rainbow

Halo
Ketampakan alam ini terjadi akibat proses
pembiasan sinar bulan oleh kristal-kristal
es yang terkonsentrasi dalam jenis awanawan tinggi seperti Cirrus atau
Cirrostratus. Halo pada umumnya terlihat
dengan jelas ketika bulan bersinar terang,
setelah sore harinya terjadi hujan.

Aurora
Aurora terjadi akibat pemancaran atom dari
sinar Matahari yang dipusatkan ke arah
kutub karena berada di daerah medan
magnet Bumi. Atom-atom dalam sinar
Matahari ini akhirnya terurai menjadi molekulmolekul atau atom-atom gas yang bercahaya
karena proses ionisasi berenergi tinggi.
Pengobaran atau pemijaran partikel-partikel
sinar Matahari ini terlihat dari Bumi sebagai
cahaya kutub.

Thunder

The Weather and Climate


Elements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Air Temperatures Thermometer


Air pressures Barometer
Humidity Hygrometer
Wind Anemometer
Clouds
Precipitations Pluviometer or
Pluviograph

Air Temperatures
There are factors that can influence every
places air temperatures:
a. Sun light duration.
b. Sun light standpoint.
c. The earth surface relief.
d. Elevation
e. The amount of clouds.
f. Position of latitudes for every places.

To measure every places temperatures we


can use below formula:

The Map of World


Temperatures

The Isothermal Map

The Air Heating Processes


1. Direct Processes
a. Absorption
b. Reflection
c. Diffusion
2. Indirect
d. Conduction
e. Convection
f. Advection
g. Turbulence

Air Plane Turbulence

Air Pressure
Air pressure mass weight of an air
above a region.
Air pressure can be measured by using
the barometer

Barometer

Isobar Map

Isobar Map (again)

Humidity
There are two types of humidity:
1. Absolute humidity
Ukuran banyaknya uap air (dalam gram) di dalam 1
m3 udara lengas (campuran udara kering dengan
uap air) dan dinyatakan dengan gram/m3.
2. Relative humidity
Perbandingan (dalam persen) antara uap air
dengan uap air jenuh pada suhu yang sama.

How to Measure Both Kinds


of Humidity?
1. Absolute Humidity

2. Relative Humidity

Hygrometer

Wind
Buys Ballot Law
AIR MASS IS MOVING from the higher
pressure region to the lower pressure
region, and in northern hemisphere it will
turn to the right and in southern
hemisphere it will turn to the left

There are three kinds important things about


winds nature:
1. Wind strength
2. Wind direction
3. Wind velocity

The Stevenson Law


The wind strength is proportional to its
barometrics gradient

Barometrics gradient is amount/angka


which indicates the air pressures diversity
of two isobars for every 15 meridian
distance (111 km)

How to Measure The


Barometrics Gradient?

Measure How Many Gradient


Barometrics of This Isobar?

Wind Direction
There are four types of wind direction:
1. 0 degree for northern wind.
2. 90 degrees for eastern wind.
3. 180 degrees for southern wind.
4. 270 degrees for western wind.

Three Factors That Affect the


Wind Direction
1. Barometrics gradient
2. Earth rotation
3. Barriers

Wind Velocity

Beaufort Wind Velocity Scale

Global Winds
1. Passat/Trade wind
2. Monsoon wind
3. Cyclone and anti-cyclone tropics (10
N-10 S); extra-tropics (35 65 N & S);
Tornado

West and East Monsoon

Cyclone

Cyclone

Cyclone and Anticyclone

Cyclone and Anticyclone

Tornado

Global Wind Directions

Local Winds
1. Sea and land winds
2. Mount and valley winds
3. Fohn

Oceanic and continental


winds

Mount and valley winds

Fohn wind

Fohn around the world

World Wind Circulation

Precipitation
There are three kinds of rain:
1. Convectional/Zenithal rain
2. Orographic rain
3. Frontal rain

Convectional Rain

Orographic Rain

Frontal Rain

There are some factors that


can influence precipitation in
Indonesia
1.
2.
3.
4.

Topographical form (morphological)


Terrain slopes direction
wind direction parallel to the coastline
wind travel distance over flat terrain

Pluviometer or Rain Gauge

Cloud
Awan ialah kumpulan titik-titik air/kristal es
di dalam udara yang terjadi karena
adanya kondensasi/sublimasi dari uap air
yang terdapat dalam udara

There are three clouds


according to the their forms:
1. Cumulus awan yang bentuknya bergumpalgumpal (bundar2) dan dasarnya horizontal.
2. Stratus awan yang tipis dan tersebar luas
sehingga dapat menutupi langit secara merata.
Dalam arti khusus awan stratus adalah awan
yang rendah dan luas.
3. Cirrus awan yang berdiri sendiri yang halus
dan berserat, berbentuk seperti bulu burung.
Sering terdapat kristal es tapi tidak dapat
menimbulkan hujan.

Clouds according to their


heights
1. Upper cloud (>6000 m) Cirrus (Ci), Cirro
stratus (Ci-St), Cirro Cumulus (Ci-Cu).
2. Intermediate cloud (2000 m 6000 m) Alto
Comulus (A-Cu) and Alto Stratus (A- St).
3. Lower cloud (< 2000 m) Strato Comulus (StCu), Stratus (St), Nimbo Stratus (No-St).
4. The cloud that formed by convectional air mass
movement (about 500 m 15000 m)
Cummulus (Cu), Comulo Nimbus (Cu-Ni).

Cumulonimbus

Cirrus

Altocumulus

Stratocumulus

Cirrocumulus

Cirrostratus

Altostratus

Nimbostratus

Stratus

Climate Classification
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sun Climate
Physical Climate
Koppen Climate
Schmidt-Ferguson Climate
Oldeman Climate
Junghuhn Climate

Sun Climate
Sun climate classifications:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Tropical climate 0o 23,5o N/S


Sub-tropical climate 23,5o 40o N/S
Temperate climate 40o 66,5o N/S
Cold/Polar climate 66,5o 90 N/S

Physical Climate
Physical climate classifications:
1. Seasonal climate
2. Continental climate
3. Plateau climate
4. Mountain climate
5. Monsoon climate

Koppen Climate
This climate classification is based on
precipitation and temperature data.
Commonly this classification is divided to:
1. A Tropical/megathermal
2. B Dry (arid and semiarid)
3. C Temperate/mesothermal climate
4. D Continental climate
5. E Polar climate

Especially for Indonesia


A tropical (megathermal) rain forest
1. Af Tropical rain forest (Western
Indonesia and Papua)
2. Am Tropical monsoon (Middle
Indonesia)
3. Aw Savannah (West and East Nusa
Tenggara)

Schmidt-Ferguson Climate
This classification is based on ration
between dry and wet months all around a
year. So to measure, we may use below
formula:

To know which month can be classified as


dry or wet month, we may use this clue:
1. Dry month precipitation < 60
mm/month
2. Moist month precipitation 60 100
mm/month
3. Wet month precipitation > 100
mm/month

Q Ratio

Oldeman Climate
This classification can also called as AGROCLIMATE CLASSIFICATION. It use the
data of precipitation only.
- Wet month > 200 mm/month
- Moist month 100 200 mm/month
- Dry month < 100 mm/month

Classification
1. A : Jika terdapat lebih dari 9 bulan basah
berurutan.
2. B : Jika terdapat 7 9 bulan basah berurutan.
3. C : Jika terdapat 5 6 bulan basah berurutan.
4. D : Jika terdapat 3 4 bulan basah berurutan.
5. E : Jika terdapat kurang dari 3 bulan basah
berurutan.

Junghuhn Climate
This classification is called also as vertical
climate. You can see how it can be
classified below: