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# MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

## SEMESTER V (ME): ASSIGNMENT NO: 1

(Max marks = 50)
Q 1: Material Inconel 600, with a BHN value of 100, is being machined. The
cutting speed was 250 ft/min, the feed was 0.020 in/rev and the depth of
cut (d.o.c.) was 0.25 in. The chip from the process measured 0.80 in thick.
Find the material removal rate (MRR) and the chip thickness ratio, r

Note: The underlined data is not to be used. Choose your own data values and solve
the question. Every student to choose his own data. No two students selected
data should be the same.

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
SEMESTER V(ME): ASSIGNMENT NO: 2
(Max marks = 50)

Q1.Inanorthogonalcuttingoperation,depthofcutt0=0.003in.,cuttingspeedV=400
ft/min,rakeangle=10o,andthewidthofcut=0.25in.Itisobservedthatchip
thicknesstc=0.006in.,Fc=118lb,andFt=64.5lb.
Calculate what percentage of the total energy goes into overcoming friction at
the tool-chip interface.

Note: Theunderlineddataisnottobeused.Chooseyourowndatavaluesandsolvethe
question.Everystudenttochoosehisowndata.Notwostudentsselecteddata
shouldbethesame.

## SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL GEOMETRY

1. Cutting takes place mainly over
the side cutting edge. The
corner and a small portion of the
end cutting edge is also
involved.
2. The chips flow over the rake face.
3. Tool is ground to a wedge shape
to produce the cutting angle, .
4. Side relief angle is given to avoid
tool side rubbing with machined
material. Normally 6o to 8o for
most materials.
6. For HSS tools, the rake angles are
positive.
7. For carbide and diamond tools, the
rake angles are negative.
8. Cutting edge angle, , is
determined by and .
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## TOOL FAILURE & TOOL LIFE

TOOL FAILURE:
CLASSIFICATION OF TOOL FAILURES: Tool failures can be classified

1. SLOW DEATH MECHANISM: The tool wears out gradually on the
flanks or the rake face (of the tool).
2. SUDDEN DEATH MECHANISM: It is a rapid, usually un-predictable
and often catastrophic tool failure, resulting from abrupt, often premature death of a tool, due plastic deformation, fatigue or edge
chipping.

TOOL

## 1. WEAR LAND: Width of the worn out area on

the flank of side of the tool, given by Wf.

2. CRATER: On the rake face, due to chiprubbing on the rake face while metal removal.
3. TOOL WEAR (CRITERIA): Following
conditions which can be fixed/ assigned to
consider that a the tool has worn out and needs
grinding/ replacement:
(a) Wearland, Wf : It is the wearing of the tool
surface from the tip to some distance
below it on the flank.
The failure is considered to have taken place, if
the wearland Wf reaches:
(i) 0.062 in (1.58 mm) for HSS tools
(ii) 0.030 in (0.76) on carbide tools.
(iii) 0.020 in (0.6) on ceramic tools.
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cont..:

## (b) Crater Wear: For crater wear, the depth

of the crater or the width of the crater is
used to determine tool failure/ wear.
(c)

(d)

(e)

## Catastrophic Failure: Complete failure

of tool.

(f)

Can also be used as a criteria for
failure or tool life:
- surface finish
- failure to conform to size
- increase in cutting forces
- increase in drilling time, etc.
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Now,DEFINITION
we can define tool
lifeTOOL
by the following
OF
LIFE: two
definitions:
1. The life, usually in minutes, for which a cutting edge or
a cutting tool can be USEFULLY EMPLOYED without
re-grinding (for HSS tools, etc.) or replacement (for
carbide/ ceramic inserts), is called TOOL LIFE, under
specific process conditions, i.e. speed, feeds, d.o.c.,
etc.
2. TOOL LIFE is usually taken as the time it takes to
reach a specific wear criteria under specific process
conditions, i.e. speed, feeds, d.o.c., etc.

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## FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO TOOL WEAR:

There are five basic types of factors which contribute to the wear of a
cutting tool:
1. ABBRAISON WEAR:
Rubbing of the work material against the tool.
Tool material softens, and as it adheres to the
moving chip, it is pulled out by it.
3. DIFFUSION WEAR: Displacement of atoms in the metallic crystal of tool
material results in gradual deformation of tool surface. Also, diffusion of
atoms from the work-piece to the tool material changes the characteristics/
strength of the tool material.
4. CHEMICAL or ELECTROLYTIC WEAR: Chemical action between tool
and work material in presence of cutting fluids cause chemical wear, i.e.
galvanic corrosion.
5. OXIDATION WEAR: Oxidation of carbides at high temperature decreases
tool strength and causes wear of its edges.
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## Comparison of Catastrophic and Progressive Failure

Catastrophic Failure

Progressive Wear

## Caused by dynamic changes

Intermittent cutting
Ramping
In-homogeneity (hard particles
or voids) in the raw material
Micro-cracks in tool during HT
Temp gradient due to nonuniform coolant flow

## Caused by gradual wear of

the tool due to
Abrasion
Diffusion.

Undesirable since
Desirable since
Tool is lost for ever
The tool can be reused by
Damage the part or injure the regrinding or indexing/
Changing the bit
operator
Unpredictable and hence
Predictable
and
hence
corrective action is not corrective action is possible
possible
Closed loop control system Time bound regrinding
used to prevent tool failure
suggested approach

is

## Comparison of Crater and Flank Wear

Crater Wear
Occurs on the rake face
Highly
sensitive
temperature

Flank Wear
Occurs on the flank face
to Not as much sensitive to
temp as crater wear

Undesirable wear
Used as failure criteria for
brittle tools such as WC
and
Al2O3 tools

## Most desirable wear

Used as failure criteria
for
tough tools such as HSS

## TOOL LIFE vs CUTTING VELOCITY

1. Keeping cutting conditions, i.e. feed,
depth of cut and cutting environment
constant, tool life is greatly effected by
or is dependent directly on CUTTING
SPEED.
2. Tool life decreases as cutting speed, V,
is increased.
3. Here: V4 > V3 > V2 > V1
and therefore: T4 < T3 < T2 < T1

## 4. Such curves have 3 regions:

(a) Primary or Initial Wear Zone
(b) Secondary Wear or Steady State
region (normal operating region)
(c) Accelerated Wear Zone.

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## TAYLORS TOOL LIFE MODEL/ EQUATION:

FW Taylor, through experimentation and collecting the Velocity vs cutting time
data, derived the following tool-life equation, known as the TAYLORS EQUATION:

VTn = C
where: V = cutting speed
T = Tool life in mins.
n = exponent, depends on tool material
C = constant for a given work-piece material
Taylors equation obtained experimentally on a
log-log scale.
Vary speed and determine tool life, T, for a fixed wear land, Wf.
Plot curve on a log-log scale. We get a straight lie, as shown in Fig:22-15.
For a given tool and work material, if we know C and n, then we can find the life
T, in minutes, for any given cutting speed.
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## TAYLORS TOOL LIFE MODEL/ EQUATION:

Example: For
Suppose

T = 1, V = 220 = C
n = 0.1482,

We then have:

V T 0.1482 = 220;

## Now, for any value of V, we can find tool life, T

for any value of T, we can find , V.

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0

## NOTE: Value of n slope of curve depends on

the type of tool material.
Various values of n for different tool materials are:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

## HSS Tools = 0.14 to 0.16

Un coated carbides = 0.21 to 0.4
Ti C inserts = 0.30
Poly-diamonds = 0.33
Ti N inserts = 0.35
Ceramic coated Inserts = 0.4 to 0.6
Ceramic Tools = 0.5 to 0.7
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## Tool material remaining the same,

i.e. the slope n remaining the
same, the value of C decreases
as the material being cut gets
harder to drill and tool life
decreases:

C1
C2
C3

## C1 > C2 > C3 , where

n = constant
Tool life is decreasing

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## EFFECT OF DOUBLING SPEED ON TOOL LIFE OF HSS, CARBIDE,

COATED CARBIDE & CERAMIC TOOLS
Let the initial cutting speed
= V1
Let the doubled cutting speed = V2
From the equation VTn = C, we get:
V1 T1 n

Now:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

= V2 T2 n

Tool
HSS
Tungsten Carbide
Coated Carbide
Ceramic

or

T2 V1

T1 V2

n
0.1
0.3
0.4
0.5

1
n

T 2/ T1
0.0097
0.1
0.177
0.25

1
n

T1/ T2
1024
10
6
4

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End of lecture

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