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# Overview of Power

Systems
Lecture 14

## The Levels of Electricity: Zones and

Nodes
Nodal Pricing:
each node on the electricity network priced
higher resolutiondistinguishes between plants
allows for more economic signaling and dispatch

## Congestion, LMPs and Dispatch

Congestion
Occurs when equipment reach their limits
Transmission lines, usually
Can include transformers, etc.

## The Principal Driver of Price Differences

LMPs Locational Marginal Prices
locational local and specific to a location on the network
marginal the cost of the next unit of electricity
price everyone pays/gets paid that price at that location
way to implement market on the grid

## Three components in LMPs

System Marginal Cost
i.e., cheapest unit gets turned on next
merit order for economic dispatch

## Marginal Losses Cost

cost of electricity lost through transmission
i.e., farther units will cost more because of losses

## Transmission Congestion Cost

difference in electricity dispatch due to congestion
typically largest component of price separations
will be both positive and negative

Overview of
Constrained
Optimization Methods
Lecture 15

## Will an LP always have a Solution?

LPwill alwayshave a solution ifPclosed and nonempty
LP will beinfeasibleifP isempty
LP will beunboundedifPis not closed

Unit Commitment
Lecture 16

## Whats Missing from Economic

Dispatch?
Minimum generation levels
Typically for steam units ~40%
Startup costs
Large costs (labor, fuel,etc) to power up a unit that is
off
Minimum up times after startup
Dont want to startup and shutdown rapidly

## Unit Commitment Problem

Decision Variables
Power generation level of each unit
Whether each unit is ON or OFF for each hour
When to startup and shutdown

Constraints

## MIN & MAX generation level

Startup & shutdown costs
Rampingconstraints (time lags)
Minimum uptime, downtime

## What Makes UC Hard (&

Interesting)?
Many constraints
Between every hour and its previous hour, forevery generator

## Must solve all hours simultaneously

(Cant decouple as in ED)

## ON/OFF is binary (discrete), not continuous

Introduces non-convexities into optimization
Requires (Mixed) Integer Programming solution methods

Temporal Resolution
Typically UC is run for a horizon of one week
startups and shutdowns

## Time steps are usually one hour

Chronology is critical
Standard model: 168 hours

## UC Input Data (Parameters)

Hourly System Demand (Assume Single Bus)
Input/OutputCurves for each unit (Heat Rates)
Linear approximation
Piecewise linear

## Startup Costs for each unit

Constant
Function of time since shutdown

## RampRate Limits for eachunit

Minimum up/downtime limits
Fuel Prices
Operations and Maintenance Costs (Fixed and Variable)

UC Variables
For each generating unit g and each time t:
Net PowerX(g,t)
Commitment StateU(g,t)
Startup DecisionY(g,t)
Shutdown DecisionZ(g,t)

Constraints: Supply-Demand
Balance
The supply-demand balance must be satisfiedin every
period of the schedulinghorizon
Toavoid potentialinfeasibilities,we introduce the
concept of non-served power that will be highly
penalized in the objective function:

Constraints:SpinningReserve
To maintain a reliable supply of electricity, provisions
must be made to ensure a reasonable level of
backup generation (operating reserves, that can
quickly be tapped to respond to a system emergency.
Theunits typically used for this type of service are
either quick-start generators (non-spinning), such as
combustion turbines, or the unloaded portion of a
plant that is already synchronized and running at a
level less than full capacity (spinning).

Other Constraints
Logic coherence startup-commitment-shutdown
Ramprates
Minimum down time

Power System
Fundamentals
Lecture 17

## Power vs. Energy

Energy is the ability to do useful work (like illuminate
a room). Energy inherently has a quantity component
(howmuch light)and a time component (how long did
we keep the room lit).
Power is the rate at which that useful work is done
(units of energy per second).

Electric Power
Current (I): The flow of electrons through some
conducting medium.
Voltage (V): A measure of electric potential between two
terminals. Voltage is not a natural measure;it is
equal to work/current.
Thus, power as we think of it is really:
Power= VoltageCurrent =VoltsAmps= Watts

Electric Power
Watts = Joules/second. So Watts represents
aflowrate
Electric power generators are given capacity
ratings in power units corresponding to its maximum
instantaneous rate of electricity production.

Electric Energy
Electric energy takes units of WattsTime [watt-hours].
The output of a generator or the consumption of
electricity is measured inWh(or kWh or MWh).

Transmission Lines
Resistance (R, measured in ohms, ) describes
how easily current travels through a material.
Conductance (G)is the inverse of resistance.

Ohms Law
Ohms Law is used to determine the amount
of voltagedrop for a given currentacross aresistor with
resistance R.
V=I x R

Definition of Power
Power delivered:
P=IxV

## The power dissipated (as heat)

P = IV = I(IR) = I2R

Kirchhoffs Laws
KirchoffsCurrent Law states that in any electric circuit,
the sum of the currents entering and leaving anypoint
(node)in the circuit is zero.

## KirchoffsVoltage Law states that in any looped circuit,

the sum of the voltage drops across elements of the
circuit must be zero.

Resistance
In Series:

In Parallel:

## **Pure resistive load: current in phase with voltage

Inductors
Conductingwire shaped into a coil induces a magnetic
field when current passes through it.
Voltage induced by time-varying magnetic field

Capacitors
Conductingmaterial separated by a dielectric (insulator)
stores energy(via a static electric field) when a voltage
applied across the element

Impedance
the combination of resistive, inductive and capacitive
elements in acircuit.

## The RMS Value of Power

Because Voltage (V) and Current (I) areconstantly
changing in AC power, power (P = IV) is also changing.
We want to know how much power on average is
If the maximumvoltage (amplitude) isVmax, then the
rms value, or average, of voltage is

## AC Power and Complex Numbers

(j=)
Resistance impacts the real component

## Reactance (inductance + capacitance) impacts the

imaginary component

## AC power with Phase Shift

When current and voltage are out of phase, there
islesspower available on average.
Sometimes current and voltage have opposite signs
When this happensP(t) is negative

Reactive Power
The component of power which oscillates back and forth,
doing no real work

## Basic Power System Components

Generators
Voltage Source coupled with an internal inductor

Transmission Lines
Transformers
Translates voltage high to low or low to high

Power Flow
Lecture 18

## Kirchoffs Laws (revisted)

Fundamental Laws of CircuitsKirchhoff's Current Law
(KCL)
Sum of all currents into and out of a node (bus) must equal 0

Kirchhoff'sVoltage Law(KCL)
Sum of all voltages around a closed circuit must sum to 0

## Used to compute steady-state of power flow on a

network

Types of Buses
Slackbus:the reference bus for whichV1d1is
given, usually 1.00.0; Need to compute P1and
Q1.Thisbus designated to absorb all the networklosses
computeVkanddk
Voltage-controlled buses:PkandVkare given, must
computeQk
anddk(buses with generators, shunt capacitors,
transformerswith tap settings)

Lecture 19

## The transmission network and the

operation planning
Reactive Power between two nodes depends on the
difference of their voltage magnitudes.
Active Power between two nodes depends on the
difference of their voltage phase angles.

## DC power flow simplifications

Key Concepts

Why OPF
Time Horizon
OPF Hour ahead / single hour

Objectives
Account for transmission constraints
Control Settings: Voltage, phase shifts, reactive power
injection
Long-term planning
Nodal pricing

OPF
Objective
Function:

## Minimize Operating Costs (others possible)

Decision Variables
Power level at each generator

Constraints
Supply/demand balanceat each node
Pwithin Min/Max limits for Generators
Limits on Lines, Buses (P,Q,V,)

Dual Variables
Every constraint has a dual variable
For every bus and every line

## Relays change in objective function for one unit change

in constraints
Very useful for nodal marginal cost

## Congestion and LMPs

Congestion
Occurs when equipment reach their limits
Transmission lines, usually
Can include transformers, etc.

## The Principal Driver of Price Differences

LMPs Locational Marginal Prices
locational local and specific to a location on the network
marginal the cost of the next unit of electricity
price everyone pays/gets paid that price at that location
way to implement market on the grid

## Three components in LMPs

System Marginal Cost
i.e., cheapest unit gets turned on next
merit order for economic dispatch

## Marginal Losses Cost

cost of electricity lost through transmission
i.e., farther units will cost more because of losses

## difference in electricity dispatch due to congestion

typicallylargest component of price separations
will be both positive and negative
optimal power flow or constrained economic dispatch