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Application of

photochemical in
atmosphere layer
Oleh:
Fitrianti, Nurul Mutmainna, Nurul Annisa B, Andi
Muhammad Ramadhan H

Background
The atmosphere is air
environment, the air covering the
planet.
Atmosphere

The atmosphere has a function


as the main protector of life on
Earth because it can absorb a
lot of cosmic rays from outer
space, but it can be
electromagnetic radiation from
the sun. Only radiation in the
300-2500 nm region wave
length and 0.01 to 40 m into
the circumstances fit the
atmosphere.

On the other hand the


atmosphere accomodating

PURPOSE
To know how photochemical applications
in everyday life.

DISCUSSION
The atmosphere is a layer of air
that surrounds the Earth. The
atmosphere consists of several gases
that are retained by the earth's
gravity and are used to protect the
earth. Dry air at atmospheric
nitrogen gas mengandun 78%,
21% oxygen, 0.03% carbon dioxide,
0.9% argon, methane, potassium,
and others 0.07%.

The atmosphere is a gas


sheath
surrounding
the
earth
that
have
the
properties as follows:
Colorless, odorless, and is
not felt except in the form of
a wind.
Dynamic and elastic so it
can expand and contract
and can move or migrate.
Transparent in some form
of radiation.
Have the masses, causing
pressure.

Balance Geothermal
Incoming solar radiation the Earth's atmosphere, about
20-30% is reflected back chamber space, refracted by
the atmosphere and solid particles contained
diatmosfer or by the earth's surface. In general, the
average reflection or albedo of the surface and
atmosphere by 35%. The amount is determined by the
local albedo and its properties in the area snow-covered
polar regions have a high albedo, but the area of the
ocean is low, because most of the energy is absorbed.

Approximately 20% of the radiation energy absorbed


after entering through the atmosphere. Ozone absorbs
about 1-3%, especially in the short section of ultra violet.
In the troposphere, approximately 17-19% of the
incoming radiation is absorbed mainly by water vapor
and CO2. The total atmospheric absorption of the
radiation by atmospheric absorption wave panjan total to
radiation with a wavelength of 0.3-0.7 lm. Not very large
and generally enter tarnsparan effectively through the
hole from the atmosphere.

Photochemical reactions
Photochemical reactions although in the absence of a catalyst
can take place at a lower temperature than the other reactions.
Some of the photochemical reactions are influenced by solar
radiation, plays an important role in determining the nature and
limits travel of chemicals in the atmosphere.
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 is a chemical compound that jens
photochemical most effective in the polluted atmosphere, and is
a major component in the formation of fog. A species such as
NO2 can be rapidly absorbs the light of energy hv in a reaction
that produces a molecule with an electron terksitasi represented
by an *.
NO2 + hv NO 2 *

Ions and radicals in the


atmosphere
At the altitude of approximately 50 km and above, the ions are
very common in the area so that is called the ionosphere (a
layer of ions). The existence of such coatings has been known
since 1901, after it was discovered that radio waves can be
transmitted over long distances. Ultra violet light is a major
shaper of ions in the ionosphere. In the dark, the positive ions
slowly incorporated with free electrons. This process is rapid,
especially in the lower regions of the ionosphere.
Earth's magnetic field are influential to give the ions in the
upper atmosphere is higher. The manifestation of this
phenomenon is known as the Van Allen Belts (Van Allen Belts),
which was discovered in 1958. This area consists of two belts
of particles in the form of ions that surround the Earth. On the
inside, the area of high nergik ionizing radiation consists of
protons and the outer part consists of electrons.

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide


An increase in carbon dioxide is mainly due to of
increasing the burning of fossil fuels are increasingly
growing measurements ever made to CO2 in the
atmosphere continuously mulain 1960 to 1985 in some
regions of the atmosphere such as Antarctica turns out
there was an increase of approximately 1 ppm per
year (Manahan, 1994). It is estimated that the increase
in global temperature to the temperature rise on
average between 1.5 to 4,5oC. As a result of
increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations also
provide the potential effects of the environmental
damage is irreversible even exceed the effects posed
by nuclear weapons.

Water in the atmosphere


Water absorbs infrared radiation is even more powerful
than CO2. Clouds are made of water vapor that reflect
light from the sun and gives effect to the decrease in
temperature. Conversely in the evening serves as a
blanket of steam due to withstand the heat of the
earth's surface by absorbing infrared radiation.
At higher atmospheric water in the form of gas seen in
the formation of hydroxyl radicals, HO. And
hidroperoksil radical, HOO. One of the harmful effects
of air pollution are some of the ingredients perkaratan
process of metal tools due to the presence of water
vapor in the atmosphere. The presence of water vapor
in the atmosphere are causing pollution in the form of
fog (smog) under certain conditions.

When the ice particles in the atmosphere turns


into water droplets, or when the water droplets
evaporate, the heat is taken around. The
opposite of these processes cause the heat
released into the atmosphere as latent heat.
This can happen at a distance of a few miles
from the place where the heat is absorbed and
it is a model of the atmosphere or energy
transfer to the atmosphere. This is the main
model of the transition energy contained in
wind event ributn hurricanes and tornadoes.

As previously noted, the chill in the tropopause


layer is a career to the movement of water to
enter the stratosphere. The main source of
water in the stratosphere is the photochemical
oxidation of methane:
CH2 + O3 CO2 + 2H2O
Formed water that is the source of hydroxyl
radicals in the atmosphere by reaction:
H2O + hv HO. + H
Where the hydroxyl radical is a phenomenon that
increased atmospheric chemistry lately.

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