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# Solutions of Homework

problems

Resistive circuits

Problem 1
Use KVL and Ohms law to compute voltages va and vb .
-

v1

## From Ohms law:

v1=8ki1=8[V]
v2=2ki2=-2[V]
-

+
-

v2

Form KVL:
+ va=5[V]-v2=7[V]
vb=15[V]-v1-va=0[V]

Resistive circuits

Problem 2
Write equations to compute voltages v1 and v2 , next find the
current value of i1
i1
v1

v2

40
50 mA

40

80

100 mA

From KCL:
50 mA=v1/40+(v1-v2)/40
and
100 mA=v2/80+(v2-v1)/40

## Multiply first equation by 40:

2=v1+v1-v2=2v1-v2
From second equation:
10=2v2 => v2=5 [V], v1=1+v2 /2=3.5[V]
i1= (v1-v2)/40=-1.5/40=37.5 [mA]

network shown.
I
N1 1
N2

I2

vt

From KVL

N1

I1

N2
I2

Isc

From KVL

## Thevenin & Norton

RTh=vt/Isc=-1.33
Note: Negative vt indicates that the polarity is
reversed and as a result this circuit has a negative
resistance.R =-1.33
Th

Vt=-6 V

+
_

In=4.5 A

RTh=-1.33
B

B
Thevenin Equivalent

Norton Equivalent

## Problem 4: Find the current i and the voltage v

across LED diode in the circuit shown on Fig. a)
assuming that the diode characteristic is shown on
Fig. b).

## Draw load line. Intersection of

is the i and v across LED diode: v
1.02 V and i 7.5 mA.

## Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the

circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
(a)

+
v
_

2k
5
4
3

i (mA)

2
1

0
-10

-5

v (V)

10

## Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the

circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
(a)

i
+
v
_

2k
5
4

i (mA)

3
2
1

0
-10

Resulting characteristics

-5

v (V)

10

## Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the

circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
(b)
+
v
_

1k
+ 5V
_

## Due to the presence of

the 5V supply the diode
conducts only for v > 5, R
= 1k
5
4

i (mA)

3
2
1

0
-10

-5

v (V)

10

First combine diode and resistance then add the voltage source

## Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the

circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
i

(c)

+
2k 1k
A

## Diode B is on for v > 0 and R=1k.

Diode A is on for v < 0 and R=2k.

10

i (mA)

-5
-10

-5

v (V)

10

## Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the

circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
+

D
C

v
_

1k

## Diode D is on for v > 0 and

R=1k.
Diode C is on for v < 0 and
R=0.

10

i (mA)

(d)

-5
-10

-5

v (V)

10

## Problem 6: Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale

the transfer characteristics (vo versus vin) for the
circuit shown below.

1k
vin +
_

+
1k
vo
3V

## Case I: vin > 0

Both diodes are on, and act as
short circuits. The equivalent
circuit is shown here.
vo = vin

vin +
_

1k
vo
_

## Problem 6: Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale

the transfer characteristics (vo versus vin) for the
circuit shown below.
Case II: vin < 0
Both diodes are reverse
biased and vo is the sum of
1k
+
the voltage drops across
1k
Zener diode and 1k
vin +
vo
_
resistor.
3V

_
1k
vin

+
_

+
1k
vo
3V
_

## Problem 6: Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale

the transfer characteristics (vo versus vin) for the
circuit shown below.
Case II: vin < 0
Both diodes are reverse
biased and vo is the sum of
1k
+
the voltage drops across
1k
Zener diode and 1k
vin +
vo
_
resistor.
3V

## Case IIa: -3V < vin < 0

vo = vin, because the current
through Zener diode is zero,
all negative voltage drop is
across the Zener diode.

1k
vin

+
_

+
1k
vo
_

## Problem 6: Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale

the transfer characteristics (vo versus vin) for the
circuit shown below.

v
1k
vin

+
_

1k

-3V

vo
-3V +
_

_
Case IIb: vin < -3V
Excess voltage below -3V is
dropped across the two
resistors (1kand 1k),
with
vo = (1/2)*(vin+3)-3= vin/21.5 [V].

vi
n

-3V
2

(a)
+
5V
-

+
4V

Ia
-

(a)

5V
-

+
4V

Ia
-

(b)

Ib

3V
-

+
1V
-

(c)

Ic

5V
-

4V

(d)

Id
+

1V
-

+
3V
-