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# Failure Modes (1)

Failure Modes
Fiber breaking -- tension in fiber direction
Fiber buckling -- compression in fiber direction
Matrix fracture -- tension in transverse
direction
Matrix compression failure/matrix crazing -compression in transverse direction
Other failure modes:
Fiber debonding -- fiber-matrix bond fails
Delamination -- separation between layers in
laminate

## Failure modes (2)

2 failure types related to the 4
modes: matrix failure or fiber failure.
Fiber failure typically causes composite
failure
matrix failure may not

## Laminate Failure Criteria

Failure criteria for a single ply.
Failure criteria aim to relate all failure modes
with a single curve; No reason this should hold.
Single Mode Failure Criteria
Maximum stress criterion
Maximum strain criterion

## Interactive Failure Criteria

Tsai Hill criterion
Tsai Wu criterion

## Fiber-Matrix Failure criteria

Hann, Erikson & Tsai failure criterion
Hashin failure criterion

Strength Values
F1t=fiber direction tensile strength
F1c=fiber direction compressive strength
F2t = transverse direction tensile strength
F2c=transverse direction compressive
strength
F6= in plane shear strength
F4, F5= interlaminar shear strength
f12=biaxial interaction coefficient

## Layer Failure Criteria

Failure for a single-layer material
Strength ratio
ultimate

applied

## R > 1 -- stress is below failure level

R < 1 failure is predicted

## Maximum Stress Criterion

Fracture occurs if any one of the stresses in
principal material coordinates is greater than
respective strength
1> F1t if 1 > 0
abs(1) > F1c
2> F2t if 2 > 0
abs(2) > F2c if 2 < 0
Shear stresses
abs(4) > F4
abs(5) > F5
abs(6) > F6

## Stress Criterion -- Strength

Ratios

FailureoccursforR<1
R1=F1t/1 if 1 > 0
R1=F1c/1 if 1 < 0
R2=F2t/2 if 2 > 0
R2=F2c/2 if 2 < 0
R4=F4/abs(4)
R5=F5/abs(5)
R6=F6/abs(6)

R1=1t/1 if 1 > 0
R1=1c/1 if 1 < 0
R2=2t/2 if 2 > 0
R2=2c/2 if 2 < 0
R4=4u/abs(4)
R5=5u/abs(5)
R6=6u/abs(6)

## Stress and Strain Criteria

Even though we are using linear
elasticity, these criteria vary because
of the Poisson
stress in 1 effect.
direction is
1
1 [E11 21 2 ]

1 12 21
where failure occurs at
1t 1
2

( top curve)
21 21
2 2 c 12 1 (bottom curve)

Criteria

## Tsai-Hill Criterion (1)

Includes interactions among stress
components
Similar to Von-Mises stress criteria
Limitations
Mode of failure is not identified
tension/compression nonlinearity
(1f ) 2 (1f f2 ) ( f2 ) 2 ( f6 ) 2 ( f4 ) 2 (5f ) 2

1 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
(F1 )
(F1 )
(F2 )
(F6 )
(F4 )
(F5 )

## Tsai-Hill Criterion (2)

Good fit in 1st quadrant will result in
poor fit (non-conservative prediction) in
For shear and transverse components
only

Tsai-Wu Criterion
parameters fi and fii are functions of
failure stresses Fi
failure stresses in compression are taken
+ve
interaction term f12 accounts for
tension/compression nonlinearity
Limitation
f 2 not distinguish
f 2
f f matrix
f 2 and fiber
f 2
f 2
failure
f11f f 2 f2 fdoes
(

f
(

2
f
(

f
(

f
(

f
(

11
1
22
2
12
1 2
66
6
44
4
55
5 ) 1 0

1
f12
2 F1t F1c F2 t F2 c

Comparison of Criteria

## Fiber-Matrix Failure Criteria

Hahn, Erikson & Tsai failure Criteria
in failure mode between tension and compression
fiber failure

(f1112 )R 2 (f11 )R 1 0
matrix failure
(f 22 22 f 66 62 f 44 24 f 5552 )R 2 (f 2 2 )R 1 0

## Hashin Failure Criteria

fiber failure

(f1112 f 66 62 )R 2 (f11 )R 1 0
matrix failure
(f 22 22 f 66 62 f 44 24 f 5552 )R 2 (f 2 2 )R 1 0

Laminate Strength
Laminate Failure Criteria
use single ply theories to predict first ply
failure (FPF)
usually associated w/ matrix cracking
(F2t<F1t)
each layer is then discounted (or degraded)
until fiber failure (FF) occurs

Limitation
degraded material constants difficult to define

## First Ply Failure (FPF)

define laminate and BCs;
calculate A,B,D

calculate stresses on
top and bottom of each ply

## Fiber Failure (FF) -- 1

First ply failure
usually matrix cracks
affect transverse and not longitudinal stiffness

fd:

E1=E10
E2 = f d E 2 0
G12= fd G120
12= fd 120
f12= fd f12
Failure criteria modified to eliminate transverse or shear
failure

## Fiber Failure (2)

define laminate and BCs
calculate A,B,D
calculate stresses on
top and bottom of each ply
check failure criteria
failure

no failure
end of problem

## modify failure criteria*

* see Barbero, Section 7.2

## Maximum Stress Criterion

Lamina fails if one of the following
inequalities is satisfied:
L
L
T
T

Lt
Lc
Tt
Tc

LT LT

## Maximum Strain Criterion

Lamina fails if one of the following
inequalities is satisfied:
L
L
T
T

Lt
Lc
Tt
Tc

LT LT

## Tsai Hill Criterion

Lamina fails if the following
inequality is2 satisfied:
2
2
L

Where :

L T T

L
T

LT
LT

Lt if L 0
Lc if L 0

Tt if T 0
T
Tc if T 0

## Comparison among Criteria

Maximum stress and strain criteria
can tell the mode of failure
Tsai-Hill criterion includes the
interaction among stress
components