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Failure Modes (1)

Failure Modes
Fiber breaking -- tension in fiber direction
Fiber buckling -- compression in fiber direction
Matrix fracture -- tension in transverse
direction
Matrix compression failure/matrix crazing -compression in transverse direction
Other failure modes:
Fiber debonding -- fiber-matrix bond fails
Delamination -- separation between layers in
laminate

Failure modes (2)


2 failure types related to the 4
modes: matrix failure or fiber failure.
Fiber failure typically causes composite
failure
matrix failure may not

Realistic loading is biaxial or triaxial.

Laminate Failure Criteria


Failure criteria for a single ply.
Failure criteria aim to relate all failure modes
with a single curve; No reason this should hold.
Single Mode Failure Criteria
Maximum stress criterion
Maximum strain criterion

Interactive Failure Criteria


Tsai Hill criterion
Tsai Wu criterion

Fiber-Matrix Failure criteria


Hann, Erikson & Tsai failure criterion
Hashin failure criterion

Strength Values
F1t=fiber direction tensile strength
F1c=fiber direction compressive strength
F2t = transverse direction tensile strength
F2c=transverse direction compressive
strength
F6= in plane shear strength
F4, F5= interlaminar shear strength
f12=biaxial interaction coefficient

Layer Failure Criteria


Failure for a single-layer material
Strength ratio
ultimate

applied

R > 1 -- stress is below failure level


R < 1 failure is predicted

Maximum Stress Criterion


Fracture occurs if any one of the stresses in
principal material coordinates is greater than
respective strength
1> F1t if 1 > 0
abs(1) > F1c
2> F2t if 2 > 0
abs(2) > F2c if 2 < 0
Shear stresses
abs(4) > F4
abs(5) > F5
abs(6) > F6

Stress Criterion -- Strength


Ratios

FailureoccursforR<1
R1=F1t/1 if 1 > 0
R1=F1c/1 if 1 < 0
R2=F2t/2 if 2 > 0
R2=F2c/2 if 2 < 0
R4=F4/abs(4)
R5=F5/abs(5)
R6=F6/abs(6)

Maximum Strain Criteria

Most popular failure criterion in industry


R1=1t/1 if 1 > 0
R1=1c/1 if 1 < 0
R2=2t/2 if 2 > 0
R2=2c/2 if 2 < 0
R4=4u/abs(4)
R5=5u/abs(5)
R6=6u/abs(6)

Stress and Strain Criteria


Even though we are using linear
elasticity, these criteria vary because
of the Poisson
stress in 1 effect.
direction is
1
1 [E11 21 2 ]

1 12 21
where failure occurs at
1t 1
2

( top curve)
21 21
2 2 c 12 1 (bottom curve)

Maximum Strain & Stress


Criteria

Tsai-Hill Criterion (1)


Includes interactions among stress
components
Quadratic interaction is introduced
Similar to Von-Mises stress criteria
Limitations
Mode of failure is not identified
Inadequate for materials with different
tension/compression nonlinearity
(1f ) 2 (1f f2 ) ( f2 ) 2 ( f6 ) 2 ( f4 ) 2 (5f ) 2

1 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
(F1 )
(F1 )
(F2 )
(F6 )
(F4 )
(F5 )

Tsai-Hill Criterion (2)


Good fit in 1st quadrant will result in
poor fit (non-conservative prediction) in
2nd quadrant
For shear and transverse components
only

Tsai-Wu Criterion
parameters fi and fii are functions of
failure stresses Fi
failure stresses in compression are taken
+ve
interaction term f12 accounts for
tension/compression nonlinearity
Limitation
f 2 not distinguish
f 2
f f matrix
f 2 and fiber
f 2
f 2
failure
f11f f 2 f2 fdoes
(

f
(

2
f
(

f
(

f
(

f
(

11
1
22
2
12
1 2
66
6
44
4
55
5 ) 1 0

1
f12
2 F1t F1c F2 t F2 c

Comparison of Criteria

Fiber-Matrix Failure Criteria


Hahn, Erikson & Tsai failure Criteria
Quadratic relationships assume smooth transition
in failure mode between tension and compression
fiber failure

(f1112 )R 2 (f11 )R 1 0
matrix failure
(f 22 22 f 66 62 f 44 24 f 5552 )R 2 (f 2 2 )R 1 0

Hashin Failure Criteria


fiber failure

(f1112 f 66 62 )R 2 (f11 )R 1 0
matrix failure
(f 22 22 f 66 62 f 44 24 f 5552 )R 2 (f 2 2 )R 1 0

Laminate Strength
Single Ply failure already described
Laminate Failure Criteria
use single ply theories to predict first ply
failure (FPF)
usually associated w/ matrix cracking
(F2t<F1t)
each layer is then discounted (or degraded)
until fiber failure (FF) occurs

Limitation
degraded material constants difficult to define

First Ply Failure (FPF)


define laminate and BCs;
calculate A,B,D

calculate stresses on
top and bottom of each ply

check failure criteria

Fiber Failure (FF) -- 1


First ply failure
usually matrix cracks
affect transverse and not longitudinal stiffness

Degradation of layer
fd:

empirical degradation factor


E1=E10
E2 = f d E 2 0
G12= fd G120
12= fd 120
f12= fd f12
0 indicates original, undegraded property
Failure criteria modified to eliminate transverse or shear
failure

New Stress analysis

Fiber Failure (2)


define laminate and BCs
calculate A,B,D
calculate stresses on
top and bottom of each ply
check failure criteria
failure
degrade material props*

no failure
end of problem

modify failure criteria*


* see Barbero, Section 7.2

Fiber Failure (3)

Maximum Stress Criterion


Lamina fails if one of the following
inequalities is satisfied:
L
L
T
T

Lt
Lc
Tt
Tc

LT LT

Maximum Strain Criterion


Lamina fails if one of the following
inequalities is satisfied:
L
L
T
T

Lt
Lc
Tt
Tc

LT LT

Tsai Hill Criterion


Lamina fails if the following
inequality is2 satisfied:
2
2
L

Where :

L T T

L
T

LT
LT

Lt if L 0
Lc if L 0

Tt if T 0
T
Tc if T 0

Comparison among Criteria


Maximum stress and strain criteria
can tell the mode of failure
Tsai-Hill criterion includes the
interaction among stress
components

Strength of Off-Axis Lamina in Uniaxial Loading

Maximum stress
criterion

Tsai-Hill criterion

Strength of a Laminate
First-ply
failure
Last-ply
failure