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CHAPTER 2

Kinematics

The kinematics of fluid motion describes the


motion of the particles of an idealized fluid in terms
of displacements, velocities and accelerations
without regard to the forces that cause the motion.

CHAPTER 2

Kinematics

2.1 Two methods of describing the motion


2.2 Pathline and streamline
2.3 Basic forms of motion for a fluid
2.4 Rotational and irrotational flow
2.5 Flow classifications

2.1 Two methods of describing the motion


1. Velocity Field
The field of motion must be described in terms of the velocities and
accelerations of fluid particles at various points throughout the fluid-filled
space.
Both velocities and accelerations are vector quantities which we
denote by the terms u or a.
the x-, y-, z- components are u , v, w and ax, ay, az .

2. Two methods of describing the motion


There are two methods of describing the motion of a group
of particles in a continuum.
1. Lagrangian method
2. Eulerian method

Joseph Louis Lagrange


(1736-1813)
French mathematician and astronomer

Leonhard Euler
(1707-1783)
Swiss mathematician

Eulerian Viewpoint:

Lagrangian Viewpoint:
Sit on a fluid element and
move with it as the fluid moves.

moving
fluid element

Sit at a fixed point in space and


watch the fluid move through your
volume element: The "identity" of the
fluid in the volume is continually
changing.

fixed
control volume

Fluid Mechanics 2010 Chapter 2

Eulerian Viewpoint:

Lagrangian Viewpoint:
Sit on a fluid element and move
with it as the fluid moves. The
position s of a fluid element is a
function of time t.

Sit at a fixed point in space and watch the


fluid move through your volume element:
The "identity" of the fluid in the volume is
continually changing.
leaving
volume

t1
S1 = s(t1)

t2

S2 = s(t2)

frame fixed
in space
Fluid Mechanics 2010 Chapter 2

incoming
volume
7

Kinematics of
Fluid Motion

Euler-Lagrange Comparison: Spotlight on a Theater Stage


Euler: The spotlight (control-volume) is
fixed in space, the dancer (ballerina) can
only be seen if she steps into the light.

Lagrange: The spotlight (control-volume)


is moving in space along with the player
making him visible all the time.

Fluid Mechanics 2010 Chapter 3

An example of a
Lagrangian frame of
reference is a camera
on top of a race car.

(1)Lagrangian method :
Follows an individual particle moving through the flow.

The coordinates of moving particles are represented as function of time.


The position of particles at any other instant :
x = f1(a,b,c,t)
y = f2(a,b,c,t),

or

r = r (a,b,c,t)

z = f3(a,b,c,t)
Lagrangian variables :

a,b,c,t
where a,b,c are original coordinates

a, b and c are the coordinates of the starting point (initial


position) of a fluid particle, used as a label (or name) to
identify the respective particle.

Table 2-1 Lagrangian method


position

velocity

x x(a, b, c, t )

dx
ux
u x ( a , b, c , t )
dt

y y (a, b, c, t )

dy
uy
u y (a, b, c, t )
dt

z z ( a, b, c, t )

dz
uz
u z (a, b, c, t )
dt

acceleration
d 2x

du x
dt
dt 2
a x ( a , b, c , t )

ax

ay

d2y
2

du y

dt
dt
a y ( a , b, c , t )
d 2z

du z
dt
dt 2
a z ( a , b, c , t )

az

The starting position s0 = s(x0=a,y0=b,z0=c,t=0) of a fluid


particle can be used to identify that fluid particle.
Fluid Mechanics 2012 Chapter 3

10

Lagrangian method is the one commonly used in the dynamics


of solids where it is convenient to identify a discrete particle.
Disadvantages :

The Lagrangian description requires many particles to be followed.


This is a difficult task because a flow fields usually consist of an
extremely large number of particles.

Furthermore, due to the deformable nature of the fluid medium, we


are not usually concerned with the detailed history of an individual
particle (Brownian motion ), but rather with the interrelation of flow
properties at individual points in the flow field.

(2)Eulerian method:
is concerned with the field of flow,
appropriate to fluid mechanics.
Fix attention at discrete points without regard to identity of particles
occupying the points at given time.
The flow parameters are functions of both space and time.
The Eulerian velocity field is given by:

u f1 ( x , y , z , t )
v f 2 ( x, y , z , t )
w f 3 ( x, y , z , t )

Eulerian variables :x,y,z,t

The Eulerian method, the observer notes the flow characteristics in


the vicinity of a fixed point as particles pass by.

The description of the entire flow field is essentially an instantaneous


picture of the velocities and accelerations of every particle.
An example of an Eulerian frame of reference is a webcam that
doesnt move. It will show the same background of the mountains
and buildings, but foreground objects such as people and clouds
will move through the frame. Another example of an Eulerian
point of reference, continuing the racing example, is as a
spectator from the grandstands.

Acceleration Field:
Eulerian Frame: we describe the acceleration in terms of
position and time. This is analogous to describing the
velocity field in terms of space and time.

A fluid particle can accelerate due to a change in velocity in time


(unsteady) or in space (moving to a place with a greater velocity).

As a fluid mass M is moving from point A to B


in Cartesian space we study the change of its
speed with respect to time.

v
v
V
v dV
a
lim
dt t 0 t
v
v
V ( xx,
yy,zz,tt)

V(x,y,z,t)
lim
t 0
t
v
v
v
v
v
v
V
V
V
V
(V(x, y,z,t)xyzt
+
V(x, y,z,t)

)
x
y
z
t
= lim
t 0
t
v
v
v
v
Vx Vy

Vz

V
lim(

)
v
v
v
v
t 0 xt
yt

zt

t
V
V
V
v V
v
v
v
v
a
u
v
w
V
V
V V
t
x
y
z
u
v
w

x
y
z t Fluid Mechanics 2012 Chapter 3
15

v
v
v
v
V
V
V
v V
a
u
v
w
t
x
y
z

dV
V
a

(V )V .
dt
t
du
u
u
u
u

u
v
w
dt
t
x
y
z
dv
v
v
v
v
ay

u
v
w

dt
t
x
y
z
dw
w
w
w
w
az

u
v
w

dt
t
x
y
z
ax

In vector notation, we have

dV
V
a

(V )V .
dt
t
Total or substantial derivative:
local accelerations:
convective accelerations:

dV
dt
V
t

(V )V

r
V
0

t
r

V 0
t

Steady and unsteady flow:

steady flow
unsteady flow

Uniform and nouniform flow:

(V )V 0

(V )V 0

uniform flow
nouiform flow

Material (Substantial) Derivative:


the total rate of property change

As a fluid mass M is moving from point A to B


in Cartesian space we study the change of its
property N (pressure, density, temperature,
speed) with respect to time.
v
dN N

(V ) N
dt
t

Writing these results in short-hand:


where,

()


i
j k
x
y
z

Any other property of the fluid or its motion can be


treated in this way.
For example:
Total rate of density change:

(V )
dt
t

Total rate of voticity change:

(V )
dt
t

Conclusion
The basic difference between the two methods lies in the
fact that
in the Lagrangian method the coordinates of particles
arc represented as functions of time,

in the Eulerian method the particle velocities at various


points are given as functions of time.
x = f1(a,b,c,t),

u f1 ( x, y, z , t )

Example:
If u kx, v ky, w 0 , find the total acceleration.
Is the flow steady and uniform?

dV
V
a

(V )V .
dt
t
du u
u
u
u

u
v w
dt t
x
y
z
dv v
v
v
v
ay
u v
w

dt t
x
y
z
dw w
w
w
w
az

u
v
w
dt
t
x
y
z
ax

du u
u
u
u

u
v w
dt t
x
y
z
dv v
v
v
v
ay
u v w

dt t
x
y
z
dw w
w
w
w
az

u
v
w
dt
t
x
y
z

Solution:

ax

(kx)
(kx)
(kx)
(kx)
( ky )
0 k 2 x,

dt
t
x
y

dv ( ky )
( ky )
( ky )
( ky )
ay

ux
(ky )
uz
k 2 y ,
dt
t
x
y
z

dw
az
0,

dt

ax

du

2 2
a k xi k yj

u kx, v ky, w 0
Determine the local acceleration vector.
r
V u v v v w v

i
j
k 0
t
t
t
t

So the motion is steady.


Determine the convective acceleration vector.
v
v
u
u
u v
v
v
v v
w
w
w v
(V )V (u
v
w )i (u
v
w ) j +(u
v
w
)k
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
y
z
(kx)
(kx) v
(ky )
( ky ) v
[(kx)
(ky )
]i [(kx)
(ky )
]j
x
y
x
y
v 2 v
2
k xi k yj 0

So the motion is nouniform.

2.2 Streamlines and Path lines


1. Path lines
A path line: is an imaginary line traced out by a fluid
particle over an interval of time. (is the actual path traversed by a
given fluid particles)

In deriving the differential equation for the path line, we


must follow the fluid particle.

dx
dy
dz
, v , w
dt
dt
dt

The differential equation for the path line

dx dy dz

dt
u
v
w
where t is a dependent variable

2. Streamlines
Streamline: A streamline is an imaginary line connecting
a series of points in space at a given instant in such a
manner that all particles falling on the line at that instant
have velocities whose vectors are tangent to the line.

In order to derive the


differential equation for
the streamline, we note
that the velocity vector is
tangent to a streamline, if
the point B approaches
the point A, the element

of length dr
and the
velocity V will coincide.
Hence the equation of a
streamline is

V
streamline

r r
V dr 0

Equations:
r
i
r r
V dr u

r
j
v

r
k
w 0

streamline

dx dy dz

Streamline equations:

dx dy dz

u
v
w

where t is an independent variable


Because a streamline is an instantaneous one at a given
instant , time t can be treated as a constant when
integrating streamline differential equations

Stream line can not intersect, except for singularity point.


In steady motion, path lines and streamlines coincide.
Difference between streamline and pathline:
Note that the equation of a streamline is similar to the
equation of a path line in form, but the meaning of two
equations is different.
Furthermore, the equation of a path line must contain the
quantity dt
dx dy dz

dt
u
v
w
dx dy dz

u
v
w

Flow pattern : a set of streamlines

Streamsurface: a collection of all the streamlines passing


through a line which is not a streamline.

Streamtube : a closed collection of streamlines.


12/04/16

No flow
across
stream tube
walls
30

Example:
If u kx, v ky, w 0 , find the equation of
streamline and pathline.

Solution:
Streamline:

dx dy dz

u
v w

dx dy

u
v

dx
dy

kx ky

d (ln x) d (ln y )

dx dz

u
w

dx dz

kx 0

dz 0

Pathline:

xy C1
z C2

dx dy dz

dt
u
v w

dx
dt
u

dx
dt
kx

d (ln x) kdt

dy
dt
v

dy
dt
ky

d (ln y ) kdt

dz
dt
w

dz
dt
0

dz 0

lnx kt C3
lny kt C4

x C3e kt

y C4 e kt
z C5

Example:
Given the steady two-dimensional velocity distribution
u=x+t, v=-y+t ,w=0.Compute streamlines and pathline of the
flow.

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33

Example:
Given the steady two-dimensional velocity distribution
u=x+t, v=-y+t ,w=0.Compute streamlines and pathline of the
flow.
Solution:
Streamline:
Since time t is treated as a constant and w=0, the motion is twodimensional.

dx dy dz

u
v w

Integrating:

dx
dy

x t y t

ln( x t ) ln( y t ) C
1

( x t )( y t ) C1
Hyperbolas( )

12/04/16

dz 0
z C2
34

Pathline:

dx dy dz

dt
ux u y uz

dx
dt
ux

dx
dt
xt

dz 0
z C2

dx
xt
dt

dy
dt
uy

dz
dt
uz

dy
P( x) y Q( x)
dx

ye

Pdx

x (t 1) Ce

Pdx

( Qe dx C )

ye

Pdx

Pdx

( Qe dx C )

P 1, Q t , y ~ x, x ~ t
x e ( te dt C )
t

d (uv) udv vdu


u e t , v t

vdu uv udv

t
t
t
t
t
te
dt

te

e
)
dt

te

x e t (e t (t 1) C )

x (t 1) Ce

2.3 Basic forms of motion for a fluid


Rigid body : displacement , rotation
Fluid:
displacement , rotation , deformation
From a Cube to
a parallelepiped
(geometric description )

1.Deformation of a Fluid Element


General deformation of fluid element is rather complex,
however, we can break the different types of deformation or
movement into a superposition of each type.
(for example in 2-D)

General
Motion

Linear Motion

Rotational Motion
Linear deformation

Angular Deformation

(1) Linear Motion and Deformation


Linear Motion/Translation due to u an v velocity:

Simplest form of motion the element moves as a


solid body. Unlikely to be the only affect as we see
velocity gradients in the fluid.

Linear deformation rate: Velocity gradients can cause


deformation, stretching resulting in a change in volume of
the fluid element.
Rate of relative change for one
direction:

u
u
xx dxdt /(dxdt )
x
x
v
w
yy , zz
y
z

udt

u
(u dx)dt
x

For all 3 directions:


(Rate of volume dilation)

u v w

V
x y z

The linear deformation is zero for incompressible fluids. V 0

(2) Angular Motion and Deformation

when

v
v
d tg (d ) dxdt / dx dt
x
x

d tg (d )

u
y

dydt / dy

u
y

dt

u
v

d d
x
y

when

u
v

d d
x
y

Angular Motion and


Deformation

v
dt
x

u
dt
y

d d d
d d d
d

1
1 v u
d 1 v u
(d d ) ( )dt z
( )
2
2 x y
dt 2 x y

Angular
velocity

d 1 v u
1
1 v u
( )
(d d ) ( )dt xy
dt 2 x y
2
2 x y

strain rate

The rotation of the element about the z-axis is the


average of the angular velocities
:
1 v u
z ( )
2 x y

Counterclockwise rotation
is considered positive.

Likewise, about the y-axis, and the x-axis:


1 w v
x ( ) and
2 y z

1 u w
y ( )
2 z x

The three components gives the rotation vector:


Using vector identities, we note, the rotation vector is one-half the curl of the
velocity vector:

The definition, then of the vector operation is the following:


Island Rotation:

The vorticity is twice the angular rotation:


Vorticity is used to describe the rotational characteristics of a fluid.
The fluid only rotates as and undeformed block when
otherwise, the rotation also deforms the body.
If

, then there is no rotation, and the flow is said to be irrotational.

The associated rotation gives rise to angular deformation,


which results in the change in shape of the element
Rate of Shearing Strain:
1 v u
(

) yx
2 x y
1 w v
(

) zy
2 y
z
1 u w
(

) xz
2 z
x

xy
yz
zx

The rate of angular deformation is related to the


shear stress.
If
, the rate of shearing strain is zero.

Some symbols can be introduced as follows:


Linear deformation
rate components:
Angular deformation rate
components: :

xx

u
v
w
, yy , zz
x
y
z

1 v u
xy ( ) yx
2 x y
1 w v
yz (
) zy
2 y z
1 u w
zx (
) xz
2 z x

Rotation angular velocity


components:

1 u w
1 w v
1 v u
x ( ) y ( ) z ( )
2 y z
2 x y
2 z x

2. Basic forms of motion for a fluid


In order to obtain the forms ,it is necessary to make an
analysis of character of the motion in the neighborhood
of any point .

If velocity at o is V
Then velocity at M is

VM V d V

V
V
V
VM V
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z

V
V
V
VM V
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z
The expressions for components are

u
u
u
uM u dx dy dz
x
y
z
v
v
v
vM v dx dy dz
x
y
z
w
w
w
wM w
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z

uM u

u
u
u
dx dy dz
x
y
z

Expanding and disposing:


uM u

u
1 u v
1 u w
dx ( )dy (
)dz
x
2 y x
2 z x
1 u v
1 u w
( )dy (
)dz
2 y x
2 z x

Some symbols can be introduced as follows:


Linear deformation
rate components:
Angular deformation rate
components: :

u
v
w
xx , yy , zz
x
y
z
1 v u
xy ( ) yx
2 x y
1 w v
yz (
) zy
2 y z
1 u w
zx (
) xz
2 z x

Rotation angular velocity


components:

1 u w
1 w v
1 v u
x ( ) y ( ) z ( )
2 y z
2 x y
2 z x

V V0 dr dr

Vector expression:

where

V V0 dr dr

Vu ui vj wk

Vu00 u0 i v0 j w0 k

xi y j z k

dr dxi dyj dzk

Velocity vector
Displacement
Velocity vector
Rotation angular
Velocity vector
Vector
distance

It can be seen that the basic forms of motion


for the fluid are
displacement ,rotation
and deformation u0 is velocity of
displacement , ( dr ) indicates the velocity of rotation ,( dr )
stands for the velocity of deformation

Deformation rate tensor :

symmetrical second order tensor

xx yx zx

xy yy zy

xz yz zz

The strain can be described in terms of normal


and shear strain components.
These components, in turn, can be related to
the rates of linear and angular deformation.

The normal strain component is by definition equal to the


change in length of a side of the element divided by the
original length.
The symbol xxis used to designate the normal strain with a
subscript which indicates the direction in which the strain
occurs.
The shear strain is defined as the change in the angle
between two originally perpendicular elements as
deformation occurs.
The shear strain is designated by the symbol with
xy two
subscripts indicating the direction of the perpendicular axes
in the plane of deformation.

2.4 Rotational and irrotational flow


Irrotational flow

If u 0 , then there is no rotation, and the flow is said

to be irrotational.
Rotational flow

If u 0, the flow is said to be rotational.

According to whether particle rotates about its axis, there


are rotational flow and irrotational flow.

According to whether particle


rotates about its axis,
there are rotational flow and
irrotational flow.

Example 2. 2
The velocity fields are given as follows:
(1)

u ky v kx w 0

(2)

u ax v ay w 0

(3)

u ay v 0 w 0

where a. k. U all are constants which do not equal


zeroes,determine the equations of streamline,
Curl V and deformation rate tensor for every velocity field.

1
equation of streamline,

dy
dx

ky kx
dz 0

x2 y2 r 2 ,

z C.

1
1 v u
z ( u ) z ( ) k 0.
2
2 x y
Therefore, deformation
rate tensor is
The motion has
neither linear nor
angular deformation
rates.

rotational
flow

xx yy zz 0

xy yx 0,

the rate of
strain is zero

yz zy 0
zx xz 0

The streamlines are a series of concentric circles in the


plane xoy

(2)
The equations of streamline
Thus

xy C1 ,

z C2 .
The streamlines are a series
of hyperbolas in the plane z

(b) Curl V
The fluid flow is a rotational motion.

r
r
CurlV 2 ( u ) 0.
(c) Deformation rate tensor
The motion has linear deformation
rates only.

xx a,

yy a,

zz 0.

xy yx yz zy zx xz 0.

(3)
The equations of streamline

y C1 ,

z C2 .
The streamlines are parallel
straight lines in the plane
(See Fig.)

Curl V
Therefore
The motion is irrotationaI.

1
a
z ( u ) z 0.
2
2

Deformation rate tensor

motion has neither linear nor


angular deformation rates.

xx yy zz 0.
xy yx

a
,
2

yz zy zx xz 0.

From above examples, it can be seen that the


shape of streamlines is not a basis for
determining rotational or irrotational motion.

Don't think that a circular motion should be


rotational motion.
In fact, the fluid particle in curved motion can do
rotational motion (eg.1) or can do irrotational
motion (e. g 2. 3.).

Similarly, don't think that a straight-line motion should be


irrotational motion. In fact. the fluid particle in straightline motion can do irrotational motion (e. g 5)
or can do rotational motion (e. g 4).
It can be emphasized that if
the motion is rotational motion.
if

V 0

the motion is irrotational motion

V 0

2.5 Classification of fluid flows

One
Two
Three

dimensional

Uniform
nonuniform

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Steady
Unsteady

Rotational
Irrotational

67

3. Kinematics
of Fluid Motion

One-dimensional flow:
The velocity vector depends on only one
space variable. Such flows occur in long,
straight pipes or between parallel plates.
The velocity in
the pipe varies
only with r,
u=u(r).

One-dimensional potential flow

u u u p p p

0
x y z x y z

The velocity between


parallel plates varies
only with y, u=u(y).

Fluid Mechanics 2010 Chapter 3

68

3. Kinematics
of Fluid Motion

Developed flow:
The velocity profiles do not vary with respect to the space coordinates in
the direction of flow.
The developed flow demands that the region of interest be a substantial
distance from an entrance or a sudden change in geometry.

Fluid Mechanics 2010 Chapter 3

69

Laminar flow:
the fluid flows in laminas or layers

Turbulent flow:
the velocity components have random
turbulent fluctuations imposed upon their mean values.

Reynolds number:

Re

Ud

(4)

ky
,
2
2
x y

kx
,
2
2
x y

w0

ky
u

,
x
2
2

x y

kx

,
uy 2
2
x y

u z 0.

x2 y2 r 2 ,

z C.

( u ) 0.
xy yx

1 u y u x
(

)
2 x
y
k(x2 y 2 )
2
,
2 2
(x y )