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Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) and Open Shortest

Path first (OSPF)

Presented by:Harshit Bhatt

Sandeep Kumar

EIGRP is a classless routing protocol.
It is a Cisco protocol.

AS number
It uses the concept of an autonomous system to

describe the set of routers that run the same routing

protocol and share routing information.

Hybrid routing protocol

EIGRP is sometimes referred to as a hybrid routing

protocol. Because it has characteristics of both

distance-vector and link-state protocol.

Hop counting
EIGRP has a maximum hop count of 255.

(the default is set to 100)

EIGRP features
It supports for IPv4 and IPv6 .
Considered classless (same as RIPV2 and OSPF)
Communication via reliable Transport Protocol.
Best path selection via Diffusing Update Algorithm


Protocol-dependent modules
One of the most interesting features of EIGRP is that

it provides routing support for multiple network

protocols: IP, IPX, Apple Talk and now IPv6.
It is also known as PDM.

Neighbor Discovery
When EIGRP routers receive their neighbors

updates, they store them in a local topology table.

This local topology contains all known routes from
all known neighbors and serves as the raw material
from which the best routes are selected and placed
into the routing table.

EIGRP table
EIGRP maintains 3 types of table to maintain

neighbors information
1. topology table
2. neighbor table
3. routing table

Reliable Transport Protocol
EIGRP uses a protocol called RTP.
This protocol is used to manage the communication

of message between EIGRP- speaking routers.

Diffusing update algorithm
EIGRP uses DUAL for selecting and maintaining the

best path to each remote network.

Multiple ASes
EIGRP uses autonomous system numbers to identify

the collection of routers that share route

Only routers that have same autonomous system

numbers share routes.

Route Discovery and maintenance

The hybrid nature of EIGRP is fully revealed in its

approach to route discovery and maintenance.

Route Discovery and maintenance

EIGRP uses a series of tables to store important

information about its environment

Neighbor ship table
2. Topology table
3. Route table

Route Discovery and maintenance

Neighbor ship table

The neighbor ship table records information about

routers with whom neighbor ship relationship have
been formed.

Route Discovery and maintenance

Topology table -:

The topology table stores the route advertisements

about every route in the internetwork received from
each neighbor.

Route Discovery and maintenance

Route table -:

The route table stores the routes that are currently

used to make routing decisions.

EIGRP metrics
There are 4 types of metrics

2. Delay
3. Load
4. Reliability

Maximum paths and hop count

EIGRP can provide equal-cost load balancing of up

to four links.
We can have EIGRP actually load-balance across up

to six links by using the following command:

R1(config)# router eigrp 10

R1(config-if)# maximum-paths ?
<1-6> number of paths

Maximum paths and hop count

EIGRP has a maximum hop count of 100, but it can

be setup to 255.

# router eigrp 10
# metric maximum-hops ?
<1-255> hop count

Configuring EIGRP
# config t
# router eigrp 20
# network
# network
# ctrl+z
#copy run start

Passive-interface command
# router eigrp 20
# passive-interface s 0/1/0
# copy run start

Verifying EIGRP
There are several commands that can be used on a

router to help us troubleshoot and verify the EIGRP


# show ip route
# show ip route eigrp
# show eigrp neighbors
# show eigrp topology
# show eigrp packet
# debug ip eigrp notification

# show ip route eigrp

This command shows only EIGRP entries in the

routing table.
# show ip eigrp neighbors

This command shows all eigrp neighbors.

# show ip eigrp tolopogy

This command shows entries in the EIGRP

topology table.
# debug eigrp packet

Shows hello packets sent/received between

adjacent routers

# debug ip eigrp notification

This command shows EIGRP changes and updates

as they occur on your network.

Successor path

Primary route to reach destination.

Routing table contains this successor path


Feasible successor

Backup route to reach the destination.

Topology table contains feasible successor path


DUAL finite state machine.

Working of DUAL FSM

1. FSM define a set of possible something can go

through, what events causes those states and what

event result from those states.
DUAL selects alternate routes quickly by using the

information in the EIGRP table.

If a link goes down, DUAL looks for a feasible

successor in its neighbor and topology table.

Hello packets
EIGRP uses small hello packets.
Hello packets are sent every 5 seconds by default.

Reliable transport protocol
RTP supports unicast and multicast.


Open shortest path first
If you have multiple routers and not all of them are

Cisco, then we can not use EIGRP.

Dijkstra algorithm

OSPF works by using the dijkstra algorithm.

Wild card
# conf t
# router ospf 1
# network area 0
#network area 0
# copy run start

OSPF Terminology

a link is network or router interface assigned to any given


router id

the router ip is an IP address used to identify the router.


neighbor are two or more routers that have an inteface on a

common network, such as 2 routers connected on a point-topoint serial link.


an adjency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that

permits the direct exchange of route updates.

OSPF is really picky about sharing routing information - unlike

EIGRP which directly shares routes with all of its neighbor.

OSPF directly shares routes only with neighbors that have also
established adjencies.

Hello Protocol

the OSPF Hello provides dynamic neighbor discovery and

maintain neighbor relationships.

hello packets and link state advertiesment (LSA) build and

maintain topological database

Neighborship database

The Neighborship database is a list of all OSPF routers for

which hello packets have been seen.

topological database -:

The topological database contains information from all of the

link state advertisement packets that have been received for an

Link state advertiesment -:

a link state advertiesment (LSA) is an OSPF data packet

containing link-state and routing information that's shared
among OSPF routers.

OSPF area -:

an OSPF area is a grouping of networks and routers. all routers

in the same area share a common area id.

a router can be a member of more than one area at a time.

all the routers within the same area have the same topology

SPF Tree calculation

within an area, each router calculates the best/shortest path to

every network in that same area.

this calculation is based upon the information collected in the

topology database and an algorithm

called shortest path first.

Enabling OSPF
There are two basic elements of OSPF configuration1.

Enabling OSPF
Configuring OSPF

Enabling OSPF
r1(config)# router ospf <1-65535>

<1-65535> identifies the OSPF process ID.

Its a unique number on this router that groups a series of

OSPF configuration commands under a specific running

Different OSPF routers do not have to use the same process


OSPF configuration

# conf t
(config)# router ospf 1
(1 is process ID)
(config)# network area 1
# copy run start

# show ip ospf database

# show ip ospf interface
# show ip ospf neighbor
# show ip protocols
# debug ip ospf packet
#debug ip ospf hello
#debug ip ospf adj