Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

The Meaning of Philosophy

Philosophy is
the science of beings in their
ultimate reasons, causes, and
principles acquired by the aid of
human reason alone (Bittle, 1935).

Philosophy is a science
systematic investigation, certain
procedures, and organized body of
knowledge (Ramos, 2016)
of wisdom, the intellectual virtue by
which a person judges in light of the highest
or first causes, i.e., the larger picture.
(Palmiano, 2013)

of beings
of all things which can be reached by the
human mind(Palmiano, 8)
object of inquiry is not one dimensional,
partial, or particular but multidimensional
or holistic.
human beings, society, religion, language,
God, and plants, and many others.

in their ultimate reasons,


causes and principles
ultimate whys and wherefores
A principle is that from which something
proceeds in any manner whatsoever

in their ultimate reasons,


causes and principles
the First Principles:
Principle of
Identity

whatever is is; and whatever is not is not; everything is what


it is. Everything is its own being, and not being is not being.

Principle of
it is impossible for a thing to be and not to be at the same
Nontime, and at the same respect
Contradiction
Principle of
Excluded
Middle

a thing is either is or is not; everything must either be or not


be; no middle ground between being and not-being

Principle of
Sufficient
Reason

nothing exists without a sufficient reason for its being and


existence. ..

by the aid of human reason


alone
natural capacity to think

Misconceptions

WHAT PHILOSOPHY DOES/IS


NOT

Philosophy does not make any


progress
It does however, questions can only be
partially answered and what might be
final would still be inadequate

Philosophy is not just stating


your personal opinion
provide arguments for your own opinion,
and arguments against objections to your
views
point-counterpoint format

Philosophy is not just ones


view in life
as it is the love of wisdom, it is also the
search for the Truth, which does not come
easy

Philosophy is not light


reading
You dont read philosophy, you do it.
Philosophical discourses are necessarily
complex. Thus, they require conscious
effort to be understood.

Palmiano, p.12
Sciences

Subject Matter

Particular
Sciences

Known thru

Immediate causes,
reasons, and
principles

Philosophy
All things
Theology

Deals with

Ultimate causes,
reasons, and
principles

Reasoning

Faith and
Reasoning

The Divisions of Philosophy


Practical
-fields that use knowledge and
wisdom for practical purposes
(Ardales, 1998); a directive

Speculative
-fields concerned with the acquisition
of knowledge without any thought for
practical application; cultural

LOGIC

EPISTEMOLOGY

ETHICS

THEODICY

AXIOLOGY

COSMOLOGY

AESTHETICS

PSYCHOLOGY

SEMANTICS

METAPHYSICS

PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY
LOGICthe science and art of CORRECT THINKING
Etymology

logiake, Gk., thought

Focus

apprehensions, ideas, judgement and propositions, reasoning


and arguments

Questions

What is a good argument? How can one tell whether an


argument is justified, believable, or convincing?

ETHICSthe science of MORALITY OF HUMAN ACTS


as ordained to the final end
Etymology

ethos, Gk., character

Focus

Human acts, principles of human action, ultimate end of man,


determinants of morality, law and conscience

Questions

What makes an action right or wrong? How should I treat


others? What is good, evil?

PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY
AXIOLOGYthe science of VALUE
Etymology

axios, Gk., worth; logos, Gk., science

Focus

origin, nature, functions, types and interrelations of values

Questions

In what sense can values be said to exist? Is value in the


object itself or in the mind?

AESTHETICSthe science of BEAUTY AND ART


Etymology

aisthetikos, Gk., perception

Focus

Beauty (whatever pleases the beholder (form, color, and


behavior); Art (mans creativity and skill in making or doing
things that have form and beauty). Creation and appreciation

Questions

What are the essential characteristics of beauty? Is beauty in


the eye of the beholder or in the object? What makes

PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY
SEMANTICSthe science of MEANING
Etymology

semaino, Gk., to signify

Focus

Meaning in natural and artificial languages; word-object


relations, word-interpreter relations, sign-sign relations (syntax)

Questions

What meanings do grammar yield? What rules govern


language and meaning? How do meanings relate to one
another?

SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY
EPISTEMOLOGYthe science of KNOWLEDGE
Etymology

episteme, Gk., knowledge

Focus

True and certain knowledge; statements and solutions to problems on


knowledge, truth, and certitude

Questions

What is knowledge, fact? What is truth? How do we know things


are true or false? Is there objective truth or are all opinions relative?

THEODICYthe science of GOD


Etymology

theos, Gk., God

Focus

Nature, existence, essence, attributes, and operations of God;


demonstrability of the existence of God

Questions

Does God exist? Why does God allow evil?

SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY
COSMOLOGYthe science of the UNIVERSE
Etymology

kosmos, Gk., universe

Focus

Origin and development of the universe with its parts, elements, laws
and characteristics, time, space, causality, and freedom

Questions

How did the world begin? How will it end?

PSYCHOLOGYthe science of the SOUL


Etymology

psyche, Gk., soul

Focus

Man as a sensing being with body and soul; life, operations, sensation,
and appetition, intellection, and volition.

Questions

Is there really a soul? Is mans soul immortal?

SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY
METAPHYSICSthe science of the BEINGS AND
EXISTENCE
Etymology

meta, Gk., after; physikon, Gk., nature

Focus

Mind, self, consciousness, being (attributes, principles, causes), evil, act


and potency, essence and existence, substance and accidents, supposit
and person and causality

Questions

What is being? What is existence? What is essence?

Why study Philosophy?

IMPORTANCE OF
PHILOSOPHY

Importance of Philosophy
Importance:
Educationally and intellectually.
Socially and politically.
Morally and practically
Psychologically and personally
Pragmatically