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Culture & Society

of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa

FLAG OF KPK

MAP OF KPK

INTRODUCTION

Formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)


Located in the north-west of the country.
Khyber Passlinks the province to Afghanistan.
The Kohala Bridgein BakoteAbbottabad is a major crossing
point over theJhelum Riverin the east.

Established: July 1, 1970


Capital: Peshawar
Area: 74,521 sq.km
Population: 22,000,000 Estimated
Density: 300 Sq. km
The main ethnic group in the province is Pashtuns; other
smaller ethnic groups include most notably the Hazarewals and
Chitralis. Language

LANGUAGES
Urdu(national)
Pashto(provincial)
English(official)
Regional languages:
Pashto,Hindko,Khowar,Kalami,Torwali,Shina,Sar
aiki,Gujari,Maiya,Bateri,Kalkoti,Chilisso,Gowro,
Kalasha-mondr,Palula,Dameli,GawarBati,Yidgha,Burushaski,Kyrgyz,Wakhi

PaShtO
Dominant language of the Province .
Belongs to the Irani branch of the Aryan family of
languages.
It has two main dialects: a 'softer' dialect and a
'harsher' dialect.
The
softer/Pashto
dialect:
southwestern
and
southeastern dialects.
The harsher/Pakhto dialect: northwestern (also called
central) and northeastern dialects.
Pashto is spoken as a first language by 15.5% (28-30
millions) of Pakistanis, mostly in the Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa and in Balochistan as well.
The Pashto has rich written literary traditions as well
as an oral tradition.

PASHTO CULTURE & HERITAGE


Pathan is not merely a race but in fact a state of
mind there is a pathan inside every mind
Based onIslamandPashtunwali (an ancient way
of life).
Culture highlighted since the time of Alexander
the Great in around 330 BC.
Has come under little outside influence.

Pashtunwali
Code of conduct.
Pashtuns believe

that their social code


produces men, who are superior to those
produced under the Western model, and they
have no desire to have a new social system
imposed on them by outsiders (Thomas H.
Johnson and M. Chris Mason, No Sign Until the Burst
of Fire, p. 61).

Main components of Pashtunwali


Melmastia (hospitality)
Badal (to seek justice or take revenge against the
wrongdoer)
Nanawatai (sanctuary) to seek refuge in the house
of another, seeking asylum against his enemies
A Pashtun at all times is expected to defend his land,

Cont..
Other main components of Pashtunwali
Tureh (bravery)
Sabat (loyalty); towards one friends and family and
members of the tribe
Imandari (righteousness); striving for goodness both in
word and in deed
Ghairat (courage/honour); at all times a Pashtun must
display courage
Namus (sexual honour of women)
Nang (honour)

The list is still not complete . However, it clearly


describes the values that govern the Proud
Pathan. Pashtunwali is not a legal code as we see.
It is more a code of honour by which a Pashtun will
live by - and die for!

JIRGA SYSTEM
Assembly of tribal elders.
Take decision on issues based on consensus.
Disputes between two or more people are heard
by this Council of Elders.
In tribal regions, the jirga is still used as a court
for criminal offences.

Pashtunwali cont..
The Pashtuns have relied on a code as old as time
itself to conduct themselves as individuals and as
a society in their dealings between themselves
and with others.
Pashtunwali has succeeded, in establishing a
uniform code of conduct in a society.
Understanding Pashtunwali does not offer the
map to control Pashtun tribes.

LITERATURE
Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition oforal literature,
includingproverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature
saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets
likeKhushal Khan Khattak(16131689), who, along withRahman
Baba(16501715), is widely regarded as among the greatest
Pashto poets.
The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of
Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722-1772)by Pir Mohammad Kakerr with
the title ofMa'refa al- Afghni ("Introduction of Afghani [Pashto]").
First grammar book of pashto verbs was written in 1805 titled Riz
al-Muhabat("Training in Affection") by Nawab Mohabat khan.
Another book of pashto words entitled Ajayeb al-Lughat (Wonders
of languages) was written by Nawabullah yar khan in 1808

PASHTO POETS
Some notable poets from the region of KPK
include:
Amir kror suri
Khushal khan khattak

Rahman baba

Abasin yousafzai
Ahmad shah durrani
Ghulam Muhammad tarsi
Ghani khan.

Pashtun men usually gather at special events and


listen to Pashto poetry.

Khushal Khan Khattak


Khushal Khan Khattak (1613-89), was the chief of
the Khattak tribe, and also a great warrior poet.
He wrote excellent poetry in Pashto about things
such as unity, honor, war, love, and everyday life.
He also wrote about philosophy , ethics religion,
jurisprudence, medicine, sports and falconry. His
poetry is still widely read.
A deceptive heart is destructive specially
if its heart of a leader, such a leader defame
himself and destroys the nation.

Dress
Pathan men usually wear
shalwar
kameez
with
Turban. This Turban is a
symbol of honour for them.
Males usually wear Kufi ,
Kandahari cap , Lungi
(turban of honour), Pakol
as traditional headgear.
Leaders mostly
karakul hat.

wear

Cont..
Many
women
wear a
embroided kameez which
contain a lot of glass work
on it. They also tend to
make hand made jewelry
which is appreciated all
over the world.
Famous footwear of pathan
is Peshawari chappal.

MARRIAGE SYSTEM
Arranged marriagesare usually the only choice for
the rural people but also very common among
those living in urban areas.
Wadah (marriage) as a general rule, is arranged
by parents in Pashtun society and the boy and the
girl themselves do not play any role in the
negotiations. This is because of the fact that
Pashtuns are conservative by nature.
Due to this conservatism, it becomes impossible
for the boy to choose a girl for himself.

RELIGIOUS LIFE
The Pukhtoons are deeply religious .
The Pukhtoons are punctual in offering their daily
prayers and observance of fast during the month
of Ramadan.
The holy men, Saints, Sayyids and Mains are held
in deep reverence.

FAMILY SYSTEM
An attractive feature of the Pukhtoons way of life
is the joint family system.
Which signifies their deep love for the family's
solidarity and welfare.
The desire of communal life emanates from a
consideration of economic security and integrity.

RESPECT FOR ELDERS


The Pukhtoons children are taught to show a great
degree of respect to their parents and elders .
Senior members of the family, particularly elders,
command great respect.
Parents are properly looked after in old age and
every effort is made to provide them with all
possible comforts.

FOLK MUSIC AND DANCES


Traditional Pashto music is mostly classic ghazals,
using

Rubab
Sitar
Tabla
Harmonium
Flute and several other musical
instruments.

Today's modern Pashto music is influenced by


neighboring music such asBollywoodfilms as well
aswesternorEuropean.

TYPES OF DANCES
Attan
dance
Folk
dance ofPashtunstribes
of Pakistan including the
unique
styles
ofQuettaandWaziristan
.
Khattak dance
Mahsud
Attan
(Dance)
Waziri dance
Chitrali dance
Gumhar and Gatka
popular dance of hazara
division

CRAFTS
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is not famous just for its
natural beauty, but also for its handicraft work.
The products of KPK are very famous all over the
country, and also exported to the other countries.
Handmade products that include,
Woodwork
Stones jewelry
copper
Fine hand woven
Leather work
Carpets, caps made

Chappal making
Vessels of brass and
Woolen fabrics
Hand knotted rugs
of mountain sheep wool

CUISINE/FOOD
Pashtun Cuisines are strongly influenced by the rich
cultural surroundings of the region.
Traditionally, northwestern Pakistan is the region of
the country, which is a population of hardworking
and devoted individuals who value the importance of
a good eating.
Famous Items:

Tikkah
Sugi ka halwa
Kahwa
Chapali kabab
Kabali pulao
Special long naans
Saag Roti of jawar(maize). And many more.

SPORTS

Kabaddi
Polo
Naiza bazi
Horse ridding
Perzawal (proud of their strength of arms, Pukhtoons are
fond of field sports. In the early stage of his life, a child
measures his strength with his compatriots in wrestling
bouts called Perzowal)
Cricket is also played a lot in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It has
created world-class sportsmen like Shahid Khan Afridi
Younus Khan, and many more. Besides producing cricket
players, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has the honour of being the
birthplace of many world-class squash players, including
greats like Jansher Khan and Jahangir Khan.

Conclusion
Other than the diversity of cultures, KPK people
are veryhospitable and loving .
They appreciate the arrival of guests at their
place and tend to be very mehmaan nawaz.