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Networks and

Effects of Using them


Network Devices: Modems

Device converts a

Dial-Up modems operate at

computers digital signal to

analogue signal for
transmission over a
telephone line (Modulation)
Also does the reverse
process of converting
analogue signals to digital
signals enabling the
computer to process data
They use existing telephone

speeds of about 60kilobits

per second.
ADSL (Asymmetric digital
subscriber line) operate at
100megabits per second
ADSL lines are faster at
downloads than uploads
and do not tie up the line
while accessing the internet.
Cable modems also exist.

Network Devices:


Have a number of devices connected to them

to form a LAN
Data packet received at one port is
transmitted to every computer on the
Not secure or efficient.

Connect a number of devices

to form a LAN
Data packet received with
destination address and sends
data to appropriate computer
Device /Computer has a MAC
(Media Access Control)
Address identifying the source
and the destination/
computers who should receive
the data.

Network Devices:


Connect one LAN to another LAN

Sending out every data packet to all

possible destinations would flood

the network with unnecessary

Data packets to be routed between different

networks, for example LAN to a WAN.

Firewall protect computers on a network.
Router identifies the IP Address (Internet
Protocol) and sends the data packet to the
appropriate switch which checks the MAC

Other Hardware
Gateway: All networks have boundaries with devices

like switches and routers. To communicate outside

its network, it needs to use a gateway.
Network Interface Card (NIC): It is part of the device
hardware and contains the MAC address.
Network Cables: can be copper or fibre optic cables.
faster data transfer rates and more secure (QC) than
wireless networks.

IP and MAC Addresses

Internet Protocol home computer is given

a unique address when it connects to the

internet, 32 bit number.
IP gives the location of the device whereas
MAC identifies the device.
IP address (pin code)
IP can change but MAC is constant for a

A Wi-Fi network makes use of radio waves to transmit

information across a network

The computer should include a wireless adapter that will
translate data sent into a radio signal.
This same signal will be transmitted, via an antenna, to a
decoder known as the router.
Once decoded, the data will be sent to the Internet through a
wired Ethernet connection.
As the wireless network works as a two-way traffic, the data
received from the internet will also pass through the router to
be coded into a radio signal that will be received by the
computer's wireless adapter.

Bluetooth requires that a low-cost transceiver chip

be included in each device.

The transceiver transmits and receives in a
previously unused frequency band of 2.45 GHz that
is available
Pairing: communicating pair use different channels
(spread spectrum frequency hopping)
Less than 30metres distance.
Paired with devices, Common ex: Headsets.

How to set up and configure a small network?

Buying all hardware and software (including for

internet access)
Configuring all devices to work correctly
Setting up IP account for internet access and highspeed broadband connection.
Setting up the server with resources
Setting up privileges for users including network

Local Area Networks (LAN)

Systems usually within one building.
Connected using hubs, switches, routers and modems.

Sharing of resources (software, printers)
Can set up a network administrator/manager
Spread of viruses on the whole network
Printer queues develop
Slower access to internet
Security risks
Main server crashes, resources become unavailable.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Number of LANs joined

together covering long

They make use of
telephone lines or
satellites for

Wireless LANs (WLANs)

No wires and cables.
Over short distances.
Uses radio and infrared

Access Points (APs) act as
wireless nodes.
Spread spectrum

Network Security
Arguments in favour of
Internet Policing:
Helps prevent illegal
material from being
Can discover information
like how to hack, how to
make bombs.
Stop incorrect
information from being

Arguments against some

form of control:
There are other sources
for illegal information
Expensive to police all
websites and users
Difficult to enforce rules
and regulations
Goes against Freedom of

Reliability of Information:
Up to date information available on the net when

compared to books
Search engines give numerous results, user has
many options.
Search engines can give irrelevant information also.
Vast amounts of information for every topic
Information can be inaccurate/incorrect or even

Security Issues:

Passwords: Email, online banking and social

networking sites.
How to protect passwords?
Run anti-spyware software
Change passwords on a regular basis
Have Alphanumeric strong passwords

Any electronic device with a storage capability can be
infected by viruses.
Antivirus Software:
Check software/files before they are run or loaded to a
Compares a virus to a database of viruses.
Heuristic Checks suspicious behaviour
Quarantines Viruses for deletion
Needs to be regularly updated for virus definitions
Periodic full system check should be scheduled

Avoiding viruses:

Don't access suspicious looking websites.

Check for security indicators HTTPS/
Avoid links to fake websites
Do not open emails from unknown sources
Use your common sense.
Scan devices for viruses.

Data Protection Acts (DPA)

Data Protection Act which defines laws on the

processing of data on identifiable living people. It is

the main piece of legislation that governs
the protection of personal data in any country.
Set up to protect the rights of the individual about
whom data is obtained, stored and processed.
Data must be fairly and lawfully processed only for
the stated purpose.
Data must be kept secure.

Network Communication: Faxes and Emails

Physical Fax: a machine connected to a telephone

Electronic / Online Fax: requires a network such as
How is it different from email?
Electronic fax has an email and a fax number.
Emails are sent along with attachments.

Video Conferencing:
Video + Sound. Overseas meetings can be

Points to consider:
Agree on a time + date
Delegates log on from their locations
Hardware and software needs to be checked before
Webcams and microphones should be positioned
One person should co-ordinate/conduct the meeting

Audio Conferencing:
Audio Equipment telephone, computer or an

internet phone.
Organised with PIN, date and time informed to all
computer + internet +
microphones + speakers = VOIP
VOIP allows an organiser to create a group for a

Web Conferencing:
Webinars are similar to video conferencing.
Delegate can leave and join the conference as they

Ex: Training sessions. Link provided with invitation
Presentations, images and videos can be shared.
Option to draw and write also available.
Documents can be uploaded.
Video + Audio Conferencing = Web Conferencing.