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2nd Generation Curriculum

&
The input situation
Meeting and Workshop
November 22nd 2016
Medea (2)
By
Mr Samir Bounab
Teacher trainer at MONE
yellowdaffodil66@gmail.com

Meeting Points
Time

Tasks
9:00

Opening session

9:05

Review about the last meeting

9:20

Discussing problems facing teachers

9:30

Introducing the topic of the day

10:30

Coffee pause

10:45

Workshops

11:30

Delivery of the workshop

12:00

closure

What does this illustration stand


for?

The 4 LEARNING
SITUATIONS

What is initial problem solving


situation?

It's the starting point of your lesson


where you involve your learners from
the first moment you are in class
you put them in real life situation
conform to the official approach (CBA)
which is learner centered one.
Using selected aids , you invite your
learners to guess, improsive, deduce....

Why problem Solving


Situation?

Problem solving learning situations is


very important since it places learners in
situations that test/check their
capacity to overcome obstacles and
problems .
Languages are learned most effectively
and lastingly when they are used to solve
problems through hypothesis testing .
Problems make the learners think
and they learn by thinking.
They word their thinking in English while
solving the problems.

Planning lessons through problem solving


situations necessitates from the teacher to take into
account many important facts:
Consider and acknowledge the learners abilities
and competences toward the target language .
Adapt the lessons learning objectives to the
learners level, abilities , competences, needs and
likes
Create a climate of communication by inviting
the learners to act in reflective thoughts .
The problem exposed must be of some interest
to the learners who must have experienced such
similar problem situation.
Such problem must be motivating and
stimulating to think about the options to solve
the problem.
The learner already possesses a minimum of data

Help the learner reach the solution in a complete


autonomous way where he or she feels responsible
about his or her thoughts.
Put their ideas (solution) into practice and see their
validity ( self evaluation)

Encourage Independence : Have


students work through problems on their
own. Ask directing questions or give helpful
suggestions, butprovide only minimal
assistanceand only when needed to

Some problem solving classroom


activities:
Brainstorming : helping learners to generate as many
as possible as idea and elicit them in lists .
Guessing: using pictures ( generally the ones of the
school manuals) invite the learners to guess and
improvise.( teacher may help them to put their ideas
black on white by answering specific questions like :
1) where does the situation take place? who is in the
picture ? 3) what is happening? ( learners will see ,
think then write short production )
Whats the problem? This is a powerful technic to
unify all the ideas

This initial problem


solving situation
must appear :
1)At the beginning of
the pedagogic
project while
introducing the
project work
2) At the beginning of
each lesson

Installing
resources
phase &
evaluating
resources

Assessing Integration
session ( criteria /
indicators):
1.
Relevence
2.
Correct use of the
linguistice resources
3.
Coherence
/consistency
4.
Excellence

Evaluation sessions :
a)Assessment of learning
b)diagnostic assessment
c) formative assessment

The is the pivot


of the learning
and teaching
process

Competency based approach (CBA)


is a problem-solving approach in
that it places learners in situations
that test/check their capacity to
overcome obstacles and problems .
Languages are learned most
effectively and lastingly when they
are used to solve problems through
hypothesis testing . Problems make
the learners think and they learn by
thinking. They word their thinking in
English while solving the problems.

Its the input situation = the lesson


session= learning session which
can be tackled through :

PPU (speaking) + PIASP


grammar teaching item /
Pronunciation teaching item
+ AFL
PDP (listen or read) session
+PIASP grammar teaching
item / Pronunciation
teaching item+ AFL
Tutorial classes session+
AFL

Learning Integration session

It is a writing process session


It is a phase planned in a problem solving
integrated situation ( Criteria of the
integration)
This phase is meant to the reinvestment
of the resources in terms of the "knows"
and the " know how to do " The
activities suggested in the previous phases
should be built up towards the final
output and help the pupils to be ready to
produce a piece of writing in accordance
with the situation of communication

The Input Situation


&
teaching frameworks

PPU & PDP


frameworks

Stages of a lesson
Lesson

3 stages

Pre stage
Post stage

During stage

Pre stage :
This can be an :
ice- breaker,
warmer
lead in.
They are nearly the same; there is a slight
difference but all serve one objective is to get
the learner ready and ease for the learning
session.

Ice breaker:
Icebreakers are discussion questions
or activities used to help participants
relax and ease into a group meeting
or learning situation.
The icebreakers can be
used to generate interest in a topic
and activate the students prior
knowledge.

Lead in:
Lead-ins (topic) will encourage the
sharing of information and resource.
Topic Lead-ins will direct the student
into the content that will be taught

Warmer:

Warmers are usually fun activities that focus on


fluency practice.
Ideally, warmers should only last a few minutes,
while a warmer is usually has no direct
relationship to the REST of the lesson,
a lead-in is a quick preview of the material that
will be covered in class. both lean in and
warmer have their strengths.
A fun, breezy warmer can add a bit of variety
to a lesson, and might appeal to students who
like a change of pace.
On the other hand, a lead-in is a better choice
for a more cohesive lesson. This is particularly

What is PPU?
P= Presentation
P= Practice
U = Use
NB: Use has
wider usage in and
outside the class
than Produce
which can occur
just in class

To teach?

Speaking
(communicative
grammar
lesson

During Stage = Presentation


The teacher: [decides on the teaching aids to
be used]
Conveys the meaning of new material /
language to students (inductively or
deductively)
Gives them the chance to interact with it and to
indicate in some way (not necessarily by producing
the language) that they have understood.
Provide maximum opportunity to students to
speak the target language by providing a rich
environment that contains collaborative work,
authentic materials and tasks, and shared
knowledge.

Provide written feedback like "Your presentation was really


great. It was a good job. I really appreciated your efforts in
preparing the materials and efficient use of your voice
Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often
while they are speaking. Correction should not distract student
from his or her speech.
Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of
class; contact other people who can help.
Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on
the right track and see whether they need your help while they
work in groups or pairs.
Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in
speaking activities.
Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in
expressing themselves in the target language
provide more opportunities to practice the spoken
language
Check Understanding. the teacher should ensure that
students understand what they have to do and are confident
with the vocabulary used on the role play handout before they

What do Students do?


Talk about subjects of interest to them.
Students use the material they have already
learned
Acquire new vocabulary in a meaningful context
Use some of the structures they practiced in the
previous lesson.
Students retrieve and reuse material from
previous lessons in a real exchange of ideas.
Elicit their interest in the present les son

How?:

Answering simple Yes/No


"Wh-questions,
Pointing or marking correct pictures or replies,
Ordering pictures ,
Matching items ,
Deducing and explaining rules or concepts,
Creating questions
Employ dramatization, role-playing, problemsolving, oral or written reports, discussion,
lecturing, grouping, picture-drawing, showing
objects, etc,

During Stage : PRACTICE : {engage the students


in an interchange of communication using what they have
been learning}
Students work with the material in a controlled
context to help them develop accuracy, confidence
and move toward fluency .

Activities begin as more controlled :


Guided practice
Repetition
Coping
Info gaps
Picture card games
Simple fill-ins (word, dialog, gesture, strategy)
Activities next move to being freer or
more complex: Free practice

Post Stage: USE = Produce


( feed back)

Students are required to choose and discriminate


among choices in language within a less controlled
context.
Activities allow for student learning to be
demonstrated as defined by the lesson objective.
Common activities include role plays personal
reactions , discussions, values clarification and
games.
Students are given time practice their dialogue (in or
out of class), and create the right mood.

2 Generation Curriculum & PDP listening


Lesson Plan

To teach Listening Lesson we need


PDP frame work:
What is PDP Listening lesson?
P = Pre-listening
D = During listening
P = Post listening

How to teach PDP listening?

Pre-listening :

The teacher: builds schema and introduces new
language as needed through problem solving
situation .

Use pre-listening activities to prepare students
for what they are going to hear or view.
The activities chosen during pre-listening may
serve as preparation for listening in several ways.

Sample pre-listening activities:

Students Predict Topic


Predict Vocabulary
Vocabulary selection/sort
Sentence selection
Get students to read the text first
Tune in
Setting the context
Generating interest
Activating current knowledge - what do you
know about?
Acquiring knowledge
Activating vocabulary / language
Predicting content
Pre-learning vocabulary
Checking / understanding the listening

During listening:
While-listening activities relate
directly to the text, and students
do them during or immediately
after the time they are listening.
Keep these points in mind when
planning while-listening activities:

Three Choices for While-Listening (you


should only do one)

1) Listen to Main Idea: This listening


is for understanding the general picture.
2) Listen to Specific Events: Good for
making timelines and categorizing.
3) Listen to Details: close activity,
multiple choice questions, etc.

If students are to complete a written task during or


immediately after listening, allow them to read
through it before listening
Keep writing to a minimum during listening.
Remember that the primary goal is comprehension,
not production
Organize activities so that they guide listeners
through the text:Students complete multiple tasks
that move from a general to specific focus in order
to deepen their understanding of the text and
develop specific listening / reading skills, such as
reading / listening for gist or specifics, skimming and
scanning ,using context clues to predict content
Use predicting to encourage students to monitor
their comprehension as they list
Give immediate feedback whenever possible

Sample -whilelistening- activities :


Information Transfer: Learners
Evaluating
Prediction
Completion
Making Inferences
Correction:
Questions: ( reference & auxiliary
questions)
Application
Imagine
Language Focus:
Compare and Contrast: *
Ordering:

More activities for during listening:

Listening with visuals.


Filling in graphs and charts.
Following a route on a map.
Checking off items in a list.
Listening for the gist
Searching for specific clues to meaning.
Completing cloze (fill-in) exercises.
Distinguishing between formal and informal
registers

Post- listening: Use post-listening


activities to:
Check comprehension,
Evaluate listening skills and use of listening
strategies
Extend the knowledge gained to other
contexts.
A post-listening activity may relate to a prelistening activity
A post-listening activity must reflect the reallife uses to which students might put
information they have gained through
listeningStudents complete activities that

Assessing listening: Issues in listening


assessment
Validity: To what degree does it accurately
measure what you want to measure?
Reliability : To what degree is it
dependable?
Authenticity: To what degree is it
representative of real-life language use?
Feed back: To what degree does it provide
useful feedback for the learner and
influence the teaching process?

PDP Reading Lesson Plan

To teach The receptive skill Read


Lesson we need PDP frame work:
P = Pre-Reading
D = During Reading
P = Post Reading

Reading is an interactive process that goes on


between the reader and the text, resulting in
comprehension
Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may
read in order to gain information or verify existing
knowledge, or in order to critique a writers ideas or
writing style
A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance
knowledge of the language being read.
The text presents letters, words, sentences, and
paragraphs that encode meaning.
The reader uses knowledge, skills, and strategies to
determine what that meaning is
In the case of reading, this means producing students
who can use reading strategies to maximize their
comprehension of text, identify relevant and non-

Pre-Reading

Recent research brought to light a new lesson


format that gave due importance to pre-reading
activities.
It wasfound that what is done before reading, is
very beneficial for understanding the text.
This preparation work is what helps students get
connect the new information to what they
already know.
This new format suggests that 50-60% of the
lesson should be spent on pre- reading activities

Sample pre-reading
activities

Expectation Outline
Knowledge Rating
KWHL Chart
KWL Chart
Possible Sentences

SQ3R
SQ3R: Reading strategy where students
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review.
Use this sampleSQ3R Reading Guide.
SurveyHave students preview the title,
pictures, graphs, or captions, then read the first
and last paragraph of the article. Make a list
below of the main points or objectives you find.
QuestionHave students write questions
based on their survey of the text.
ReadHave students read and answer the
questions their wrote down as they a read.
ReciteHave students look over their
questions and be able to recite the answers
without looking them up.

More Pre-Reading Activities:

Using the title, subtitles, and divisions within the text to


predict content and organization or sequence of
information
Looking at pictures, maps, diagrams, or graphs and
their captions
Talking about the authors background, writing style,
and usual topics
Skimming to find the theme or main idea and eliciting
related prior knowledge
Reviewing vocabulary or grammatical structures
Reading over the comprehension questions to focus
attention on finding that information while reading
Constructing semantic webs (a graphic arrangement of
concepts or words showing how they are related)
Doing guided practice with guessing meaning from

Asking the learners to anticipate from a picture or the title


Introducing the topic through some key words .
Telling a parallel story to introduce some difficult words .
Having the learners predict information constituents .
Review a previous lesson that is thematically or structurally linked
to the new one .
Ask pointed questions to whet the pupils' appetite and raise their
motivation
Oral Discussion or a short written activity
Brainstorming the theme
Playing music to set the tone
Eliciting vocabulary around the theme
Doing an enactment around the theme
Asking a thought-provoking question
Asking lead-in questions
Showing a short YouTube clip or a scene from a movie
Cartoon, riddle, joke
Thinking about the title

During Reading Stage


"During" reading activities help students make
connections, monitor their understanding, generate
questions, and stay focused
While-reading activities:
MCQ
True / false / not mentioned.
Table filling
Matching pair activities
Sentence completion .
Open ended comprehension questions graded
from :
a) Reference questions: where the answer are
explicitly given in the text
b) Inference questions:where the pupils have to
read between the lines to find the answers .
C) Evaluation questions: although these questions
are too difficult at this

N.B: Examiner Guide = BEM Guide


Typology
( September 2013) (Teachers should
integrate the different tasks planned
in the guide each time they plan
their lessons < The BEM paper is
elaborated according to the BEM
guide typology)

Post reading phase

Post-reading activities help students understand


texts further, through critically analyzing what
they have read.
Post-reading activities
The role of the teacher here is that of evaluator .He
checks that the objectives set , that is the activities set
in the reading phase have been done to his
satisfaction .These activities are corrected .
This is also an opportunity to diagnose more common
mistakes and offer remedial works to the hole class
for mistakes made by all .There may also be follow up
written or oral activities :
The learners can ask each other questions on the
passage
They can imagine a different ending orally , to pave

They can learn how to summarize the passage orally first then
written .
Summary Writing : Ask students to write asummary of the
main pointsof a text or passage.
Outlining : Writing outlinesis also a good way to organize and
remember concepts. The emphasis here should be on how students
see the relationships between ideas being presented
Ask students to choose 10-15 words from the text. You can
provide categories for the words e.g. the most interesting words /
the most important words / key words related to the topic. Students
then write a text using the words. This text could be a story, poem,
news report, summary, etc.
Ask students to say which part of the text is the most
important/interesting and which part is not interesting or key
Graphic organizer : What does a graphic organizer look like?
A graphic organizer (also known as a concept map, mind map or
relationship chart) is usually a one-page form with blank areas
for learners to complete with ideas and information which are
connected in some way. (Darn, 2008)

Graphic organizers
can help convey large chunks of information
concisely;
encourage strategic thinking: describing, comparing
and contrasting, classifying, sequencing, identifying
cause and effect, decision making, etc;
can be used to aid reading comprehension students
can brainstorm around a topic, summarize texts, etc
as well as other learning activities, such as organizing
and storing vocabulary, planning research, writing
projects, etc;
are easy to use with all levels and ages;
are non-linear and thus allow for multiple connections
between ideas

Reading Aloud in the Classroom



Students do not learn to read by reading
aloud.
A person who reads aloud and comprehends
the meaning of the text is coordinating word
recognition with comprehension and speaking
and pronunciation ability in highly complex
ways. Students whose language skills are
limited are not able to process at this level.
In addition, reading aloud is a task that
students will rarely, if ever, need to do
outside of the classroom
It does not test a students ability to use

There are three (3) ways to use reading aloud


productively in the language classroom.
Read aloud to your students as they follow along
silently. You have the ability to use inflection and
tone to help them hear what the text is saying.
Following along as you read will help students move
from word-by-word reading to reading in phrases
and thought units, as they do in their first language.

Use the read and look up technique. With this
technique, a student reads a phrase or sentence
silently as many times as necessary, then looks up
(away from the text) and tells you what the phrase
or sentence says. This encourages students to read
for ideas, rather than for word recognition.

However, reading aloud can help a teacher assess

What about teaching


grammar
& pronunciation?

In the case of grammar teaching there are two main approaches. These are

THE MAIN APPROACHES TO TEACH


GRAMMAR

THE MAIN APPROACHES TO TEACH GRAMMAR

In the case of grammar teaching there are two main approaches. These are

deductive approach and inductive approach. Not with standing the


fact that deductive and inductive approaches have the common goal of teaching
grammar they seperate from each other in terms of way of teaching.

1. A Deductive Approach

Deductive teaching is a traditional approach in which information about


target language and rules are driven at the beginning of the class and
continued with examples.
The principles of this approach are generally used in the classes where the
main target is to teach grammar structures. For instance, these principles are
convenient for the classes that grammar transtlation method is
applied(Nunan,1991).
According to Thornburys three bacic principles a deductive lesson starts
with :
1.

presentation of the rules by the teacher.

2.

Secondly teacher gives examples by highlighting the grammar


structures.

3.

Then students make practise with the rules and produce their own
examples at the end of the lesson (Thornbury, 1999).

2. An Inductive Approach
Nunan (1999) identifies inductive approach as a process where
learners discover the grammar rules themselves by examining the
examples.
In a inductive approach it is also possible to use a context for
grammar rules. That is to say, learners explore the grammar
rules in a text or an audio rather than isolated sentences.
Thornbury (1999) notes that in an inductive approach learners are
provided with samples which include the target grammar that
they will learn. Then learners work on the examples and try to
discover the rules themselves. When students obtain the grammar
rules and they practice the language by creating their own examples.

This can be done using


PIASP
Teaching Method
So
What is

PIASP ?

PIAsp is teaching method I use to teach grammar and pronunciation


items conform to CBA and Bloom taxonomy ; P=
Presentation<Presenting the context in which the structure appears>
(For example using the script page 170 -where the time conjunctionswhere they are written in bold (I wish all the scripts were elaborated like
that this will facilitate the teachers' work to apply PIASP)
so you ask your learners to read the script in order to make them notice the
words written in bold ( so here your learners will deal with the first Bloom's
taxonomy category (knowledge = defines, describes, identifies, knows,
labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces,
selects, states.) where they will define and identify the conjunctions since
they have seen some of them before .
The Aim here is to make the learners see the structure (form & meaning) in
2- Isolation:
context.
the focus is temporarily on the grammatical item itself and the aim is :to get
the learner perceive & recognize the grammatical item what it looks like and
this goes also with the second category of Bloom's taxonomy
( comprehension where your learners will be able to infer, interpret,
paraphrase,
3- Analysis: predict, rewrite, summarize,.
Here you will try to make ur learners analyze the isolated items the aim is : to
get your learners perceive how it is formed ( structure), how it functions and
what it means and the rule that govern it.This has a great link with the fourth
category Analysis" ( Blomm's Taxonomy) where your learners will be able to
nalyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs,

4- Stating Rule :
Here after they analyse you help them to formulate the grammar rule .And
this what Bloom called "Synthesis" where the learners are able to Build a
structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a
whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure through the
following key words "reconstruct, relate, reorganize, revise, rewrite,
summarize, tell, write.
5- Practice: This is achieved through three (3) type of tasks
a- Based form task: Mechanical manipulation < focus only on the form >
b- Meaning based task: Focus is on meaning
c- Communicative based task: ( emphasis is on transmitting message)
So this last stage has a great link with what Bloom named Application: Use a
concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what
was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.
So the PIASP is the ideal way to teach grammar item according to Bloom's
Taxonomy .

Tutorial Classes
(TD)

Tutorial Classes = One to One Teaching method = Remedial


Work
For
Whom?

Introducing tutorial classes (TD) In Middle school


( circulaireministerielle N 1313 du 30/06/2013)

The tutorialclasses :What is it? Why ?


when? For whom? How? How often? For
whom? Where?
TD Tutorial means : TD is a teaching
method that allows pupils to apply
theoretical knowledge in the form of
exercises.
It usually take place in small numbers to
facilitate the teacher's help .

Rational of TDs in Middle school


Activities in TDs:
Shows an extra value to learning operation
Aims at improving the quality of learning
Its a mean and another path to reinforce
deeper and last the learning operation .
It new occasion for the leaner to acquire new
learning strategies.
Promotes healthy environment for individual
teaching and learning according to each learner
needs and put into action a pedagogy of
differentiation
Develops motivation and reflexion of the learners
its a chance to take part in dialogues and take
part in active exchanges

To
remember
:

In TDs we have to avoid:


Spend the time copying.
Marking TD
Re-teach or spend too much time
making review
Answer the learners one by one
Dont give enough time for relfexion for
the learners.

TD & Suggested types for


grouping students :
Type one :
Mixed ability groups
Mixed ability grouping enables learners to cope with
real life working context , where people of different
abilities work together. It has , therefore the
advantage of a social inclusion and equal
opportunities 2
-It is necessary to have a balanced number of
different levels in each group
- The weaker learners will have more practice
- It enables teachers to engage the talented ones to
support the weaker classmates once he/she has
finished the assigned task.
- It enables to foster the development of co-operative
skills

Type two:
setting
according to achievements:

This kind of grouping requires a diagnostic test. For the


time being it will comply to the national exam type in
English, the current written test.
The shortcoming of such diagnostic test is that it is not
really accountable for being organized after a long
summer holiday .It is based on academic achievement
only.
It would be better to take into account teachers
evaluations of previous learners attainment of the last
school year, in foreign languages.

The advantage of such grouping is that it


enables the teacher to organise the courses
and plan activities according to learners
needs.
It enables to raise learner achievement,
better scores in tests .
It also allows students to gain confidence
and take risks, in terms of attitude to
learning : being in nearly similar attainment
category prevents inhibition and
negativefeeling due to pressure of brighter
students

Q : What
lesson
plan do
you
suggest
for TD ?
Does it
differ
from any
lesson
plan?
5 minutes
reflexion
and
discussion

TD needs progression to
follow the learners progress
since Td is tackle each week
in groups and after 15 days
to fulfill a complete session

TD is planned as any lessson


which must be conform to:
Exist profile mentionned in
the syllabus
CBA & Bloom Taxonomy

TD Progression Sheet
Level:
Project:
Sessio
n

Term:

learning
objective mentioned
in the syllabus
( function +
grammar) where
learners show
weaknesses

Objective =

language form or Communicative tasks = Cross curricular


competencies =
grammar that supports all the type
commnicative
any
the function
information gap competences
activities
that learners
already
acquired in
other
subjects and
help
teaching
English =
how can the
other
subjects help
teaching and
learning
English

Resources =

TD lesson plan

Time

Teacher
s need

interac Procedure
tion

compete
ncies

VAKT

Q :Do your learners learn


in the same way?
5 minutes discussion

Learning Styles:
children learn in one of three ways:
visually, auditorily, or kinesthetically
learning style weaknesses:
Children with auditory weaknesses have
trouble following spoken directions and
rely on visual cues,
including watching others, to understand
what to do.
Children with visual weaknesses have a
hard time remembering locations and
may appear disorganized or disoriented
when gathering or putting away
materials.
Children with kinesthetic weaknesses
have trouble learning things through
sense of touch

Q: What sort of mistakes do


your learners make in class?
5 minutes discussion

Pronunciation
Grammar
Spelling
Numbers
Colors
Intonation
Questions
Punctuation
Capitalization
Written expression
Project work

Typology of tasks and activities


Meaningful and manipulative
language activities
1-Project work
2- Role play and simulations
3-Survey/ questionnaire
Q:

What typology of tasks do you


suggestr to deal with Td to remediate
your learners weaknesses?
5 minutes discussion

4-Interview

5-Listing /categorizing
6-Information gap
7-Cloze test/gap filling
8-Matching/ jigsaw
9-Problem solving activities
10-Games
11-Selecting material
12-Songs
13-Story telling
14-Information transfer
15-Transformation

Thank you

Mr Samir
Bounab
yellowdaffodl66@g