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Solutions of Homework

problems

Resistive circuits

Problem 1
Use KVL and Ohms law to compute voltages va and vb .
-

v1

From Ohms law:


v1=8ki1=8[V]
v2=2ki2=-2[V]
-

+
-

v2

Form KVL:
+ va=5[V]-v2=7[V]
vb=15[V]-v1-va=0[V]

Resistive circuits

Problem 2
Write equations to compute voltages v1 and v2 , next find the
current value of i1
i1
v1

v2

40
50 mA

40

80

100 mA

From KCL:
50 mA=v1/40+(v1-v2)/40
and
100 mA=v2/80+(v2-v1)/40

Multiply first equation by 40:


2=v1+v1-v2=2v1-v2
From second equation:
8=v2+2(v2-v1)=3v2-2v1 add both sides:
10=2v2 => v2=5 [V], v1=1+v2 /2=3.5[V]
i1= (v1-v2)/40=-1.5/40=37.5 [mA]

Thevenin & Norton

Problem 3: Find Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuit for the


network shown.
I
N1 1
N2

I2

vt

From KVL

Thevenin & Norton

N1

I1

N2
I2

Isc

From KVL

Thevenin & Norton

RTh=vt/Isc=-1.33
Note: Negative vt indicates that the polarity is
reversed and as a result this circuit has a negative
resistance.R =-1.33
Th

Vt=-6 V

+
_

In=4.5 A

RTh=-1.33
B

B
Thevenin Equivalent

Norton Equivalent

Problem 4: Find the current i and the voltage v


across LED diode in the circuit shown on Fig. a)
assuming that the diode characteristic is shown on
Fig. b).

Draw load line. Intersection of


load line and diode characteristic
is the i and v across LED diode: v
1.02 V and i 7.5 mA.

Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the


circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
(a)

+
v
_

2k
5
4
3

i (mA)

Diode is on for v > 0 and R=2k.

2
1

0
-10

-5

v (V)

10

In a series connection voltages are added for each constant current

Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the


circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
(a)

i
+
v
_

2k
5
4

i (mA)

3
2
1

0
-10

Resulting characteristics

-5

v (V)

10

Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the


circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
(b)
+
v
_

1k
+ 5V
_

Due to the presence of


the 5V supply the diode
conducts only for v > 5, R
= 1k
5
4

i (mA)

3
2
1

0
-10

-5

v (V)

10

First combine diode and resistance then add the voltage source

Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the


circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
i

(c)

+
2k 1k
A

Diode B is on for v > 0 and R=1k.


Diode A is on for v < 0 and R=2k.

10

i (mA)

-5
-10

-5

v (V)

10

Problem 5: Sketch i versus v to scale for each of the


circuits shown below. Assume that the diodes are
ideal and allow v to range from -10 V to +10 V.
+

D
C

v
_

1k

Diode D is on for v > 0 and


R=1k.
Diode C is on for v < 0 and
R=0.

10

i (mA)

(d)

-5
-10

-5

v (V)

10

Problem 6: Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale


the transfer characteristics (vo versus vin) for the
circuit shown below.

1k
vin +
_

+
1k
vo
3V

Case I: vin > 0


Both diodes are on, and act as
short circuits. The equivalent
circuit is shown here.
vo = vin

vin +
_

1k
vo
_

Problem 6: Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale


the transfer characteristics (vo versus vin) for the
circuit shown below.
Case II: vin < 0
Both diodes are reverse
biased and vo is the sum of
1k
+
the voltage drops across
1k
Zener diode and 1k
vin +
vo
_
resistor.
3V

_
1k
vin

+
_

+
1k
vo
3V
_

Problem 6: Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale


the transfer characteristics (vo versus vin) for the
circuit shown below.
Case II: vin < 0
Both diodes are reverse
biased and vo is the sum of
1k
+
the voltage drops across
1k
Zener diode and 1k
vin +
vo
_
resistor.
3V

Case IIa: -3V < vin < 0


vo = vin, because the current
through Zener diode is zero,
all negative voltage drop is
across the Zener diode.

1k
vin

+
_

+
1k
vo
_

Problem 6: Assuming ideal diodes sketch to scale


the transfer characteristics (vo versus vin) for the
circuit shown below.

v
1k
vin

+
_

1k

-3V

vo
-3V +
_

_
Case IIb: vin < -3V
Excess voltage below -3V is
dropped across the two
resistors (1kand 1k),
with
vo = (1/2)*(vin+3)-3= vin/21.5 [V].

vi
n

-3V
2

(a)
+
5V
-

+
4V

Ia
-

(a)

5V
-

+
4V

Ia
-

(b)

Ib

3V
-

+
1V
-

(c)

Ic

5V
-

4V

(d)

Id
+

1V
-

+
3V
-