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MEM560

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

5.1 Introduction
Type of joining
Adhesives
Soldering & Brazing
Mechanical Fasteners
Welding

5.2 Adhesive bonding


What is adhesive bonding?
Joining process in which a filler material is used to hold two (or
more) closelyspaced parts together by surface attachment-Filler

is not metallic- can be carried out at room temperature or only


modestly above
Used in a wide range of bonding and sealing applications for joining
similar and dissimilar materials such as metals, plastics, ceramics,
wood, paper, and cardboard
Forms:liquid,paste,solution, emulsion,powder,tape,film
Requirement:
Strength:shear and peel
Toughness
Resistance to fluid and chemical
Resistance to environment degradation (heat/moisture)
Able to wet surface to be bonded

Type of adhesives
1)Natural adhesives
such as starch, dextrin (a gummy substance obtained from starch), soya
flour, and animal products.
Lowstress applications: cardboard cartons, furniture, bookbinding,
plywood
2)Inorganic adhesives
such as sodium silicate and magnesium oxychloride.
Low cost, low strength
3)Synthetic organic adhesives
which may be thermoplastics (used for nonstructural and some structural
bonding) or thermosetting polymers (used primarily for structural
bonding).
Classification of synthetic adhesives:
- Chemical reactive
- Pressure sensitive
- Hot melt
- Reactive hot melt
- Evaporative/diffusion
- Film and tape
- Delayed tack
- Electrically and thermal conductive

Synthetic adhesives cured by various mechanisms:


Mixing catalyst or reactive ingredient with polymer prior to
applying
Heating to initiate chemical reaction
Radiation curing, such as UV light
Curing by evaporation of water
Application as films or pressuresensitive coatings on surface
of adherent

Surface preparation
Part surfaces must be extremely clean
Bond strength depends on degree of adhesion between adhesive
and adherend, and this depends on cleanliness of surface
For metals: solvent wiping often used for cleaning, and
abrading surface by sandblasting improves adhesion
For nonmetallic parts: surfaces are sometimes mechanically
abraded or chemically etched to increase roughness

Process capabilities
Can bond variety of similar and dissimilar metallic and non
metallic material and components of different sizes,shapes and
thicknesses
Can combine with mechanical joining method to improve strength
of bond
Adhesive joints are designed to withstand shear,compressive,and
tensile force but not peeling
Applications
Automotives(eg brake lining assemblies),aerospace (aircraft
bodies and control surfaces),appliances,building product
industries

Main Types of Adhesives

Group

Adhesive
substance

Joined Material

Animal glues

Animal hides or
bones, fish
casein(from milk),
blood albumen

Wood, paper, fabrics


and leather

Vegetable glues

Starch, dextrin, soya


bean

Paper and fabrics


paper sizing

Natural resins

Bitumen, gum Arabic Laying floor blocks,


felt

Inorganic cement

Elastomer materials

Gum Arabic

Paper and fabrics

Sodium silicate

Foundry moulds

Portland cement,
plaster of Paris

Building industries

Natural
Rubber, sealing
rubber(latex/solvent) strips
Synthetic rubber

Footwear industries,

Group
Synthetic polymer
materials

Adhesive
substance

Joined Material

Polyvinyl acetate
and vinyl copolymers

Wood, paper, fabrics,


book binding

Cellulose derivatives
(solvent release)

Glass, paper, balsa


wood

Acrylics

Acrylics,
polycarbonates

Anaerobic acrylics

Metals

Cyanoacrylates

Metals, rubbers,
polycarbonates, PVC,
polystyrene,
polyimide

Epoxy/amine

Metals, glass,
ceramics, reinforced
plastics, wood, wide
range of uses

Epoxy/polyimide

Advantages
Interfacial bond has sufficient strength for structural
applications but also for non structural purposes
Eliminate localized stress because load at interface is
distributed
External appearance is unaffected
Thin and fragile components can be bonded
Porous material and different material can be joined
No significant distortion because performed in room temp200C
Disadvantages
Limited service temperature
Bonding time can be long
Great care in surface preparation
Bonded joints are difficult to test non destructively
Reliability under hostile environment
condition(stress,degradation,radiation etc)

Design consideration for adhesive bonding

5.3 Soldering & Brazing


Both use filler metals to permanently join metal parts, but
there is no melting of base metals
When to use brazing or soldering instead of fusion welding:
Metals have poor weldability
Dissimilar metals are to be joined
Intense heat of welding may damage components being joined
Geometry of joint not suitable for welding
High strength is not required

Brazing
What is brazing?
Joining process in which a filler metal is melted and distributed
by capillary action between faying surfaces of metal parts
being joined
No melting of base metals occurs ;Only the filler melts
Filler metal Tm greater than 450C (840F) but less than Tm of
base metal(s) to be joined
Procedure:
Filler (braze) metal wire is placed along periphery of
components to be joined-apply heat-filler melt-filling space by
capillary action

Filler metals
Significantly different from metals to be joined
Variety of shapes:wire,rod,ring,fillings
The selection of the type of filler metal and its composition are
important in order to avoid embrittlement of the joint by
(a) grain-boundary penetration of liquid metal,
(b) formation of brittle intermetallic compounds at the joint,
(c) galvanic corrosion in the joint.
Fluxes
Is essential to prevent oxidation and to remove oxide films from
workpiece surfaces.
Brazing fluxes generally are made of borax, boric acid, borates,
fluorides, and chlorides.
Wetting agents also may be added to improve both the wetting
characteristics of the molten filler metal and the capillary action.
It is essential that the surfaces to be brazed be clean and free
from rust, oil, and other contaminants in order to
(a) obtain proper wetting and spreading of the molten filler metal
in the joint
(b) develop maximum bond strength.

Brazing joints

(a) Conventional butt joint, and adaptations of the butt joint for brazing: (b)
scarf joint, (c) stepped butt joint, (d) increased crosssection of the part
at the joint.

(a) Conventional lap joint, and adaptations of the lap joint for brazing: (b)
cylindrical parts, (c) sandwiched parts, and (d) use of sleeve to convert
butt joint into lap joint.

Brazing method
Torch brazing
Furnace brazing
Induction brazing
Resistance brazing
Dip brazing
Infrared brazing
Diffusion brazing
High energy beam
Braze welding

Refer Kalpakjian book for further


explanation

Torch Brazing

Advantages and disadvantages

Furnace Brazing

Furnace Brazing

Soldering
What is soldering?
Joining process in which a filler metal with Tm less than or equal to
450C (840F) is melted and distributed by capillary action between
faying surfaces of metal parts being joined
Important characteristics: low surface tension, high wetting
capability
Soldering techniques:
Same like brazing +reflow(paste) soldering + wave soldering
Wave soldering
Refers to a mechanized technique that allows multiple leadwires
to be soldered to a PCB as it passes over a wave of molten solder
Processing step : i) flux , ii) preheat, iii)pumping solder from
molten bath

5.4 Mechanical fasteners


What is mechanical fasteners?
A device for clamping two or more components together by
mechanical force, such as nuts & bolts, rivets, screws, pin, zippers,
etc.
Two types of mechanical fastener
1. Threaded fastener fastens by using the wedging action of the
screw thread to clamp parts together-allow disassembly
2. Non-threaded fasteners a group of mechanical holding devices
that have no threads to provide clamping pressure, e.g. pin, rivet,
washer, keys, etc.)-permanent joints

Threaded fasteners
Discrete hardware components that have external or internal
threads for assembly of parts
Common : screws, bolts, and nuts
Screw - externally threaded fastener generally assembled into a
blind threaded hole
Bolt - externally threaded fastener inserted into through holes and
"screwed" into a nut on the opposite side
Nut - internally threaded fastener having standard threads that
match those on bolts of the same diameter, pitch, and thread form

Various head styles available on screws and bolts.

Threaded fasteners
Screw
Has a raised twisted part on it called thread
Types of screws
cap screws (made of higher strength metals and to closer
tolerances)
set screws- Hardened and designed for assembly functions
such as fastening
collars, gears, and pulleys to shafts

(a) Assembly of collar to shaft using a setscrew;


(b) various setscrew geometries (head types and points).

Non thread fasteners-Rivet


Unthreaded, headed pin used to join two or more parts by passing pin through holes
in parts and forming a second head in the pin on the opposite side
Widely used fasteners for achieving a permanent mechanically fastened joint
Clearance hole into which rivet is inserted must be close to the diameter of the rivet
Tooling and method for rivet
1. Impact - pneumatic hammer delivers a succession of blows to upset rivet
2. Steady compression - riveting tool applies a continuous squeezing pressure to
upset rivet
3. Combination of impact and compression
Applications:Used primarily for lap joints,prmary fastening in aircraft and aerospace
industries
Advantages:
- High production rates
- Dependability
- Low cost
- Simplicity

Types of Rivets

Five basic rivet types, also shown in assembled configuration: (a)


solid, (b) tubular, (c) semitubular, (d) bifurcated, and (e) compression.

Non thread fasteners-keys


Section of metal preventing a gear or pulley from rotation on
its shaft, one half fits in a key seat on the shaft while other half
fits in a keyway on the hub of the gear or pulley
Types of keys Square key, Prat & Whitney key, Gib Head key,
Woodruff key

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