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Engineered Pique:

The Making of the Perfect


Single Knit Pique Fabric

Piqu Knits
In todays marketplace:

Piqu knits are the first choice for


casual and sportswear shirtings.
This product is considered by
consumers to be a must have for the
active wardrobe.

Piqu Knits
Named for the French word to pierce
due to the tuck stitches that create
openness and texture to the fabric.

Other descriptive terms:


crisp
comfortable
rich with character
light and airy

Engineered Single Knit Piqu


Objective
To study the effect of Run-in-Ratio and other
construction parameters on:
fabric weight
width
hand
appearance

Single Piqu
Definition

A single knit construction where:

tuck loops alternate with knitted loops within


the same course, and
between one course and another in the same
wale.
Other Terms:
Cross-tuck

Lacoste

Double Cross-Tuck

Double Lacoste

Three Basic Piqu Fabrics

4 K T

4 K T

3 K K

3 K T

2 T K

2 T K

1 K K

1 T K

Single
Piqu

Double
Piqu

6 K
5 K

4 K
3 T

2 T
1 K

T
K
K

Six-Feed
Piqu

Piqu Construction

Technical Face

Technical Back

Effect of Tuck Stitches


on a Fabric

Wider

More length shrinkage

Less width shrinkage

Less extensible in the width

More open

Thicker

Texture

Lower strength

Most Common Complaints


Piqu Fabrics

Fit

Dimensional stability

Appearance

Hand

Terms for Discussion


Stitch Length
the amount of yarn in one loop in a knitted
fabric.
is calculated by dividing the inches of yarn
fed to one course in the fabric by the
number of needles knitting in the cylinder.

240 inches = 0.120 inches


2000 needles

Terms for Discussion


Tightness Factor (TF)
A number that indicates the relative
tightness of knitting, taking account of
both:
the thickness of the yarn
the length of the loops
English
Metric
TF =

9.567
Lin Ne

TF =

*note: For single pique,TF is calculated on the jersey feed only.

Tex
Lcm

Suggested TF Ranges
Basic Fabrics
Normal

Limits

Single Jersey

14 - 18

12 - 20

Interlock

10 - 14

8 - 16

1x1 Rib

14 - 18

12 - 20

Single Piqu

14 - 18

12 - 20

Double Piqu

14 - 18

12 - 20

Six-Thread Piqu

14 - 18

12 - 20

Terms for Discussion


Run-in-Ratio (RIR)
In cross-tuck fabrics containing an all knit
course and a knit-tuck course, the ratio is
obtained by dividing the length of the knittuck course by the length of the all knit
course

CLK-T
RIR = _______
CLK

Ne

16/1
18/1
20/1
2-36/1
2-40/1

Knitting Layouts for Single Piqu Study


RIR Stitch Length
Ne RIR Stitch Length
All-Knit KnitAll-Knit KnitTuck
Tuck
18 Gauge
28 Gauge
0.85 0.154 0.131
28/1 0.85 0.117 0.100
1.00 0.154 0.154
1.00 0.117 0.117
1.15 0.154 0.177
1.15 0.117 0.140
0.85 0.145 0.124
30/1 0.85 0.113 0.096
1.00 0.145 0.145
1.00 0.113 0.113
1.15 0.145 0.167
1.15 0.113 0.129
0.85 0.138 0.118
32/1 0.85 0.109 0.093
1.00 0.138 0.138
1.00 0.109 0.109
1.15 0.138 0.159
1.15 0.109 0.125
0.85 0.145 0.124 2-50/1 0.85 0.124 0.105
1.00 0.145 0.145
1.00 0.124 0.124
1.15 0.145 0.167
1.15 0.124 0.142
0.85 0.138 0.118 2-60/1 0.85 0.113 0.096
1.00 0.138 0.138
1.00 0.113 0.113
1.15 0.138 0.159
1.15 0.113 0.129

Run-in-Ratio for Single Piqu*


Sample

Stitch Length
Tuck Jersey

TF

RIR

0.131 0.154

15.53

0.85

0.154 0.154

15.53

1.00

0.177 0.154

15.53

1.15

* 16/1 Combed Ring Spun - Dyed and Finished

Run-in-Ratio for Single Piqu*


Sample

Stitch Length
Tuck Jersey

TF

RIR

0.154

0.181

13.21

0.85

0.154

0.154

15.53

1.00

0.154

0.134

17.48

1.15

* 16/1 Combed Ring Spun - Dyed and Finished

Effect of RIR on Fabric Parameters


Sample

RIR

Width

Weight

Burst

Oz/yd2

Lbs/in2

0.85

49.2

7.2

81.7

1.00

55.7

6.7

71.1

1.15

62.0

6.1

62.0

* 16/1 Combed Ring Spun - Dyed and Finished

RIR vs Reference Weight

Weight, oz/yd2

9.000
8.000
7.000
6.000
5.000
4.000
0.7

0.85

Run-in-Ratio

1.15

18 cut - 16/1 Ne

18 cut - 18/1 Ne

18 cut - 20/1 Ne

18 cut - 2(36/1 Ne)

18 cut - 2(40/1 Ne)

28 cut - 28/1 Ne

28 cut - 30/1 Ne

28 cut - 32/1 Ne

28 cut - 2(50/1 Ne)

28 cut - 2(60/1 Ne)

Linear (28 cut - 2(60/1 Ne))

1.3

Weight, oz/yd2

RIR vs Reference Weight

7.000

4.000
0.7

0.85

1.15

Run-in-Ratio
18 cut - 16/1 Ne

18 cut - 18/1 Ne

18 cut - 20/1 Ne

18 cut - 2(36/1 Ne)

18 cut - 2(40/1 Ne)

28 cut - 28/1 Ne

28 cut - 30/1 Ne

28 cut - 32/1 Ne

28 cut - 2(50/1 Ne)

28 cut - 2(60/1 Ne)

Linear (28 cut - 2(60/1 Ne))

1.3

RIR vs Reference Width

100.0

Width, inches

90.0
80.0
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0
0.7

0.85

1
Run-in-Ratio

1.15

1.3

18 cut - 16/1 Ne

18 cut - 18/1 Ne

18 cut - 20/1 Ne

18 cut - 2(36/1 Ne)

18 cut - 2(40/1 Ne)

28 cut - 28/1 Ne

28 cut - 30/1 Ne

28 cut - 32/1 Ne

28 cut - 2(50/1 Ne)

28 cut - 2(60/1 Ne)

Width, inches

RIR vs Reference Width

80.0

55.0

30.0
0.7

0.85

1
Run-in-Ratio

1.15

1.3

18 cut - 16/1 Ne

18 cut - 18/1 Ne

18 cut - 20/1 Ne

18 cut - 2(36/1 Ne)

18 cut - 2(40/1 Ne)

28 cut - 28/1 Ne

28 cut - 30/1 Ne

28 cut - 32/1 Ne

28 cut - 2(50/1 Ne)

28 cut - 2(60/1 Ne)

Engineered Piqu Study


Panel Evaluation
Appearance
Hand
Smoothness
Openness
Texture

Engineered Piqu Study


Panel Evaluation - 18 Gauge Fabrics
Run-in-Ratio*
Singles Yarns

0.85

1.00

1.15

Appearance

69

19

12

Hand

88

12

Smoothness

99

Openness

10

90

Texture

91

* % of Panelists

Engineered Piqu Study


Panel Evaluation - 18 Gauge Fabrics
Run-in-Ratio*
2 Ends Per Feed

0.85

1.00

1.15

Appearance

63

21

16

Hand

75

13

12

Smoothness

94

Openness

14

86

Texture

19

81

* % of Panelists

Engineered Piqu Study


Panel Evaluation - 28 Gauge Fabrics
Run-in-Ratio*
Singles Yarns

0.85

1.00

1.15

Appearance

46

34

20

Hand

71

26

Smoothness

87

13

Openness

18

81

Texture

18

80

* % of Panelists

Engineered Piqu Study


Panel Evaluation - 28 Gauge Fabrics
Run-in-Ratio*
2 Ends Per Feed

0.85

1.00

1.15

Appearance

58

23

19

Hand

88

12

Smoothness

93

Openness

15

84

Texture

19

--

81

* % of Panelists

Engineered Piqu Study


Conclusions
The lower the RIR value at the same TF :

the heavier the fabric

the narrower the fabric

the better the appearance

the better the hand

the smoother the fabric

the less open the structure

the less texture in the fabric

THANK YOU !!
SSANGYONG MACHINE