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INTRODUCTION TO

AIR POLLUTION

Definition

Regulations

Any substances that people


introduce into the atmosphere that
has damaging effects on living
things and the environment.

Environmental Quality (Clean Air)


Regulation, 1978.
Environmental Quality (Clean Air)
Regulation, 2004.
Environmental Quality (Control of
Emission from Diesel Engines)
Regulation 1996.

Haze

AUSES OF AIR POLLUTIO

CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION

a) Natural
1) Dust and
wildfires

2) Animal and
vegetation
animal ( ex: cattle
leading to the release
of methane.
Vegetation ( ex: oak
emits significance of
VOC )

3) Volcanic
activities

b) Anthropogenic causes
1) Emissions
by vehicles
) Emits CO2
and SO.
3) Agricultural
activities
emits
greenhouse
5) Exhaust from
gas.
factories and
industries
carbon monoxide,
hydrocarbons,
organic compounds
and chemicals

2) Fossil fuels
emissions
ex : combustion
of coal, petroleum
Emits carbon
dioxide, nitrous
oxide, sulfur
dioxide.
4) Waste
ex : landfill
generate
methane gas.

WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS?

Health Effects

Air pollution can harm us when it accumulates in the air in high enough
concentrations.
People exposed to high enough levels of certain air pollutants in short
period may experience:

Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat


Wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and breathing difficulties
Worsening of existing lung and heart problems, such as asthma
Increased risk of heart attack

Long-term exposure to air pollution can cause cancer and damage to the
immune, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory systems. In extreme
cases, it can even cause death.

Environmental effects
Reaction
between
pollutant and rain.
Ex : H2SO4 + rain/water
= acid rain.
Disturbing
pH
of
surrounding
area,
unsuitable for aquatic
animals,
crops
degradation.

Pollutant reacts to create


poisonous gas ozone at ground
level.
Damage vegetation, reduce
plant growth
Reduce survivability of
seedling, susceptible to
disease.

Acidificati
on

Eutrophic
ati-on

Groundlevel
ozone

Particulat
e matter

Deposited nitrogen will


be carried by rain, ends
up in a river and soil.
Increasing nutrient
amount in river, speeds
up algae growth.
Reduce sun penetration.
Low DO.

Small enough to be
inhaled.
Cause health problems
and depends on period
of exposure.
Leads to haze - obscures
the clarity, color, texture,
and form of what we see.

MITIGATION MEASURE

Mitigation measures
1. Individual
.Always wear Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE)
.Reduce outdoor activities when there is
pollution
.Stay hydrated
.Get regular medical check up from
medical practitioners
.Reduce, Reuse, Recycle (3R)

2. Government
Enforcement of law and act
Create awareness though campaign and exposures
Educate the younger generation on the importance to
avoid pollution through environmental education
Provide fund for the activities regarding environment

3. Local Authorities
Ensure that all factories that produces emission use Air
Pollution Control devices (bag filter house, wet
scrubber, cyclone scrubber)
Appoint Environment Officer to monitor the emission
produced so that it comply with the standard provided
by the government
Conduct environment audit to evaluate the efficiency of
the system to protect the environment and to avoid
pollution

4. Private sector
Help the government efforts to save the environment
Organize fund-raising activities and campaign
Create awareness to the public about the importance of
environment

THANK YOU