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# ERT252

GEOMATIC ENGINEERING
MRS SITI KAMARIAH MD SAAT
LECTURER
BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Email: sitikamariah@unimap.edu.my
Phone: 019-5706232

COURSE SYNOPSIS

## This course covers geodetic, remote

sensing, and geographical information
systems (GIS) with emphases on basic
surveying, fundamentals of remote sensing
and its applications, and principles and
applications of GIS in agricultural field.
The students are exposed to field works to
develop skill in using surveying equipments.
The main topics discussed are traversing,
tacheometry, mapping, calculation of areas
and volumes, GIS, GPS, remote sensing and
topographic survey.

## CO1: Ability to APPLY concepts and

principles of geodetics and PERFORM

## CO2: Ability to COLLECT and ANALYZE

data from various types of geodetics
surveying.

## CO3: Ability to ANALYZE remote sensing

process and component and DEDUCE data
interpretation analysis.

## CO4: Ability to analyze and DEVELOP the

relationship and database of precision
farming in agriculture and analysis the georeference using spatial information
technologies (GIS and GPS)

## Mrs Siti Kamariah

Mrs Samera

COURSE OBJECTIVES

## Duggal, S.K. (2010) Surveying Volume

1 Third Edition, TaTa McGraw Hill
Education, India

Kavanagh,B.(2009) Surveying
Principles and Applications 8th Edition,
River, New Jersey

## Uren,J and Price, W.F., (2006)

Surveying for Engineers, 4th
Ed.,Palgrave Macmillan,N.Y

ASSESSMENT

Examination: 70%

## Mid Term Examination 1

Mid Term Examination 2
Final Examination

= 10% - Week 8
= 10% - Week 14
= 50%

Laboratories
Quiz/Assignments

= 20 %
= 10 %

## TEACHING & LEARNING APPROACH

Lectures
28 hours
Lab (Practical)
28 hours
1. To measure distance using taping exercises
2. To undertake a levelling survey and angles
measurement using surveying compass
3. To carry out traverse surveys using total station
4. To carry out a tacheometry works
5. To calculate areas and volumes using cut and fill
method
6. To determine the station levels, locations and areas
using Global Positioning System (GPS) application
7. To develop map using GPS, Remote Sensing and
GIS data

GEOMATIC CAMP

Tentative date:

## Week 10 (7-9/11/2014) or (14-16/11/2014)

3 Days and 2 Night

Committee

## Leader : Find a place/venue for 3 days/ 2 night camp.

Secretary: Prepare a paper works and documentation
for School and HEPA Approval; deal with Dr Farizul (TD
HEPA).
Treasurer: Collecting money from participant. Budget :
RM 100/pax.
Lodging: Transportation & Accommodations.
Others : Food services, Souvenir, Program committee, Tshirt

LAB GROUP

5 person/ group
Wear suitable shoes and hat.

## Ensure a safety of equipments.

Ensure a safety of group members.

## Lab report should be submitted a week after a

fieldwork. Field notes should submitted after
each lab session.

SAFETY

Safety:

## Wear safety vest

Wear appropriate shoes
Wear large brim hat
Bring drinking water

Fieldwork Timetable
Lab

TEAM A

1. Distance Measurement

TEAM B
Week 2

2. Leveling

Week 3

Week 4

Week 4

Week 3

Week 5

Week 6

and staf

Week 8

Week 9

## 6. Cut and fill

7. Application Lab
- GPS lab
- Map production
8. Map using GIS

Week 10
Week 10/11
Geomatic Camp (3 days 2
night)
Week 14

TEAM A
Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Group 4

Group 7

Group 8

TEAM B
Group 5

Group 6

TOPICS COVERED

PART 1

SURVEYING

PART 2

REMOTE
SENSING & GIS

PART 1-SURVEYING

Distance Measurement
Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM)
Leveling
Angle And Measurement
Traverse
Tacheometry
Areas and Volume

## GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

REMOTE SENSING

Satellite And Sensor
Microwave & Lidar Sensing
Image Interpretation

PRECISION FARMING
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

## Geographic Data & Database

Spatial Data

INTRODUCTION TO
GEOMATICS ENGINEERING

WHAT IS GEOMATICS?

## The term Geomatics is an acronym formed by

Geo that means the Earth, while the term
matics refers to the information.
The mathematics of the earth; the science of
the collection, analysis, and interpretation of
data, especially instrumental data, relating to
the earth's surface. (Oxford English Dictionary)
Defined as a science, art and technology of
determining the relative position above, on or
beneath the earths surface, or establishing
such points (Ghilani and Wolf,2008).

WHAT IS GEOMATICS?

## New word that used to describe surveying as

it is today and not only covers the traditional
work of the surveyors in mapping on site but
also reflects the changing role in data
management (collect, process and display).
Nowadays data is collected through remote
sensing technology (satellite) and processed
by a computer in Geographical Information
System (GIS). These database can integrate
the spatial data provided by surveyor which
can be combined, processed and display in
any format according to the need of end user.

## Geomatics Data Model

Showing the collection, processing, analysis, design and plotting the
geodata
Collection

Collection

Process
Analysis
Plotting

Plotting

Plotting

WHAT IS SURVEYING?

## The art and science of measuring angles,

distances and positions (northing, easting
and elevation), on or near the surface of the
earth.
Engineering surveying: describe any survey
work carried out in connection of construction
that involves all of diferent methods of data
acquisition, processing and presentation.

PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING
To work from whole to part

1.

accumulation

measurements

2.

## Two control points are selected in the area and

the distance between them is measured. The
control point with the known coordinate can be a
baseline to know a point C.

APPLICATION OF SURVEYING

## The location of ground features are measured

to prepare a map or plan of the area.
Design features, shown on a map or plan, are
located in the field by distance, angle and/or
positioning measurements.
Surveyors (geomatic engineers) generally are
involved in both field and office work.

Topographical Map

Types of Survey

## Plane surveying is that type

of surveying in which the
surface of the earth is
considered to be a plane for
all X and Y dimensions.

## Geodetic surveying is that

type of surveying in which the
earth is considered to be
ellipsoidal for X and Y
dimensions.

Classes of Surveys

Preliminary survey

Layout survey

Data gathering
Geospatial data distances, position and angles
Locate physical position- water boundaries, trees,
Determination of diference in elevation (vertical
distance)
Marking on the ground wood stakes, iron bars,
concrete monuments, nails, spikes, etc
Property lines, engineering works (roads, pipelines,
bridges) and construction surveying

Control survey

## Use as reference both preliminary and layout

survey.
Horizontal and Vertical control (benchmarks)

What is benchmarks?

## Benchmarks Permanent Points whose

elevations above mean sea level have been
carefully determined

Surveying Fields

Topographic surveys

Hydrographic surveys

## Preliminary survey-natural &

area.
Preliminary survey-underwater
features to surface control points
(shorelines, marine features,
water depth)

Route surveys

## Preliminary, layout and control

survey for narrow-long strip of
transmission lines, channel)

Surveying Fields

Property surveys

Construction surveys

works

## Preliminary, layout and control

survey involve in determine
boundary location/laying out new
property boundary

## Similar to preliminary survey

Provide final record of
constructed features has proceed
according to design plan

Aerial surveys

## Preliminary and final survey

using aerial photography and
imagery. Use of digital camera,

Drawing

Scale
Legends
Symbols
Meridian arrows

Surveying Instrumentation
Commonly used in field surveying are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Total Station
Level & Staf
Theodolite
Steel Tape

Observation

Direct

Examples:

## Applying tape to a line

Fitting a protector to an angle
Turning an angle with total station

Indirect

## Observations are determined by its

relationship to some other value or values
Eg. Using trigonometric

Surveying References

Geographic reference

## Earth reference system denoted by

geographic lines of latitude and longitude
Latitude - run east/west (parallel to equator)
Longitude run north/south converging at the
pole

Grid reference

## Grid system for a states/province

Ease of calculation (plane geometry) and
availability datum for large area (thousand
miles)

Geographical Coordinates

Surveying References

Legal reference

## Township subdivide by section and ranges

(lot) that unique numbered

Vertical reference

## Can be reference to any datum. Datum most

used are Mean Sea Level (MSL).
MSL is assigned an elevation of 0 ft or 0
meter.

Units of Measurement
Linear Measurement
1 kilometer
1 meter
1 centimeter
1 decimeter
1 hectare (ha)
1 square kilometer

Metric Unit
1000 meter
100 centimeter
10 milimeter
10 centimeter
10,000 m2
1,000,000 m2
100 hectares

1 acres (ac)

4047 m2

Units of Measurement

## Foot to metric conversion

1 ft

0.3048 m

1 inch

25.4 mm

1 ha

2.471 ac

0.62137 miles 1 km
1 mile = 5.280 ft
1 foot = 12 inches

## Rounding Off Numbers

Rounding Off (until 4 significant figures)
78.374
78.37
78.3749 78.37
78.375 78.38
78.376
78.38
78.3749 78.375 78.38 (wrong !!)
78.3749 78.37

Accuracy

## The relationship between the value of

measurement and and the true value
Degree of perfection obtained in measurement

Precision

## Refinement of the measuring process and ability

to repeat the same measurement with
consistency small variation in the measurements
(no large discrepancies)
The closeness of one measurement to another
If a quantity is measured several times and the
values obtained are very closed to each other,
the precision is said to be high.

Errors

## No measurement can be free from error.

For calculating error, the true value
determined statistically after repeated
measurement.
To reduce mistakes:

## All survey measurement are suspect until

verified (repeating the measurement/
trigonometric analysis)
Every measurement is immediately
checked/repeated.

Mistakes

Natural Errors

## caused by variations in wind, temperature, humidity,

atmospheric pressure, atmospheric refraction, gravity
and magnetic declinations

Instrumental Errors

## These are observer blunders and caused by

misunderstanding the problem, carelessness, fatique,
missed communication, poor judgement
Examples : Writing Mistakes :
Recording 73.96 instead of correct value of 79.36

## imperfection in the construction or judgement of

instruments and from the movement of individual parts

Personal Errors

## arise from limitations of sight and touch.

Types of errors

Blunders

Systematic errors

## mistakes and gross errors

Also known as biases/cumulative errors
Result from measuring system and include the
environment, instrument, and observer.
afect accuracy
Eg: Efect of temperature, wind and magnetic
variation on steel tape

Random errors

## Those that remain in measured values after mistakes

and systematic error have been eliminated
small and usually undetectable are caused by factors
beyond the control of the observer
afect precision

Eliminate Mistakes

## Mistakes that do occur can be corrected only if

discovered. Comparing several observations of
the same quantity is one of the best ways to
identify mistakes.
When mistakes id detected, it is usually best to
repeat the observation.
Example :
567.91
576.95
567.88
567.90
567.93
Which value is wrong ?

## Systematic errors can be calculated and

proper corrections applied to the
observations
Example:

## A leveling instrument out of adjustment causes

incorrect readings, but if all backsights and
foresights are made the same length, the error
cancel in diferential leveling.

THANK YOU

ANY QUESTION?