Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 64

Common-Source (CS)

Amplifier With RD Load


Design Method, Constraints and
Tradeoffs

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Single-Stage Amplifier
Why amplifier is important? We amplify
signal because
it may be too small to drive a load
Overcome the noise of a subsequent stage
Provide logical level to a digital circuit

Single-Stage Amplifier
Objectives
To study the low-frequency behavior of single-stage
CMOS amplifier.
Develop intuitive techniques and models that prove
useful in understanding more complex system.
To use proper approximation so as to create a simple
mental picture of a complicated circuit
This help us in formulate the behaviour of most
circuits by inspection rather than by lengthy
calculation.

Single-Stage Amplifier
What we will cover?
All four types of amplifiers:

Common-source
Common-gate
Common-drain (source followers)
Cascode

In each case, we begin with a simple model and


gradually add second-order phenomena such as
channel-length modulation and body effect.

Basic concepts

Input-output characteristic of an amplifier is generally a


nonlinear function that can be approximated by a polynomial:

y (t ) 0 1 x(t ) 2 x 2 (t ) ... n x n (t )
where : x1 x x2
For a sufficiently narrow range of x:

y (t ) 0 1 x(t )

Where 0 can be considered the operating (bias) point and 1 the


small-signal gain.
So long as 1x(t)<< 0 , the bias points is disturbed negligibly,
provides a reasonable approximation, and the higher order term are
insignificant.

Basic concepts
In other words, y= x, indicating a linear
relationship between the increments at the
input and output.
As x(t) increase in magnitude, higher order
terms manifest themselves, leading to
nonlinearity and require us to consider
large-signal analysis.
In summary, if the slope varies with signal
level, then the system is nonlinear.

Common-source stage with


resistive load

MOSFET convert variation in its gate-source voltage to a smallsignal drain current.


This current can pass through a resistor to generate an output
voltage (that varies according to the drain current).

Resistance: for DC power supply (relative to amplitude of voltage & current)


Impedance: for AC power supply (relative to amplitude of voltage, current & phase)

Common-source stage with


resistive load

If the input voltage increases from


zero, M1 is off. No current flow, thus
Vout1=Vdd
As Vin increase to VTH, M1 begins to
turn on in saturation mode. It draws
current from RD, thus lowering Vout.
Increase Vin further, more drain
current, thus Vout drops further. The
transistor continues to operate in
saturation until Vin exceed Vout by Vth
(as in point A), ie Vin-Vout=Vth
If Vin-Vout>Vth, M1 start to operate in
the triode region.
If Vin increase further, M1 will drive
into deep triode region
Since the transconductance drop in
the triode region, we usually ensure
that Vout>Vin-Vth, operating to the left
of point A

Vin

Common-source stage with


resistive load
When M1 is in saturation mode:
Vout VDD VRD
VDD RD I D
1
W
2
VDD RD nCox Vin VTH
2
L

Vieweing the slope as the


small-signal gain,
Av

Vout
Vin

RD n Cox
g m RD

W
Vin VTH
L

Vin

Common-source stage with


resistive load

The equation can be confirm by observation that M1 converts an


input voltage change Vin to a drain current change, gmVin. Hence,
an output voltage change, -gmRDVin
Since gm itself veries with the input signal according to
gm=nCox(W/L)(VGS-VTH), the gain of the circuit changes substantially
if the signal is large.
In other words, if the gain of the circuit varies significantly with the
signal swing, then the circuit operates in the large-signal mode.
The dependence of the gain upon the signal level leads to
nonlinearity, usually an undesirable effect.
A key result here is that to minimize the nonlinerity, the gain
equation must be a weak function of signal-dependent
parameter such as gm

Common-source Stage With DiodeConnected Load


In many CMOS technologies, it is difficult to fabricate
resistors with tightly-controlled values or a reasonable
physical size.
It is desirable to replace RD with a MOS transistor
A MOSFET can operate as a small-signal resistor if its
gate and drain are shorted.
Note that the transistor is always in saturation because
the drain and the gate have the same potential.

Diode-Connected Load total impedance

V1 VX
IX

VX
g mVX
ro

Rd

1
1
|| ro
gm
gm

Diode-Connected Load ( total


impedance with body effect)

Small signal model of the diode.


Note: Gate and drain is grounded since
since the signal is unchanged.

Due to body effect

V1 Vx
Vbs Vx

Note: One of V1, Vbs and Vx


terminal is connected to GND

Vx
Ix ( gm gmb)Vx
ro
Vx
1
1

|| ro
Ix gm gmb
gm gmb

Diode-Connected Load ( total


impedance with body effect)
Vx
1

Ix gm gmb

Note that the impedance seen at the


source of M1 is lower when body effect is
included.

Common-source Stage With DiodeConnected Load small signal gain


From:

Av g m RD
Replace Rd with the diode impedance
1
Av gm1
gm2 gmb2
gm1 1

(where =gmb2/gm2)
gm2 1
Expressing gm1 and gm2 in term of W/L and ID
Av

2 nCOX (W / L)1 I D1 1
2 nCOX (W / L) 2 I D 2 1

Since ID1=ID2:

Av

(W / L)1 1
(W / L) 2 1

Av g m RD

Common-source Stage With DiodeConnected Load small signal gain


(W / L)1 1
Av
(W / L)2 1
This equation reveals an interesting property: if the
variation of with the output voltage is neglected, the
gain is independent of the bias currents and voltages (so
long as M1 stays in saturation)
This means that as the input and output signal level vary,
the gain remains relatively constant, indicating that the
input-output characteristic is relatively linear.
The point: Gain does not depend on V in (as we saw in the
case of RD load)

Common-source Stage With DiodeConnected Load


The output voltage equal
VDD-VTH2 if Vin<VTH1.
For Vin>VTH1, Vout follows
an approximately straight
line.
As Vin exceed Vout+VTH1
(beyond point A), M1
enters the triode region,
and the characteristic
become non linear

CS with Diode-Connected PMOS Load


Voltage Gain

n (W / L)1
Av
p (W / L) 2
Nobodyeffect!

Numerical Example

Say that we want the voltage gain to be 10.


Then:
Av

n (W / L)1
10
p (W / L) 2

n (W / L)1

100
p (W / L) 2

Example continued
n (W / L)1
100
p (W / L) 2

Typically

n 2 p

Example continued
(W / L)1
50
(W / L) 2
Need a strong input device, and a weak
load device.
Large dimension ratios lead to either a larger
input capacitance (if we make input device
very wide (W/L)1>>1) or to a larger output
capacitance (if we make the load device very
narrow (W/L)2<<1).
Latter option (narrow load) is preferred from
bandwidth considerations.

CS with current-source load

From Av=-gmRD, we can


increase the load impedence
to increase the CS stage.
However, with resistor or
diode-connected load,
increasing the load resistance
limits the output voltage swing.
A more practical approach is to
replace the load with a current
source.
Both transistor is set to
operate in saturation.
Total impedence seen at the
output node is equal to ro1||ro2

CS with current-source load


Both transistor is set
to operate in
saturation.
Total impedance seen
at the output node is
equal to ro1||ro2.
The gain is:

Av g m ( ro1 || ro2 )

How do we make the gain large?

Av g m ( ro1 || ro2 )
Recall: is inversely proportional to the channel length L.
To make values smaller (so that ro be larger) need to
increase L. In order to keep the same current, need to
increase W by the same proportion as the L increase.

CS Amplifier with Current-Source


Load Gains
Typical gains that such an amplifier can
achieve are in the range of -10 to -100.
To achieve similar gains with a RD load
would require much larger VDD values.
For low-gain and high-frequency
applications, RD load may be preferred
because of its smaller parasitic
capacitance (compared to a MOSFET
load)

Numerical Example

Let W/L for both transistors be W/L = 100m /


1.6m
Let nCox=90A/V2, pCox=30A/V2
Bias current is ID=100A

Numerical Example (Contd)

Let ro1=8000L/ID and ro2=12000L/ID where L is in


m and ID is in mA.
What is the gain of this stage?

Numerical Example (Contd)


g m1 2 nCOX (W / L)1 I D 1.06mA / V
ro1 8000 1.6 / 0.1 128 K
ro 2 12000 1.6 / 0.1 192 K
AV g m1 (ro1 || ro 2 ) 81.4

How does L influence the gain?


Av gm ro1 || ro2
Assumingro2large,

W 1
Av g m ro1 2 n Cox I D
L I

1
D

How does L influence the gain?


W 1
Av g m ro1 2 n Cox I D
L I

1 1 D

As L1 increases the gain increases, because 1 depends


on L1 more strongly than gm1 does!
As ID increases the gain decreases.
Increasing L2 while keeping W2 constant increases ro2
and the gain, but |VDS2| necessary to keep M2 in
Saturation increases.

CS with source Degeneration

In some application, the squarelaw dependence of the drain


current upon the overdrive voltage
introduces excessive nonlinearity.
Since Vout=-IDRD, the nonlinearity
of the circuit arises from the
nonlinear dependence of ID upon
Vin.
We want to make the gain
equation, Av, to be a weaker
function of gm.
Thus, it is desirable to soften the
device characteristic.
This can be accomplished by
placing a degeneration resistor in
series with the source terminal

CS with source Degeneration


how it work
As Vin increases, so do
ID and the voltage drop
across RS.
That is, a fraction of Vin
appears across the
resistor rather than as
the gate-source
overdrive.
This lead to a
smoother variation of
Vin increase, I
ID

increase, thus VRS increase.


This reduce the increase of VGS voltage.
D

Vout
ID

RD
Vin
Vin
Using

ID
Gm
Vin
ID f (VGS )

ID
Gm
Vin
f VGS

VGS Vin

Since

VGS Vin I D RS
We have:
VGS
I
1 RS D
Vin
VGS

Giving:

Gm

f
VGS

1 RS

I D

Vin

Since f/ VGS is the transconductance of M1,gm:


Gm g m 1 RS Gm

Gm g mGm (
1 gm (

1
RS )
Gm

1
RS )
Gm

1
1

RS
g m Gm
1
1

RS
Gm g m
1 1 g m RS

Gm
gm
Gm

gm
1 gm R S

Thus, the small-signal voltage gain is equal to


Av Gm RD

gm
RD
1 g m RS

From:

Gm

gm
1 g m RS

R
S
g
m

With RS=0, the gain strongly depends on gm, and as we recall gm


depends on the inputs amplitude, temperature and other effects.
As RS increases, Gm become a weaker function of gm,
hence the drain current, ID.
For RS>>1/gm, we have Gm1/RS,ie ID Vin/RS,
Indicating that the most of the change in Vin appear across RS.
Thus, the drain current is a linearized function of the input voltage.
The linearization is obtained at the cost of lower gain.

Linearizing effect of RS:


g m RD
RD
Av

1
1 g m RS
RS
gm

For low current levels 1/gm>>RS and therefore Gmgm.


As the overdrive increase, the effect of degeneration,
1+gmRS become more significant.
For very large Vin, if transistor is still in Saturation, Gm
approaches 1/RS.

Example 3.4, pg 62

Estimating Gain by Inspection


gm RD
RD
Av

1 gm RS
1/ gm RS
Denominator: Resistance seen the
Source path, looking up from ground
towards Source.
Numerator: Resistance seen at Drain.
Thus, the magnitude of the gain is the
resistance seen at the drain node divided
by the total resistance in the source path.

Example to demonstrate method:

Note that M2 is diode-connected, thus acting


like a resistor 1/gm2
AV=-RD/(1/gm1+1/gm2)

Another important consequence of the


source degeneration is the increase in the
output resistance of the stage.

RS effect on CS Output Resistance

I X g mV1 g mbVbs I ro
g m ( I X RS ) g mb I X RS I ro
VX ro ( I X ( g m g mb ) RS I X ) I X RS

CS Output Resistance

VX
ROUT
IX
ROUT [1 ( g m g mb )ro ]RS ro
Since typically (gm+gmb)ro>>1

ROUT ro ' ro [1 (gm gmb )RS ]


Thus, RS causes a significant increase in the
output resistance of the amplifier by a factor of
1+(g +g )R

General Networks Result

Voltage gain in any linear circuit equals GmRout


Gm is circuit transconductance when output is
shorted to ground
Rout is output resistance when circuits input voltage
is set to zero.

General Networks Result

GmRout formula is useful if Gm and Rout can be


determined by inspection.
Proof: Rout is Norton equivalent. Vout=-IoutRout
Gm=Iout/Vin, which leads to the result.

Common-Drain (Source Follower)


From the common-source stage, to achieve a
high voltage gain with limited supply voltage, the
load impedance must be as large as possible.
If the stage is to drive a low-impedence load,
then a buffer must be placed after the amplifier
so as to drive the load with negligible loss of the
signal level.
The source follower (also called the commondrain stage) can operate as a voltage buffer.

Source Follower with RS resistance

Source follower senses the signal at the gate and drives the load at the
source, allowing the source potential to follow the gate voltage.
For large-signal behaviour:

for Vin<VTH, M1 is off and Vout=0.


As Vin exceeds VTH, M1 turns on in saturation and ID1 flows through RS
As Vin increase further, Vout follows the input with a difference equal to VGS
M1 goes into Triode Mode only when Vin exceeds VDD.

Source Follower Gain Formula


using large signal analysis

1
W
nCox Vin VTH Vout 2 Rs
2
L
Vout 1
W
V
Vout

n Cox 2Vin VTH Vout 1 TH


Rs
Vin
2
L
Vin Vin

Vout

Since VTH/ Vin=Vout/ Vin


W
n Cox 2Vin VTH Vout Rs
Vout
L

W
Vin 1 C
Vin VTH Vout Rs 1
n ox
L

Note that:
g m n Cox

W
2Vin VTH Vout
L

Consequently:

g m Rs
Av
1 g m g mb Rs

Source Follower Gain Formula


using small signal analysis
The same result is more easily obtained
with the aid of a small-signal equivalent
circuit.

Source Follower Gain Formula


using small signal analysis
Vin V1 Vout
Vbs Vout
g mV1 g mbVout Vout / RS
Then: (neglecting ro)

Vout
g m RS
Av

Vin 1 ( g m g mb ) RS

When VinVTH (that is gm 0),


Av begins from 0 and
monotonically increase.
As the gm and ID increase, Av
approaches gm/(gm+gmb)=1/
(1+). Note =gmb/gm
Since itself slowly decreases
with Vout, Av would eventually
become equal to unity, but for
typically allowable source-bulk
voltages, remains greater
than roughly 0.2.
If Rs=, the voltage gain of a
source follower is not equal to
one.

Av

Vout
g m RS

Vin 1 ( g m g mb ) RS

Problem with RS configuration:

Large ID variations, as Vin varies.

Example, if Vin changes from 1.5V to 2V (1.3x), ID may increase by a


factor of 2, and VGS-VTH by 2

This causes a nonlinear performance to the input-output


characteristic.
Solution: Replace RS with a Current Source.
The current source it self is implemented as an NMOS transistor
operating in saturation region.

Calculate the small-signal output resistance


of the circuit

V1 VX
I X g mVX g mbVX 0
Rout

1
1
1

||
g m g mb g m g mb

Body effect decrease


the output resistance
of source followers.

Output Resistance of the Ideal Source Follower


with Current Source Load becomes smaller with
the help of the Body Effect!

Note that the magnitude of the current source gmbVbs is linearly


proportional to the voltage across it.
This behaviour can be represented by a simple resistor equal to
1/gmb (as in figure b)
The equivalent resistor simple appears in parallel with the output,
thus lowering the overall output resistance.
Rout

1
1
1

||
g m g mb g m g mb

Gain of Source Follower with Ideal


Current Source Load

With no body effect the output resistance of a


Source Follower with a current source load
would be 1/gm.
Overall voltage gain is obtained through voltage
division between 1/gm and 1/gmb!

Gain of Source Follower with Ideal


Current Source Load

Using Thevenin equivalent:

AV

1
g mb
1
1

g m g mb

gm
g m g mb

Gain Formula: NMOS Source Follower with NMOS


Current Source and RL Loads

1
Av

g mb1
(

1
g mb1

|| ro1 || ro 2 || RL

1
|| ro1 || ro 2 || RL )
g m1

Gain Formula: NMOS Source Follower with PMOS


Current Source Load

1
|| ro1 || ro 2 ||
g mb1
g m 2 g mb 2
Av
1
1
1
(
|| ro1 || ro 2 ||
)
g mb1
g m 2 g mb 2
g m1

Adv:Source follower has a high input


impedence and moderate output
impedence.
Contra: nonlinearity and voltage headroom
limitation

Common-Gate Amplifier

Sense the input at the source and produce the output at the drain.
The gate is connected to a DC voltage to establish proper operating
conditions.
The bias current of M1 flows through the input signal source.
M1 can be biased by a constant current source, with the signal
capacitively coupled to the circuit.

Large signal behaviour


Let us assume that Vin decrease from a large positive value.
For Vin Vb VTH, M1 is off and Vout=VDD.
If M1 is in saturation,
ID

1
W
nCox Vb Vin VTH 2
2
L

If M1 is saturated, we can express the output voltage as:


1
W
2
Vout VDD nCox Vb Vin VTH RD
2
L

Obtaining the small-signal gain:


Vout
W
VTH

nCox Vb Vin VTH 1


RD
Vin
L
Vin

Since VTH/ Vin= VTH/ VSB=, we have


Vout
W
nCox Vb Vin VTH 1 RD
Vin
L
gm1 RD

Note: body effect increase the equivalent


transconductance of the stage
The impedence seen at the source of M1 is the
same as that at the source fo M1 for common
drain (source-follower) ie: 1/(gm+gmb)=1/[gm(1+)]
The body effect decrease the input impedence
of the common-gate stage.
The low input impedance of the common-gate
stage proves useful in some application.

Cascode Stage