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Networking and

Interconnection

Presented by -:
Chanchal

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Agenda of this software


Cisco Packet Tracer Overview
Packet Tracker Key Features
Packet Tracer 5.2
Packet Tracer Key Benefits
Summary

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Packet Tracer
Overview

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

What is Cisco Packet Tracer?


Comprehensive networking technology teaching and
learning software developed by Cisco Networking
Academy

Offers a unique combination of realistic simulation and


visualization experiences, complex assessment and
activity authoring capabilities, and opportunities for
multiuser collaboration and competition
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Simulation, Visualization, Collaboration


Simulate IOS Commands
Visualize Network Traffic

Collaborate on
Multiuser Activities

CCNA Overview

2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Supports Homework and Pre-Lab Prep

CCNA Overview

2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Example Multiuser Scenarios


s,
2 team tor
uc
1 instr

3 Packet Tracer instances interacting


via Packet Tracer Messaging Protocol (PTMP)

Real TCP
Socket
Connectio
n

PC 1

PC 2

Real TCP
Socket
Connectio
n

Real TCP
Socket
Connectio
n

PC 3

Presentation_ID

rent
e
f
i
d
3
s
classe

ents
d
u
t
s
3
ome
h
m
o
r
f

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Packet Tracer Features


Logical and Physical Workspaces
Real-Time and Simulation Modes
User friendly Command Line Interface (CLI)
Global event list (packet sniffer)
LAN, switching, TCP/IP, routing, and WAN protocols
Activity Wizard, Lab grading
Multiuser functionality
Multiple platform support
Multiple language support
Integrated Help and Tutorials

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

ROUTER CONFIGURATION MODES


USING OF CISCO PACKET TRACER
REMOVING OF PASSWORD
ASSIGNING OF PASSWORD

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

INTERNET
HYD
E0
192.168.1.1/24

E0
202.54.30.150/24

LAN - 192.168.1.0/24

Naveen Patel
Presentation_ID

IP 202.54.30.1/24
2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

10

Network Protocols
Router

Switch

Router

Router
Router

Switch

Presentation_ID

Router

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

What
What is
is
an
an optimal
optimal
route
route ??

Cisco Public

11

Routing Protocols

Routing protocols includes processes for sharing route information


& allows routers to communicate with other routers to update and
maintain the routing tables
Examples of routing protocols that support the IP routed protocol
are: RIP, IGRP, OSPF, BGP, and EIGRP.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

12

Static Routing

It is configured manually by Administrator.

It is Secure & fast.

Require Destination Network ID for configuration

Administrative distance for Static Route is


0 (directly connected) and 1 (Next Hop).

Administrative Distance (AD) is the trustworthiness of the routing


information. The administrative distance is an optional parameter that
gives a measure of the reliability of the route.

Administrative Distance range is 0-255, lesser the Administrative distance,


higher the priority

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

13

Static Routing For Multiple Routers - Network Diagram


10.0.0.1/8
S0

HYD

S1
10.0.0.2/8

E0
192.168.1.1/24

LAN - 192.168.1.0/24

11.0.0.1/8
S0

CHE

S1
11.0.0.2/8

E0
192.168.2.1/24

LAN - 192.168.2.0/24

BAN
BAN
E0
192.168.3.1/24

LAN - 192.168.3.0/24

Naveen Patel
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

14

Dynamic Routing

Advertise only the directly connected networks.

Updates the topology changes dynamically.

Administrative work is reduced.

Used in medium & large networks.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

15

Default Routing
A Default routing protocol is configured for unknown
destinations.
Default routes are used to route packets with destinations that
do not match any of the other routes in the routing table.
Generally used in the internet where the destinations are
unknown.
Configured at end points of the Domain Area.
This is sometimes referred to as a Quad-Zero route.
It is the last preferred routing.

Naveen Patel
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

16

Default Routing - Network Diagram


11.0.0.1/8
S0

10.0.0.1/8
S0

CHE

S1
10.0.0.2/8

E0
192.168.1.1/24

LAN - 192.168.1.0/24

HYD

S1
11.0.0.2/8

E0
192.168.2.1/24

LAN - 192.168.2.0/24

BAN

E0
192.168.3.1/24

LAN - 192.168.3.0/24

Naveen Patel
Router(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0/0
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Naveen Rangani
17

Categories of
Dynamic Routing Protocols
Most routing algorithms can be classified into one of two
categories:

Distance Vector
Link-State
Hybrid Protocol (Advance Distance Vector Protocol)

The Distance Vector routing approach determines the distance


(Hop Count) and direction (vector) to any link in the
internetwork.
The Link-State approach, also called shortest path first, recreates
the exact topology of the entire internetwork.

Naveen Patel
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

18

Link State Protocols

Uses Dijkstras algorithm.

Classless routing protocol.

First time full Database tables are exchanged, later only


changed link state information is exchanged.

Incremental Updates.

Updates are sent through multicast IP address-224.0.0.5/6

Also known as Routing by Intelligence

Example : OSPF, IS-IS.

Naveen Patel
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

19

Distance Vector Protocol

Uses Bellman-Ford algorithm.


Classfull routing protocol.
Full Routing tables are exchanged at every periodic
Update interval.
Distribution of Routing Tables (Updates) via broadcast to
adjacent routers.
Only one kind of metric:Number of Hops.
Maximum network size is limited by the number of hops.
Also known as Routing By Rumor
Example: RIP-v1, IGRP.

Naveen Patel
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

20

Hybrid Protocols

Uses DUAL (Diffusion Update Algorithm)

Classless routing protocols

Missing routes / Incremental updates are exchanged

Updates are sent through multicast IP address

Also known as Routing by Intelligence

Example : EIGRP, RIP-v2

Naveen Patel
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

21

Routing Information Protocol

Open Standard Protocol

Classfull routing protocol (permits only a Single Subnet Mask)

By default, routing updates are broadcast every 30 seconds using


address - 255.255.255.255

Administrative distance is 120

Hop count is used as a metric for path selection.

If the hop count is greater than 15(Infinity=16),the packet will be


discarded

Load Balancing on 4 equal cost paths (Maximum 6 paths)

Used for small networks

Naveen Patel
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

22

Thank You

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

23