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Systems

Lecture 14

Nodes

Nodal Pricing:

each node on the electricity network priced

higher resolutiondistinguishes between plants

allows for more economic signaling and dispatch

Congestion

Occurs when equipment reach their limits

Transmission lines, usually

Can include transformers, etc.

LMPs Locational Marginal Prices

locational local and specific to a location on the network

marginal the cost of the next unit of electricity

price everyone pays/gets paid that price at that location

way to implement market on the grid

System Marginal Cost

i.e., cheapest unit gets turned on next

merit order for economic dispatch

cost of electricity lost through transmission

i.e., farther units will cost more because of losses

difference in electricity dispatch due to congestion

typically largest component of price separations

will be both positive and negative

Overview of

Constrained

Optimization Methods

Lecture 15

LPwill alwayshave a solution ifPclosed and nonempty

LP will beinfeasibleifP isempty

LP will beunboundedifPis not closed

Unit Commitment

Lecture 16

Dispatch?

Minimum generation levels

Typically for steam units ~40%

Startup costs

Large costs (labor, fuel,etc) to power up a unit that is

off

Minimum up times after startup

Dont want to startup and shutdown rapidly

Decision Variables

Power generation level of each unit

Whether each unit is ON or OFF for each hour

When to startup and shutdown

Constraints

Startup & shutdown costs

Rampingconstraints (time lags)

Minimum uptime, downtime

Interesting)?

Many constraints

Between every hour and its previous hour, forevery generator

(Cant decouple as in ED)

Introduces non-convexities into optimization

Requires (Mixed) Integer Programming solution methods

Temporal Resolution

Typically UC is run for a horizon of one week

Used to make decisions abouttomorrows

startups and shutdowns

Chronology is critical

Standard model: 168 hours

Hourly System Demand (Assume Single Bus)

Input/OutputCurves for each unit (Heat Rates)

Linear approximation

Piecewise linear

Constant

Function of time since shutdown

Minimum up/downtime limits

Fuel Prices

Operations and Maintenance Costs (Fixed and Variable)

UC Variables

For each generating unit g and each time t:

Net PowerX(g,t)

Commitment StateU(g,t)

Startup DecisionY(g,t)

Shutdown DecisionZ(g,t)

Constraints: Supply-Demand

Balance

The supply-demand balance must be satisfiedin every

period of the schedulinghorizon

Toavoid potentialinfeasibilities,we introduce the

concept of non-served power that will be highly

penalized in the objective function:

Constraints:SpinningReserve

To maintain a reliable supply of electricity, provisions

must be made to ensure a reasonable level of

backup generation (operating reserves, that can

quickly be tapped to respond to a system emergency.

Theunits typically used for this type of service are

either quick-start generators (non-spinning), such as

combustion turbines, or the unloaded portion of a

plant that is already synchronized and running at a

level less than full capacity (spinning).

Other Constraints

Logic coherence startup-commitment-shutdown

Ramprates

Minimum down time

Power System

Fundamentals

Lecture 17

Energy is the ability to do useful work (like illuminate

a room). Energy inherently has a quantity component

(howmuch light)and a time component (how long did

we keep the room lit).

Power is the rate at which that useful work is done

(units of energy per second).

Electric Power

Current (I): The flow of electrons through some

conducting medium.

Voltage (V): A measure of electric potential between two

terminals. Voltage is not a natural measure;it is

equal to work/current.

Thus, power as we think of it is really:

Power= VoltageCurrent =VoltsAmps= Watts

Electric Power

Watts = Joules/second. So Watts represents

aflowrate

Electric power generators are given capacity

ratings in power units corresponding to its maximum

instantaneous rate of electricity production.

Electric Energy

Electric energy takes units of WattsTime [watt-hours].

The output of a generator or the consumption of

electricity is measured inWh(or kWh or MWh).

Transmission Lines

Resistance (R, measured in ohms, ) describes

how easily current travels through a material.

Conductance (G)is the inverse of resistance.

Ohms Law

Ohms Law is used to determine the amount

of voltagedrop for a given currentacross aresistor with

resistance R.

V=I x R

Definition of Power

Power delivered:

P=IxV

P = IV = I(IR) = I2R

Kirchhoffs Laws

KirchoffsCurrent Law states that in any electric circuit,

the sum of the currents entering and leaving anypoint

(node)in the circuit is zero.

the sum of the voltage drops across elements of the

circuit must be zero.

Resistance

In Series:

In Parallel:

Inductors

Conductingwire shaped into a coil induces a magnetic

field when current passes through it.

Voltage induced by time-varying magnetic field

Pureinductiveload: currentlags voltage by 90o

Capacitors

Conductingmaterial separated by a dielectric (insulator)

stores energy(via a static electric field) when a voltage

applied across the element

PureCapacitive load: currentleads voltageby 90o

Impedance

the combination of resistive, inductive and capacitive

elements in acircuit.

Because Voltage (V) and Current (I) areconstantly

changing in AC power, power (P = IV) is also changing.

We want to know how much power on average is

received

If the maximumvoltage (amplitude) isVmax, then the

rms value, or average, of voltage is

(j=)

Resistance impacts the real component

imaginary component

When current and voltage are out of phase, there

islesspower available on average.

Sometimes current and voltage have opposite signs

When this happensP(t) is negative

Reactive Power

The component of power which oscillates back and forth,

doing no real work

Generators

Voltage Source coupled with an internal inductor

Transmission Lines

Transformers

Translates voltage high to low or low to high

Power Flow

Lecture 18

Fundamental Laws of CircuitsKirchhoff's Current Law

(KCL)

Sum of all currents into and out of a node (bus) must equal 0

Kirchhoff'sVoltage Law(KCL)

Sum of all voltages around a closed circuit must sum to 0

network

Types of Buses

Slackbus:the reference bus for whichV1d1is

given, usually 1.00.0; Need to compute P1and

Q1.Thisbus designated to absorb all the networklosses

Load buses:PkandQkare given, must

computeVkanddk

Voltage-controlled buses:PkandVkare given, must

computeQk

anddk(buses with generators, shunt capacitors,

transformerswith tap settings)

Lecture 19

operation planning

Reactive Power between two nodes depends on the

difference of their voltage magnitudes.

Active Power between two nodes depends on the

difference of their voltage phase angles.

Key Concepts

Why OPF

Time Horizon

Unit Commitment Day Ahead

Capacity Expansion Decades Ahead

OPF Hour ahead / single hour

Objectives

Account for transmission constraints

Control Settings: Voltage, phase shifts, reactive power

injection

Long-term planning

Nodal pricing

OPF

Objective

Function:

Decision Variables

Power level at each generator

Constraints

Supply/demand balanceat each node

Pwithin Min/Max limits for Generators

Limits on Lines, Buses (P,Q,V,)

Dual Variables

Every constraint has a dual variable

For every bus and every line

in constraints

Very useful for nodal marginal cost

Congestion

Occurs when equipment reach their limits

Transmission lines, usually

Can include transformers, etc.

LMPs Locational Marginal Prices

locational local and specific to a location on the network

marginal the cost of the next unit of electricity

price everyone pays/gets paid that price at that location

way to implement market on the grid

System Marginal Cost

i.e., cheapest unit gets turned on next

merit order for economic dispatch

cost of electricity lost through transmission

i.e., farther units will cost more because of losses

typicallylargest component of price separations

will be both positive and negative

optimal power flow or constrained economic dispatch

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