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Southern Nevada Regional

Professional Development

RPDP Secondary Literacy

Created by Jill M. Leone

Reading Specialist
Copyright 2007

RPDP Secondary Literacy

Students will:
identify various

elements of a novel.
analyze and evaluate
key literary elements.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

They can take you to places youve never been

times long ago
times in the future
into the hearts and
minds of others
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Keep you company

on a boring day
Make you laugh or cry
Help you understand
your own life through
the lives of others
RPDP Secondary Literacy

a fictional prose work
usually divided into chapters
relatively long and often complex plot
story traditionally develops through
the thoughts and actions of its
RPDP Secondary Literacy

To understand:
who is telling the story (point of view)
where and when the story takes place
who are the main characters
what the characters are like
what happens (plot)
RPDP Secondary Literacy

You should also understand:

the authors central idea
or message (theme)
how the author expresses
his or her ideas (style)

RPDP Secondary Literacy

Preview checklist:
the title and author
the front and back covers
summaries or excerpts from book reviews
information about author
introductory material dedication
foreword, or introduction
chapter names and illustrations
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RPDP Secondary Literacy

RPDP Secondary Literacy

RPDP Secondary Literacy

It includes

the time and period in history

the place
the atmosphere
the clothing
the living conditions
the social climate

RPDP Secondary Literacy

A story can be set in an

imaginary place, such
as an enchanted
castle, or a real place,
such as New York or
The time can be the
past, the present, or
the future.

RPDP Secondary Literacy

The setting of a story

is always important.
It influences the way
characters act and
think and all aspects
of their lives.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

RPDP Secondary Literacy

Mood is the feeling, or

atmosphere, that the
writer creates for the
The author can use the
setting to create a mood,
which is happy, sad,
exciting, or boring.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

As you read a novel,

pay attention
to how the setting
affects the
mood of the story
and also how it
the lives of the
RPDP Secondary Literacy

RPDP Secondary Literacy

The narrative perspective

from which events in a
or novel are told

RPDP Secondary Literacy

When you determine who is telling the story,

youve discovered the narrative point of view.
This is important because the narrator controls:
what and how much is told
the kind of information given to the reader
even the shape of the work itself
RPDP Secondary Literacy

This means that the narrator

is a character in the story
describes the action in his
or her own words
Whats shown is limited to the
character's observations and
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Events and characters described

by a character outside the action
Third person limited point of view:
The narrator tells the story from the
perspective of only one character.
The reader only learns what this
person feels and experiences.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Narrator is all-knowing
Can see into the mind of
more than one character
Gives reader access to
all characters
RPDP Secondary Literacy

RPDP Secondary Literacy

These are the

people, animals,
or natural forces
represented as
persons in a
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Authors describe them carefully.

You learn how they look
what kind of people they are
how they act in different situations
how they change during the story
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Main characters
Minor characters
Static characters
Dynamic characters
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Main characters - characters who the story

revolves around the most.
Minor characters - interact with the main
characters and help move the story along.
Static characters - stay the same over the
entire course of the story, even though
their situation may change.
Dynamic characters - evolve as individuals,
learning from their experiences and
growing emotionally.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

The main character

is the most
important character.
The action of the
plot and main
conflict revolve
around him or her.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

The main character or hero in a

narrative or drama, usually the
one with whom the
audience identifies
Often referred to as
the good guy
RPDP Secondary Literacy

The person, thing, or force that

works against the protagonist
Can be
another character
a family
a society
a force of nature
a force within the main character
RPDP Secondary Literacy

The way the author develops a character is

called characterization.
Pay attention to these clues from the author:
Physical appearance and personality
Speech, thoughts, feelings, and actions
Interactions with other characters
Direct comments by the author
RPDP Secondary Literacy

RPDP Secondary Literacy

The plot is the sequence

of events or what
happens in a story.
Many plots contain a
central problem
something that goes
RPDP Secondary Literacy

The characters also usually

have a goal to achieve.
The struggle to achieve this
goal or solve the problem is
the conflict.

RPDP Secondary Literacy

There are different types of

conflicts in a story.
External Forces:
Man vs. man - another individual
or group of individuals
Man vs. nature - something
in the environment
RPDP Secondary Literacy

External Forces:
Man vs. fate a problem that
seems uncontrollable

Internal Forces:
Man vs. self a physical, mental
or moral struggle faced by the
central character
RPDP Secondary Literacy

By the end of a story,

the character facing
the conflict succeeds
or fails.
To identify the conflict,
try to find the events
that caused the
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Pay attention to how a story ends.

Many stories end by
resolving their conflicts.
The way a problem is fixed
or solved is the resolution.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Plots usually progress

through stages:
Rising Action
Falling Action
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The exposition provides important

background information and
introduces the setting, characters,
and conflict.
During the rising action, the conflict
becomes more intense and suspense
builds as the main characters struggle
to resolve their problem.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

The climax is the turning point

in the plot when the outcome of the
conflict becomes clear, usually resulting
in a change in the characters or a
solution to the conflict.
After the climax, the falling action
occurs and the conflict is or about to be - settled.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

The resolution is the ending.

The storys central problem is
finally solved, leaving the
reader with a sense of
completion, although the
main character may not feel
the same way.

RPDP Secondary Literacy


RPDP Secondary Literacy





Its like a map

that tells you
where you are
in the action
of the novel.


RPDP Secondary Literacy

Tone expresses a writers attitude.

The tone of a literary work may be one of:
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Writers style involves these elements:

Word choice
Sentence structure and length
Literary devices, such as figurative
language, symbols, dialogue, and
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Imagery is the use of words

and phrases that create
pictures in the readers
Details that appeal to your
senses sight, hearing,
smell, taste, and touch
make the writing
come alive.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Figurative Language
A special way of using words
Not meant to be taken literally
Creates a picture in the minds
of the reader
Often involves a comparison
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Pay careful attention

to the language and
details a writers
They will give you
clues about the
writers tone.
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RPDP Secondary Literacy

This is the message

about life from the author
to the reader.
It is like a lesson for life,
something you can learn
from the story and apply
to other life situations.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

The author usually doesnt tell you

the theme directly.
You must figure it out for yourself by
the way the characters act and react.
Many novels have more than one
theme, some major and some minor.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

You understand your life through the lives

of others.
Use your imagination to form mental
Read for pleasure.
Read more quickly.
Big picture is more important than details.
Easier to remember than nonfiction.

RPDP Secondary Literacy

Good readers anticipate what theyll

be reading before they get to it.
Our background or prior knowledge
enables us to make these
Its exciting to make predictions and
then confirm how accurate weve
been later on throughout a novel.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Which of the following provides important

background information and introduces the
setting, characters, and conflict?
A. climax
B. exposition
C. rising action
D. resolution
RPDP Secondary Literacy

How did you do?

Which of the following is considered an

internal force in the conflict of a novel?
A. man vs. man
B. man vs. nature
C. man vs. self
D. man vs. fate
RPDP Secondary Literacy

How did you do?

The main character or hero in a novel and

usually the one with whom the audience
identifies is the
A. antagonist
B. protagonist
C. narrator
D. opponent
RPDP Secondary Literacy

How did you do?

Next time you open up

a novel, think about the
narrators point of view,
the characters, the conflict,
the theme, and the writers
style and techniques.
Youll see how they
all fit together and can open
up whole new worlds to you,
the reader.
RPDP Secondary Literacy

Narrators Point of View
Character Development
Parts of a Plot
Tone and Style

RPDP Secondary Literacy

Copyright Notice
Permission is granted to copy (unmodified) all or part
of this PowerPoint for educational, personal, noncommercial use off-line as long as the copyright
message (Copyright 2007 by Jill Leone) is
maintained on the title page. This material may not
be sold, duplicated on other websites, incorporated
in commercial documents or products, or used for
promotional purposes.
Copyright 2007 by Jill M. Leone

RPDP Secondary Literacy